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Hplc Quantification Of Sphingolipids In Soybeans With Modified Palmitate Content, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr Oct 2006

Hplc Quantification Of Sphingolipids In Soybeans With Modified Palmitate Content, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Efficient separation and accurate quantification of sphingolipids (SL) are important for studying SL concentrations and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to develop effective methods for the separation and quantification of SL and to determine the relationship between palmitate and SL contents of mature soybean seeds. Methods using column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography−evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) were developed to separate and quantify glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and ceramide (Cer) in 15 soybeans lines in which palmitate content ranged from 3.7 to 40.7%. There were significant differences among the lines for GlcCer (83.4−397.6 ...


Effect Of Seed Development Stage On Sphingolipid And Phospholipid Contents In Soybean Seeds, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr Oct 2006

Effect Of Seed Development Stage On Sphingolipid And Phospholipid Contents In Soybean Seeds, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and ceramide (Cer) are the predominant sphingolipids (SL) in soybeans. They have been recognized as functional components in plants and may have health benefits for humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in SL and phospholipid (PL) contents that occurred during seed development. Soybean seeds of three cultivars (IA1008, IA1010, and IA1014) were harvested at 5-day intervals from 28 days after flowering (DAF) to 68 DAF (mature seed). SL and PL contents of seeds were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). SL and PL contents decreased significantly ...


Effect Of Sugar, Pectin And Acid Balance On The Quality Characteristics Of Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) Jam., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Dorinda Nartey, Joseph Ashong, George Annor Sep 2006

Effect Of Sugar, Pectin And Acid Balance On The Quality Characteristics Of Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) Jam., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Dorinda Nartey, Joseph Ashong, George Annor

Joseph Okai Ashong

Investigations were conducted on the effects of sugar concentration (0%, 50%, and 100%), pH balance (3.0, 3.2, and 3.5) and high methoxy pectin concentration (0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) on the chemical, physico-chemical characteristic of pineapple jams using standard analytical methods. Inclusion of 50% sugar was observed to improve the colour of the jam as well as the texture, gel set and solid content. The low calorie jams had unacceptable texture, colour, gel set and total soluble solids content. The jams of this formulation were too soft, and could not hold their form. Addition of 100 ...


In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Jul 2006

In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Whole flours from four oat lines with different amounts of β-glucan (4.8−8.1%) were examined for their antioxidant activity and total phenolic and lignin concentrations. These data, along with the β-glucan percentages, were compared with bile acid (BA) binding. Only the lignin concentrations of the flours significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with the BA binding values. The oat flours also were fractionated into bran, protein concentrate, starch, layer above starch, and soluble β-glucan (SBG)-free flour, and their BA binding capacities were evaluated. The bran fractions were the only fractions that bound greater BA than did the whole oat flours on dry matter basis. Extraction of the soluble β-glucan to create the SBG-free flour significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the BA binding of the remaining flour. These data suggest that BA binding of the oat flours involves the synergistic interactions of the oat components, with β-glucan and lignin (insoluble fiber) having a great impact.


Determination Of Amino Acid Composition Of Soybeans (Glycine Max) By Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Igor V. Kovalenko, Glen R. Rippke, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. May 2006

Determination Of Amino Acid Composition Of Soybeans (Glycine Max) By Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Igor V. Kovalenko, Glen R. Rippke, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Calibration equations for the estimation of amino acid composition in whole soybeans were developed using partial least squares (PLS), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machines (SVM) regression methods for five models of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The effects of amino acid/protein correlation, calibration method, and type of spectrometer on predictive ability of the equations were analyzed. Validation of prediction models resulted in r 2 values from 0.04 (tryptophan) to 0.91 (leucine and lysine). Most of the models were usable for research purposes and sample screening. Concentrations of cysteine and tryptophan had no useful correlation with spectral ...


Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood May 2006

Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different fiber types were incorporated in an extruded expanded high-protein snack food. Three dietary fibers (powdered cellulose, wheat fiber, and oat fiber) were selected based on ease of extrusion, percent total dietary fiber, visible expansion, and commercial availability. A high-fiber, high-protein snack food containing whey protein, normal cornstarch, and pregelatinized waxy cornstarch was extruded using the three selected fibers. The fibers replaced the normal cornstarch at 30, 60, and 80% yielding extrudates with three fiber levels (18, 36, and 48%). Each treatment or combination of fiber type and extrudate fiber level was extruded in triplicate. A control with no fiber ...


Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada May 2006

Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The research in this dissertation focused on determining antioxidant effects of various natural antioxidants in cooked meat systems. Milk mineral (MM), spices, and raisin paste were used in cooked meat systems to verify their potential antioxidant properties.

The MM study determined the antioxidant activity of 1.5% MM added to uncured cooked beef meatballs, and possible additive effects of MM in combination with 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrate in cooked beef sausages . There was no additive inhibition of lipid oxidation in samples containing 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrite plus 1.5% MM. Cooked meat yield was not different between control ...


Morphology And Properties Of Soy Protein And Polylactide Blends, Jinwen Zhang, Long Jiang, Linyoung Zhu, Jay-Lin Jane, Perminus Mungara Apr 2006

Morphology And Properties Of Soy Protein And Polylactide Blends, Jinwen Zhang, Long Jiang, Linyoung Zhu, Jay-Lin Jane, Perminus Mungara

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Blends of soy protein (SP) and a semicrystalline polylactide (PLA) were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The melt rheology, phase morphology, mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated on specimens prepared by injection molding of these blends. The melt flowability of soy-based plastics was improved through blending with PLA. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a cocontinuous phase structure existed in the blends with soy protein concentrate (SPC) to PLA ratios ranging from 30:70 to 70:30. SPC/PLA blends showed fine co-continuous phase structures, while soy protein isolate (SPI)/ PLA blends presented severe phase ...


Activity And Nature Of Plasminogen Activators Associated With The Casein Micelle, B. Ismail, L. H. Choi, Lilian M. Were, S. S. Nielsen Jan 2006

Activity And Nature Of Plasminogen Activators Associated With The Casein Micelle, B. Ismail, L. H. Choi, Lilian M. Were, S. S. Nielsen

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

In fresh milk, plasminogen, the zymogen form of plasmin (PL), is the predominant form. Therefore, plasminogen activators (PA) can contribute significantly to PL activity in milk. Both tissue-type PA (tPA) and urokinase-type PA (uPA) exist in milk; however, contradictory findings have been reported for which type of PA is most closely associated with the casein micelles. Little is known about the factors that might lead to variations in the individual activities of the PA. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate possible factors that might affect the association of tPA and uPA with the casein micelle and their ...


Drying Of Post-Harvest Rough Rice With Silica Gel: A Preliminary Investigation, Stephen J. O'Brien, Terry J. Siebenmorgen Jan 2006

Drying Of Post-Harvest Rough Rice With Silica Gel: A Preliminary Investigation, Stephen J. O'Brien, Terry J. Siebenmorgen

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Rice drying operations can encounter problems of over drying and losses in head rice yield (HRY) through the formation of fissures. Typical rice drying methods also utilize large volumes of expensive fossil fuels to dry the kernels. Drying of rice with a solid desiccant such as silica gel has several potential advantages that avoid some of these problems. Two cultivars of long-grain rough rice, ‘Cheniere’ and ‘Wells’ with harvest moisture contents of 17.8% and 22.0%, respectively, were dried over a 48-h period with various ratios of rough rice-to-silica gel. It was found that an intimate mixture of 3 ...


Altering The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Belt Corn Through Tripsacum Introgression, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Jode W. Edwards, Pamela J. White Jan 2006

Altering The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Belt Corn Through Tripsacum Introgression, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Jode W. Edwards, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Breeders need sources of genes for altering the fatty acid content of oil in maize (Zea maize L.) that are not available in Corn Belt germplasm. Previously we determined lines developed from maize introgressed with genes from Tripsacum dactyloides had useful variation for fatty acid composition. We conducted this study to validate the variation, thereby showing that the trait could be transferred to Corn Belt inbreds using traditional plant breeding methods to create maize lines with altered fatty acid composition useful for an oil quality breeding program. Based on their fatty acid profiles, maize lines were selected from an open ...


Thermal Tolerance Of Acid-Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella In Ground Beef During Storage, Manpreet Singh, Shawna M. Simpson, Holly R. Mullins, James S. Dickson Jan 2006

Thermal Tolerance Of Acid-Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella In Ground Beef During Storage, Manpreet Singh, Shawna M. Simpson, Holly R. Mullins, James S. Dickson

Animal Science Publications

Thermal tolerance of acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in ground beef was evaluated during storage at 4°C or –20°C. Both pathogens were adapted to acidic conditions (pH ∼4.6) by growing in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% glucose. A five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was grown separately in TSB (pH ∼6.6) and TSB + 1% glucose for 24 h at 37°C to provide cells with or without acid adaptation. Irradiated ground beef was inoculated with either acid-adapted or non-adapted E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella; the samples stored at 4 ...


G1600 Freeze Concentration Of Fruit Juices, Durward Smith, Carol Ringenberg, Eric Olson Jan 2006

G1600 Freeze Concentration Of Fruit Juices, Durward Smith, Carol Ringenberg, Eric Olson

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This publication describes research conducted to examine the feasibility of freeze concentration with small-scale, simple equipment; and research results on juice extraction and concentration from fruit held in frozen storage.

When Grandmother made jelly the wonderful aroma of cooking fruit filled the house. That wonderful aroma was the delicate fruit flavors being evaporated and lost from the jelly. When volatile flavors are retained food has a much better flavor. Freeze concentration of fruit juices is a method of removing water from juices without heating and changing juice flavor. Freeze concentration is effective because a solute in solution has a lower ...