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2006

Environmental Sciences

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Community-Based Evaluation Of The Air Toxic Provisions Of Title Iii Of The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments : Risks, Costs And Benefits, Keith C. Silverman Dec 2006

Community-Based Evaluation Of The Air Toxic Provisions Of Title Iii Of The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments : Risks, Costs And Benefits, Keith C. Silverman

Dissertations

Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer, serious health effects, or adverse environmental effects. People exposed to HAPs at sufficient concentrations and durations may have an increased risk of getting cancer or experiencing other health effects. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAAA) directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to use technology-based air pollution control measures to significantly reduce emissions of HAPs from major sources of air pollution, followed by a risk-based assessment to address any remaining or residual health risks.

This study retrospectively assessed the public health ...


Indoor Air Quality: Determination Of Voc's In A Reproductive Clinic., Miriam Rachel Trivette Dec 2006

Indoor Air Quality: Determination Of Voc's In A Reproductive Clinic., Miriam Rachel Trivette

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to perform an indoor air quality (IAQ) investigation at the Center for Applied Reproductive Science (CARS) to assess whether VOCs exist at levels dangerous to embryo. Formaldehyde, n-hexane, benzene, and styrene concentrations were measured at six locations. Formaldehyde concentrations were comparable to office and residential indoor air. N-hexane, benzene, and styrene were not detected. In addition, acetaldehyde, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol were detected. IAQ parameters (carbon dioxide, temperature, humidity, pressure, and particulates) were measured at 22 sites monthly for one year. Temperature and humidity readings were within Environmental Protection Agency recommendations. Particulate concentrations were ...


Occurrence And Control Of Large Patch (Rhizoctonia Solani Ag 2`2 «Lp«On Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum Vaginatum O. Swartz) In South Carolina, Alejandro Canegallo Dec 2006

Occurrence And Control Of Large Patch (Rhizoctonia Solani Ag 2`2 «Lp«On Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum Vaginatum O. Swartz) In South Carolina, Alejandro Canegallo

All Theses

Seashore paspalum is a new turfgrass being evaluated in the southeastern United States due to its tolerance to salinity and sodicity. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 `LP` was isolated from seashore paspalum exhibiting symptoms typical of Large Patch (LP). The disease was identified based on field symptoms, lesions on the plant, and the fungus identified based on cultural characteristics, multinucleate hyphal cells, and anastomosis with a known tester isolate of R. solani AG 2-2 `LP` from zoysia grass.
Two research putting greens were constructed in 2005 located in Florence, SC and near Bluffton, SC and planted to seashore paspalum cultivars SeaIsle ...


Remediation Of Risks In Natural Gas Storage Produced Waters: The Potential Use Of Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems, Brenda Johnson Dec 2006

Remediation Of Risks In Natural Gas Storage Produced Waters: The Potential Use Of Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems, Brenda Johnson

All Theses

Natural gas storage produced waters (NGSPWs) are generated in large volumes, vary in composition, and often contain constituents in concentrations and forms that are toxic to receiving system biota. This research had three major objectives: 1) Characterize NGSPWs to discern the constituents of concern present in these waters; 2) Design and measure performance of a pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetland treatments system (CWTS) for treating NGSPWs, and; 3) Discern the reliability of the Turner Designs TD500 handheld fluorometer for measurement of oil-in-water in produced waters containing algae. Produced waters contained chlorides, metals, and organics as constituents of concern. Using simulated produced ...


Toxicological Effects Of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds In Bluegill, Pamela Truman Dec 2006

Toxicological Effects Of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds In Bluegill, Pamela Truman

All Theses

The water quality in the Reedy River basin has been shown to be impacted from the diverse and highly urbanized land uses within the watershed. The objective of this study was to examine the observed toxicological effects of EDCs that may be present in the Reedy River watershed by using a suite of biomarkers that were measured in indigenous fish to characterize the exposure and biological effects of these contaminants. Bluegill were analyzed for unnatural estrogenic effects such as: 1) Vitellogenin (VTG) 2) Activity of estrogenic compounds in bile extractions 3) UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity. This biomarker study provides a more ...


The Molecular And Ecophysiological Roles Of Rubisco Activase And Rubisco Activase Likes In Photosynthetic Thermal Regulation Of Acer Rubrum And Arabidopsis Thaliana , David Weston Dec 2006

The Molecular And Ecophysiological Roles Of Rubisco Activase And Rubisco Activase Likes In Photosynthetic Thermal Regulation Of Acer Rubrum And Arabidopsis Thaliana , David Weston

All Dissertations

Determining the consequences of human impact on our current and future climate is proving to be to be one of the greater challenges in modern biology. Current global models employing coupled atmosphere and terrestrial carbon feedbacks range in their predictions from the inconsequential to that of vast food shortages and species extinctions. However, there is hope that the emergence of new molecular approaches will revolutionize our understanding of plant and animal responses to a changing environment, allowing for higher predictive power when scaling up from the level of the individual to ecosystem-scale processes. This dissertation is an initial attempt for ...


Assessing Industrial Contamination Of Brockport Creek After Removal Of Contaminated Sediment, Marc A. Chalupnicki Dec 2006

Assessing Industrial Contamination Of Brockport Creek After Removal Of Contaminated Sediment, Marc A. Chalupnicki

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

This project assessed the condition of Brockport Creek and a tributary following removal of contaminated sediment from the tributary in 2002. Before the cleanup, PCB concentrations in sediments ranged from 1, 730 to 34,900 µg/kg; after the cleanup they ranged from 288 to 432 µg/kg, below water quality criteria for aquatic organisms and human health. The number of heavy metals detected in sediments after the cleanup decreased from 22 to eight, and their concentrations also decreased. After the cleanup, concentrations of metals ranged from 0.8 to 172 µg/kg; some values were above water quality criteria ...


Environmental Education And A Proposal For Its Implementation In Public Schools, Casey Putnam Nov 2006

Environmental Education And A Proposal For Its Implementation In Public Schools, Casey Putnam

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

Human impact on nature has led to global environmental destruction and degradation. Young people are not environmentally knowledgeable, and they are not receiving the type of instruction they need in order to be environmentally literate citizens. In order to repair some of the damage that has been done and to diminish future impact, environmental education must be thoroughly and thoughtfully incorporated into people's lives.

Environmental education has existed, in various forms, for nearly a century as, at best, a supplement to "real education." Rather than being a fringe subject, environmental education warrants attention in American education that is equal ...


Koll Center Wetlands Natural Resources Maintenance Management Plan, Meredith Clayton Nov 2006

Koll Center Wetlands Natural Resources Maintenance Management Plan, Meredith Clayton

Master of Environmental Management Project Reports

The intention of this plan is to provide a vision and guidelines for maintaining and improving the ecological health of Koll Center Wetlands in the short and long term. Although the plan will change over time, the goal is to quantify natural resource needs spatially, temporally, and economically.

Koll Center Wetlands is part of the Greenway/Fanno Creek/Koll Center Wetlands Park complex. The nearly 13 acre park is dominated by aquatic habitats that attract a wide variety of wildlife, particularly birds. The park grounds are not easily traversed and experience limited human use, but there are many viewpoints from ...


Evidence Of An Active Enso And Pdq During The Mid-Holocene From A Costa Rican Speleothem, April D. Azouz Aug 2006

Evidence Of An Active Enso And Pdq During The Mid-Holocene From A Costa Rican Speleothem, April D. Azouz

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Although the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most important source of inter-annual climate variability in the tropics, its Holocene history is poorly understood, particularly in Central America. A high resolution (-3.8 years/sample) paleoclimate record of Central American rainfall variability has been reconstructed from a U /Th-dated stalagmite (7890 to 6490 yrs B.P.) from Costa Rica to constrain the onset and variability of ENSO throughout the Holocene, and to determine its role in generating regional climate anomalies. I suggest drier conditions, forced by El Nino, are represented by higher 5180 values, and are correlative with higher ...


Modeling And Optimization Of Biological Nutrients Removal In Wastewater Treatment Processes Considering Advanced Kinetic Modeling Techniques, Nawras Nabil Ai Ghazaly Jun 2006

Modeling And Optimization Of Biological Nutrients Removal In Wastewater Treatment Processes Considering Advanced Kinetic Modeling Techniques, Nawras Nabil Ai Ghazaly

Theses

In the field of wastewater treatment, there is an increasing demand to improve the effluent

quality especially if it is going to be discharged to surface water. Effluent discharged

to surface water should have minimum nutrients level (nitrogen and phosphorus) in order

to avoid eutrophication and the resulting algal blooms which deplete the water from the oxygen

needed by other plant and animal species. Moreover, there is a demand to reduce the chemical

consumption in the treatment processes and to depend as much as we can on the biological

Treatment methods in achieving the required effluent quality in terms of ...


Quantity And Quality Simulation In Al Ain Water Distribution System, Awbath Saleh Salem Al Jaberi Jun 2006

Quantity And Quality Simulation In Al Ain Water Distribution System, Awbath Saleh Salem Al Jaberi

Theses

A hydraulic and chlorine simulation is conducted for three selected areas in Al Ain region. WaterCad 7.0, a water distribution system model, was chosen to conduct the simulation of the hydraulic behavior within the water distribution system. The fate of residual chlorine flowing through these systems over time is tracked by this software. The conducted hydraulic model predicts the performance of Al Yahar, AI Dhaher and Sweihan networks. Skeletonaization approach is employed in setting up the model for each system. In this study, the customer storage tanks (CSTs) are taken into consideration in performing the extended period simulation. Each ...


Estuarine Habitat Mitigation In Oregon: Policy Review, Analysis, And Recommended Improvements, Anna Buckley Jun 2006

Estuarine Habitat Mitigation In Oregon: Policy Review, Analysis, And Recommended Improvements, Anna Buckley

Master of Environmental Management Project Reports

The report is organized in the following manner. After the introductory chapter (Chapter 1), Chapter Two describes Oregon’s current estuarine policy and related state and federal policies. Chapter Three provides an inventory of recent permitted impacts and associated estuarine resource replacement. Chapter Four consists of a brief summary of the status of estuarine ecology and restoration/mitigation, with knowledge gaps identified. Chapter Five discusses wetland functional assessment tools and options for compensatory mitigation. This chapter begins with a description of the tidal Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) assessment method, how it compares to the estuarine resource replacement rules’ relative values table, and ...


Interactions Of Ionic Liquids With Uranium And Its Implications On Biotransformation, Chengdong Zhang May 2006

Interactions Of Ionic Liquids With Uranium And Its Implications On Biotransformation, Chengdong Zhang

Dissertations

Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are pure ionic compounds with melting points below 100°C, which have drawn great attention due to their many unique properties. They have been widely used in organic synthesis, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry. Although ionic liquids have been used to extract metals and radionuclides, there is no systematic study on the interactions of ILs with uranium and their effects on the biotransformation of uranium.

My research focused on: (1) the interactions between uranium and ionic liquids in aqueous solution; and (2) biotransformation of uranium in the presence of ILs. The interactions between three representative ionic ...


Environmental Policy In Jordan : Analysis, Gap Identification, And Strategies For Improvement, Diana Saed May 2006

Environmental Policy In Jordan : Analysis, Gap Identification, And Strategies For Improvement, Diana Saed

Theses

Jordan is a country with a tremendously fragile environment. It faces substantial environmental challenges due to its delicate environmental resources and its limited financial assets. These challenges are aggravated by the scarcity of available water, deterioration of the water resources, land contamination, desertification, mismanagement of land use, and air pollution. Attempting to describe the “State of the Environment” and to provide an informed analysis of the threats to the nation’s environment is a Herculean task. This analysis examines the efforts made by Jordan in regard to protection and management of the environment. This thesis provides a snapshot of the ...


Odonates At The Clark County Wetlands Nature Preserve: A Look At Habitat And Relative Abundance, Erin Jolley May 2006

Odonates At The Clark County Wetlands Nature Preserve: A Look At Habitat And Relative Abundance, Erin Jolley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to identify the various species, relative abundance and habitat of dragonfly and damselfly larvae at the Clark County Wetlands Park Nature Preserve (WPNP). An accurate assessment of these insects can be useful in interpreting potential indications of environmental problems at the Wetlands. From this data, necessary improvements can be made to the dragonfly habitat as well as the habitat of other surrounding organisms. Habitat identification is considered especially important because it is "structured by instream and surrounding topographical features, and is a major determinant of aquatic community potential" (Southwood, 1977). For purposes of this ...


Fluctuating Asymmetry And Its Relationship To Established Indicators Of Environmental Stress., Matthew Stephen Shotwell May 2006

Fluctuating Asymmetry And Its Relationship To Established Indicators Of Environmental Stress., Matthew Stephen Shotwell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is commonly thought to be a predictor of environmental stress. However, the relationship between FA and established indicators for environmental stress has received little attention. In this study, 10-38 specimens of the freshwater fish Rhinichthys atratulus were collected from 15 natural populations under varying amounts of environmental stress. Asymmetry measurements in three bilateral characters of the specimens were used to investigate the relationship between FA and established indicators of environmental stress. Significant differences in the magnitude of FA were observed between sampling locations. However, the relationship between estimates of FA and established indicators produced varying results. The ...


Impacts Of Rainfall Events On Wastewater Treamtent Processes, Erin K. Mcmahan May 2006

Impacts Of Rainfall Events On Wastewater Treamtent Processes, Erin K. Mcmahan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current research is revealing that stormwater can carry pathogens and that this stormwater is entering wastewater treatment facilities. During periods of intense rainfall, not only can stormwater carry higher amounts of pathogens, but it also increases the flow rate to the wastewater treatment facility. In many instances, the flow rate exceeds the facilities' treatment capacity and can impact treatment performance. The purpose of this study was to identify whether wastewater treatment is impaired during periods of increased rainfall, and to compare current policies that address this issue. The study was conducted using a case study approach to analyze historical precipitation ...


Population Trends Of Wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) At The Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada, Deanna Morrell May 2006

Population Trends Of Wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) At The Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada, Deanna Morrell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to look at population trends of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada from 1991 to 2006. Bald eagles were counted on January 5, 2006 along the entire shoreline of Lake Mead and Lake Mohave. This study focused on two questions: (1) how has the population changed over time? (2) How has the proportion of juvenile eagles to adult eagles changed over time? Question one was supported with the number of bald eagles significantly increasing (r=0.76, p=0.002). Question two was supported as the proportion ...


The Fate And Transport Of Nitrogen (N) And The Effect Of Emergent Plants On Natural Treatment Of N-Species At Las Vegas Wash, Nevada, Tanju Kiriscioglu May 2006

The Fate And Transport Of Nitrogen (N) And The Effect Of Emergent Plants On Natural Treatment Of N-Species At Las Vegas Wash, Nevada, Tanju Kiriscioglu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of emergent plant communities at Las Vegas Wash (the System) using a system dynamics modeling approach. Understanding the dynamics of nitrogen (N —major polluting nutrient in the Wash) that enters the System is important because it occasionally causes algal blooms, choking Lake Mead through excessive eutrophication. Emergent plant communities are an integral part of wetland ecosystems and they play a crucial role in natural treatment of nutrients. This study is intended to test this hypothesis.

The study makes use of Wash data from reliable sources (Las Vegas Valley Water District ...


The Contribution Of Environmental Variables On Small Mammal Species Richness And Relative Abundance In Eastern Nevada, Stephanie Harris May 2006

The Contribution Of Environmental Variables On Small Mammal Species Richness And Relative Abundance In Eastern Nevada, Stephanie Harris

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to determine how four environmental variables: elevation, latitude, soil type, and vegetation impact the relative abundance of Peromyscus maniculatus and the species richness of small mammal populations in Eastern Nevada. In order to complete this study, a survey of small mammals was completed in the following 8 Eastern Nevada valleys: Delamar, Dry Lake, Dry Lake- Muleshoe,Cave, Lake, Snake, Spring, White River. In each valley, transects of Sherman live traps will be set up for 3 consecutive nights (O'Farrell et al 1977). Data on elevation, latitude, soil type, and vegetation were taken at ...


Mink Of The Rochester Embayment Of Lake Ontario: Population Monitoring; Age, Size, And Stable Isotope Analysis; And A Predictive Model For Bioaccumulation Of Chemicals Of Concern, Sara Tucker Wellman May 2006

Mink Of The Rochester Embayment Of Lake Ontario: Population Monitoring; Age, Size, And Stable Isotope Analysis; And A Predictive Model For Bioaccumulation Of Chemicals Of Concern, Sara Tucker Wellman

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

My studies were part of a project to determine whether mink populations are negatively impacted by pollution in Lake Ontario, especially in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern (AOC). My first study used video traps to monitor mink activity as a surrogate for mink abundance, with video traps placed in four regions: AOC: In/Inland, AOC: In/Lakeshore, AOC: Out/Inland, and AOC: Out/Lakeshore. My MustelaVision data tentatively suggest that there may be differences in abundances in mink populations inside and outside the AOC, and between the lakeshore and inland areas, but my analysis was unable to assign significance ...


Anaerobic Digester Use In Dairy Farms In The United States, Shaun Elsasser May 2006

Anaerobic Digester Use In Dairy Farms In The United States, Shaun Elsasser

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Anaerobic digestion is a highly efficient process, trapping the methane gas from cow manure and processing it into energy. The steep initial capital costs make anaerobic digesters short-term liabilities, but the long-term benefits far outweigh the long-term costs. An anaerobic digester unit will begin to show a profit after approximately five years of operation. During the lifetime of the unit, estimated at 15 years, the digester will have produced about $ 1,000,000 in profits for the dairy farm, while also providing invaluable benefits to society as a whole.


Forest Certification And Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners: Assessing Awareness, Acceptance, And Educational Preferences, David Chester Mercker May 2006

Forest Certification And Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners: Assessing Awareness, Acceptance, And Educational Preferences, David Chester Mercker

Doctoral Dissertations

In 1977, forest certification originated in West Germany through the Blue Angel Program by authorizing the use of eco-labels for certification of environmental products. Emerging as a tool to attain sustainable forestry, certification provided for a voluntary, market approach to sustainable forest management, rather than traditional regulatory approaches.

Forest certification moved swiftly into the global arena, and by the mid 1990s, it was a topic of intense interest in the United States. The situation for forest certification in the U.S. is somewhat unique because such a large percentage to total forest area is controlled by nonindustrial private forest owners ...


Biosorption Of Priority Pollutants Of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater, Deen Adnan Sheikha May 2006

Biosorption Of Priority Pollutants Of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater, Deen Adnan Sheikha

Theses

Heavy metals and organic materials pollution in the aquatic system have become a serious threat today. Zinc, phenol and naphthalene are common environmental contaminants. The fate and transport of these chemicals must be sufficiently understood to predict detrimental environmental impacts and to develop technically and economically appropriate remedial action to minimize environmental degradation. In this study, microbial biomass has emerged as an option for developing economic wastewater treatment. Dead algal biomass may passively sequester metals and organic materials by the process of biosorption from dilute solutions, where biomass functions as an ion exchanger by virtue of various reactive groups available ...


Forage Quality And Performance Of Tall Fescue Hay Amended With Broiler Litter And Commercial Fertilizer, Stacy L. Clark May 2006

Forage Quality And Performance Of Tall Fescue Hay Amended With Broiler Litter And Commercial Fertilizer, Stacy L. Clark

Masters Theses

Broiler chickens are a leading agricultural commodity in Tennessee. Many broiler operations are located in eastern and middle Tennessee where a common land use is tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) hay and pasture, for cow-calf and dairy operations. Litter from broiler operations is land applied on fescue at rates that often exceed the recommended phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) rates. Surveys of forage quality conducted by the University of Tennessee Extension in 2001 found that many forages across the state had higher than recommended K and sulfur levels and were deficient in copper (Cu) and other nutrients. In spring 2004 ...


Remapping The Cliff Chipmunk (Neotamias Dorsalis) Distribution And Creating A Habitat Association Model In Southern Idaho, Masako Niwa May 2006

Remapping The Cliff Chipmunk (Neotamias Dorsalis) Distribution And Creating A Habitat Association Model In Southern Idaho, Masako Niwa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The distribution of the cliff chipmunk in Idaho was previously considered to include only the Raft River Valley and the Goose Creek Basin. A pilot study was conducted in 2003 and 2004. Thirty-five cliff chipmunk presence locations and 124 absence locations were recorded. Habitat variables of elevation, slope, deviation from south, distance to water, and vegetation type were extracted for all of the absence and presence points by means of GIS analysis. The data were analyzed by implementing a classification tree, and a "GIS habitat association model" was created. The model was tested in 2005, and the overall model accuracy ...


The Impact Of Nutrient Loading From Canada Geese (Branta Canadensis) On Water Quality, A Mesocosm Approach, Robert Unckless Apr 2006

The Impact Of Nutrient Loading From Canada Geese (Branta Canadensis) On Water Quality, A Mesocosm Approach, Robert Unckless

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

We conducted a mesocosm experiment to determine the impact of Canada Goose (Branta cana.densis) feces on water quality parameters. After 30 days of fecal additions (treatments of 2.419 g, 1.209 g and 12.090 g every 3 d) we found no significant impact on soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin or turbidity for any of the treatment groups versus the control (no fecal addition). Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios were not affected by the fecal additions. Although there was no significant increase in chlorophyll-a concentration or phytoplankton biovolume, there was an increase ...


An Analysis Of Indicator Organism Suitability For Lower James And York Rivers, Rhonda Ashonti Ford Apr 2006

An Analysis Of Indicator Organism Suitability For Lower James And York Rivers, Rhonda Ashonti Ford

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The primary objectives of this thesis are (1) determine if the proper indicator organism is being utilized to determine the bacterial water quality in the State of Virginia. (2) If other environmental factors can predict the bacterial water quality. The current indicator organism of choice for bacterial water quality of waters in the State of Virginia is enterococci, for estuarine and brackish waters. E. coli is the indicator organism of choice for fresh waters in Virginia.

The study concluded (1) Enterococci are the best indicator organism for beaches located in the Hampton Roads Harbor and the Lower James River. (2 ...


Coastal Processes And Anthropogenic Factors Influencing The Geomorphic Evolution Of Weedon Island, Florida, Jeanne Lambert Mar 2006

Coastal Processes And Anthropogenic Factors Influencing The Geomorphic Evolution Of Weedon Island, Florida, Jeanne Lambert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Weedon Island, a peninsula located on the western inner shoreline of Tampa Bay, Florida, is the location of a collaborative geological and archaeological project that aims to relate the present day geomorphology to natural processes and human occupational activity during the middle to late Holocene. The area is known for extensive archaeological sites, which were originally investigated in the 1920s, although they have received relatively little scientific attention during most of the last century. We hypothesize that activities associated with pre-historic human occupation of Weedon Island at various times during the last ca. 5,000 years influenced the geomorphic evolution ...