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2006

Environmental Sciences

Lead-bismuth alloys

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Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (November 2005 – January 2006), Ajit K. Roy Apr 2006

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (November 2005 – January 2006), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This task is intended to study the effect of Si content not only on the corrosion resistance but also on the radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels. The susceptibility of these alloys with different Si content to stress corrosion cracking, general corrosion and localized corrosion will be evaluated in the molten LBE and aqueous environments of different pH values using state-of-the-art testing techniques. Testing in the aqueous media is intended to develop baseline data for comparison purpose. Radiation-induced embrittlement of these alloys will initially be studied by irradiating the test specimens with bremmstrahlung gamma radiation from 20-40 MeV electron beams ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (01/01/06- 03/31/06), Yitung Chen Mar 2006

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (01/01/06- 03/31/06), Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Research highlights:

• A cellular automaton model using method of global restructuring on the growth and corrosion during the formation of the passive layer has been developed.

• A stochastic model, which combines the surface growth and internal oxidation, has been developed to explain the oxidation mechanism of steels in liquid lead alloys.

• Two conference papers have been accepted and will be presented in 2006 International Congress on the Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP '06).


Developing A Sensing System For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic, Yingtao Jiang, Bingmei Fu Jan 2006

Developing A Sensing System For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic, Yingtao Jiang, Bingmei Fu

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The research objectives of this project were as follows:

  • To generate calibration curves of voltage versus oxygen concentration for the YSZ oxygen sensor system under various temperatures in liquid LBE.
  • To determine the sensor characteristics of the YSZ sensor system.
  • To determine oxygen dissolving rates in LBE under different temperatures in vitro.
  • To study the effects of unwanted electrical conductivity, contributed by the mobility of the electrons at high temperatures, for more accurate oxygen measurement.
  • To study alternative and promising oxygen measuring methods.


Corrosion Mechanisms And Kinetics Of Steels In Lead-Bismuth Eutectic: Quaterly Report, Allen L. Johnson, John Farley Jan 2006

Corrosion Mechanisms And Kinetics Of Steels In Lead-Bismuth Eutectic: Quaterly Report, Allen L. Johnson, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

A large number of studies of corroded samples were conducted using SEM, XPS, probe, and the TEM. Samples from the DELTA loop at LANL and from other sources were examined. Also, the investigation of 316 class stainless steel in LBE is continuing.

Corroded samples of D-9 steel have been in the process of being studies, which is a variant of 316 stainless steel that is optimized for resistance to swelling. The D-9 samples are notable for the process in which a localized failure of the protective oxide layer becomes widespread corrosion. The research group is examining the D-9 samples using ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2006

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced nuclear processes such as the transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, liquid-metal-cooled reactors, and spallation neutron sources require advanced materials systems to contain them. The required structural materials must be stable in the presence of nonmoderating coolants. A prime candidate for such a coolant is Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Materials in these systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, high temperatures, and chemical corrosion. Unfortunately, LBE corrodes stainless steel.

The corrosive behaviors of structural materials in LBE are not well understood. The Russians have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2006

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This task is primarily focused on the evaluation of the effect of Si content on the susceptibility of modified 9Cr-1Mo-0.24V steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and localized cracking in both molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and an aqueous solution of acidic pH.

Further, significant efforts are in progress to characterize the deformation mechanism of modified T91 grade steel as a function of temperature and strain rate. Simultaneously, surface analyses of the tested materials are ongoing using state-of-the-art techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quarterly Report (April 2006), Biswajit Das Jan 2006

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quarterly Report (April 2006), Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

As reported in the last quarterly report, synthesis of Cr nanowires was found to be problematic in terms of uniform coverage. Hence Ni was identified as the alternative metal to form the nanowires. The purpose of the metal nanowires is to provide structural integrity to the nanoporous alumina, as well as a second defense mechanism against corrosion by oxidizing in case the top alumina layer is compromised. Nickel was selected due to its established electrochemical synthesis procedure. While Ni can provide very good structural integrity to the porous alumina, one potential problem is its higher dissolution rate in LBE. However ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jichun Li Jan 2006

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of this research project is to provide a basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal lead alloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. Precise studies and simulations of all hydrodynamics with thermal conditions encountered in practical coolant loop systems by use of different flowing conditions in the laboratory are difficult and expensive, if not impossible. Therefore it is important and necessary to develop theoretical models to predict the protective oxide layer behaviors at the design stage of a practical lead-alloy coolant system, to properly interpret and ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2006

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive ...