Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Collisions Of Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Turkey Vultures (Cathartes Aura), And Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) With Aircraft: Implications For Bird Strike Reduction, Bradley F. Blackwell, Sandra E. Wright Dec 2006

Collisions Of Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Turkey Vultures (Cathartes Aura), And Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) With Aircraft: Implications For Bird Strike Reduction, Bradley F. Blackwell, Sandra E. Wright

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

From 1990 through 2003, 52,493 wildlife collisions with aircraft were reported to the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA); 97% of these incidents involved birds. The approximate cost to the civil aviation industry in the U.S.A. due to collisions of birds with aircraft (hereafter referred to as bird strikes) was $163.51 million in direct monetary losses and associated costs for the 14 year period (Cleary et al. 2004). Strikes with raptors (Falconidae and Accipitridae; including vultures, Cathartidae)accounted for approximately 28% of reported aircraft down time resulting from known-species bird strikes (known species =182942 hr; total ...


Nesting Success Of Grassland And Savanna Birds On Reclaimed Surface Coal Mines Of The Midwestern United States, Edward W. Galligan, Travis L. Devault, Steven L. Lima Dec 2006

Nesting Success Of Grassland And Savanna Birds On Reclaimed Surface Coal Mines Of The Midwestern United States, Edward W. Galligan, Travis L. Devault, Steven L. Lima

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/ savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such ‘‘unnatural’’ places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for ...


Raccoon Predation As A Potential Limiting Factor In The Success Of The Green Iguana In Southern Florida, Henry T. Smith, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Richard M. Engeman, Steven M. Crossett, Mark E. Foley, Gary Bush Dec 2006

Raccoon Predation As A Potential Limiting Factor In The Success Of The Green Iguana In Southern Florida, Henry T. Smith, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Richard M. Engeman, Steven M. Crossett, Mark E. Foley, Gary Bush

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The Green Iguana, Iguana iguana, is a well established, large-bodied, exotic species in Florida (Meshaka et al. 2004a. The Exotic Amphibians and Reptiles of Florida, Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 155 pp.; Meshaka et al. 2004b. Iguana 11:154-161). Limiting factors of populations and causes of Green Iguana mortality in Florida are poorly understood and the only documented predators are the domestic dog (Canus familiaris) (Meshaka et al. 2004a), Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea) (Engeman et al. 2005. Herpetol. Rev. 36:320), Florida Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia floridana) (McKie et al. 2005. Florida Field Nat. 33:125-127), and an unidentified species ...


Using Baits To Deliver Pharmaceuticals To Feral Swine In Southern Texas, Tyler A. Campbell, Steven J. Lapidge, David B. Long Nov 2006

Using Baits To Deliver Pharmaceuticals To Feral Swine In Southern Texas, Tyler A. Campbell, Steven J. Lapidge, David B. Long

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Few studies have evaluated oral delivery systems of pharmaceuticals (e.g., vaccines, fertility control agents, and toxicants) to feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States. Our objective was to assess, through a field trial, the percentage of feral swine and non-target animals that remove and consume baits intended to transport pharmaceuticals to feral swine in southern Texas, USA. We hand-placed 1,178 iophenoxic acid (IA)–marked baits distributed over 1,721 ha (68 baits/km2) in April 2005 and monitored species-specific bait removal and consumption using track stations, automated camera systems, and serum IA values from captured animals ...


The Biology Of Introduced Norway Rats On Kiska Island, Alaska, And An Evaluation Of An Eradication Approach, Gary W. Witmer, Patrick Burke, Susan Jojola, Peter Dunlevy Nov 2006

The Biology Of Introduced Norway Rats On Kiska Island, Alaska, And An Evaluation Of An Eradication Approach, Gary W. Witmer, Patrick Burke, Susan Jojola, Peter Dunlevy

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Introduced, invasive rats can cause substantial damage to native flora and fauna, including ground-nesting seabirds, when they become established on islands. We tested a control method for introduced Norway rats on Kiska Island, Alaska, during April-May, 2004, by hand-broadcasting rodenticide pellets (0.005% diaphacinone) over a 4-ha area at the rate of 28 kg/ha. We also gathered data on aspects of rat ecology and distribution, although rats were difficult to detect and capture. The rodenticide bait pellets seemed to have been effective in reducing the Norway rat population, however, this is based on a limited observation of rat sign ...


Bird And Other Wildlife Hazards At Airports: Liability Issues For Airport Managers, Richard A. Dolbeer Nov 2006

Bird And Other Wildlife Hazards At Airports: Liability Issues For Airport Managers, Richard A. Dolbeer

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Aircraft collisions with birds (bird strikes) and other wildlife are a serious economic and safety problem. The problem has increased in the past decade because of expanding populations of many wildlife species that are hazardous to aviation (Dolbeer and Eschenfelder 2002). Cleary et al. (2004) estimated wildlife strikes (98% involving birds) cost the civil aviation industry in the USA about $500 million/year, 1990-2003. Allan and Orosz (2001) estimated that bird strikes annually cost commercial air carriers over $1.2 billion worldwide, 1999-2000. At least 194 people died and 164 aircraft were destroyed as a result of bird and other ...


Book Review: Sampling Rare Or Elusive Species: Concepts, Designs, And Techniques For Estimating Population Parameters, Stewart W. Breck Oct 2006

Book Review: Sampling Rare Or Elusive Species: Concepts, Designs, And Techniques For Estimating Population Parameters, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

This book contains a collection of articles by Thompson and coauthors with the stated purpose of describing the latest sampling designs and counting (estimation) techniques for reliably estimating occupancy, abundance, and other population parameters of rare or elusive plants and animals. It is written primarily for the field ecologist who has some background in population monitoring and survey sampling but who has not kept current of new developments in sampling and estimation concepts targeted specifically at rare and elusive species. After reading this book, you will have a good appreciation of general difficulties associated with monitoring rare species but also ...


Detection Of PrpCwd In Postmortem Rectal Lymphoid Tissues In Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsoni) Infected With Chronic Wasting Disease, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas L. Gidlewski, Aru Balachandran, Kurt C.. Vercauteren, Lynn Creekmore, Randy D. Munger Oct 2006

Detection Of PrpCwd In Postmortem Rectal Lymphoid Tissues In Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsoni) Infected With Chronic Wasting Disease, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas L. Gidlewski, Aru Balachandran, Kurt C.. Vercauteren, Lynn Creekmore, Randy D. Munger

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Preclinical diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been described for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), using biopsy tissues of palatine tonsil, and for sheep, using lymphoid tissues from palatine tonsil, third eyelid, and rectal mucosa. The utility of examining the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues to detect chronic wasting disease (CWD) was investigated in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), a species for which there is not a live-animal diagnostic test. Postmortem rectal mucosal sections were examined from 308 elk from two privately owned herds that were depopulated. The results of the postmortem rectal mucosal sections were compared to immunohistochemical staining ...


West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence In Red-Winged Blackbirds (Agelaius Phoeniceus) From North Dakota, Usa (2003-2004), Heather Sullivan, George M. Linz, Larry Clark, Mo Salman Oct 2006

West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence In Red-Winged Blackbirds (Agelaius Phoeniceus) From North Dakota, Usa (2003-2004), Heather Sullivan, George M. Linz, Larry Clark, Mo Salman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

This study was designed to explore the role that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) may have played in disseminating West Nile virus (WNV) across the United States. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to detect WNV antibodies in avian species we were able to determine the WNV antibody prevalence in a cohort of red-winged blackbirds in central North Dakota in 2003 and 2004. The peak WNV antibody prevalence was 22.0% in August of 2003 and 18.3% in July of 2004. The results of this study suggest that red-winged blackbird migratory populations may be an important viral dispersal mechanism with the ...


Rapid Assessment For A New Invasive Species Threat: The Case Of The Gambian Giant Pouched Rat In Florida, Richard M. Engeman, John W. Woolard, Neil D. Perry, Gary W. Witmer, Scott Hardin, Lawrence Brashears, Henry Smith, Britta Muiznieks, Bernice Constantin Oct 2006

Rapid Assessment For A New Invasive Species Threat: The Case Of The Gambian Giant Pouched Rat In Florida, Richard M. Engeman, John W. Woolard, Neil D. Perry, Gary W. Witmer, Scott Hardin, Lawrence Brashears, Henry Smith, Britta Muiznieks, Bernice Constantin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The Gambian giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) is a large rodent that has established a breeding population in the Florida Keys. Should it successfully disperse to mainland Florida, it could continue spreading through much of North America where significant negative ecological and agricultural consequences could result. We rapidly developed the information for implementing an efficient and successful eradication program before dispersal to the mainland occurs. This included development of monitoring and indexing methods and their application to define the animal’s range, the development of baits attractive to Gambian giant pouched rats, efficacy testing of toxicants, and development of bait-delivery ...


Investigating The Feasibility Of A Passive Tracking Index For Monitoring Wildlife In The Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia, Richard M. Engeman, Paul Evangilista Oct 2006

Investigating The Feasibility Of A Passive Tracking Index For Monitoring Wildlife In The Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia, Richard M. Engeman, Paul Evangilista

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In many places in Africa, constraints in human, financial and physical resources are common problems that limit the effectiveness of wildlife researchers and managers. In an attempt to identify a useful tool for monitoring African wildlife populations, we tested a passive tracking index (PTI) methodology on a unique wildlife resource area in the Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia. The methodology had previously proved valuable for monitoring a wide variety of wildlife species, including ungulates and carnivores in North America and Australia. Two ungulates (lesser kudu and dikdik), a carnivore (hyena), a primate (baboon), and a ground foraging bird (guineafowl) were simultaneously ...


Are Vultures Birds, And Do Snakes Have Venom, Because Of Macro- And Microscavenger Conflict?, John A. Shivik Oct 2006

Are Vultures Birds, And Do Snakes Have Venom, Because Of Macro- And Microscavenger Conflict?, John A. Shivik

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

I outline models that describe vertebrate and microbial competition for carrion resources and help explain the resultant morphologies observed in extant vertebrate scavengers. Odors from microbial decomposition signal the presence of a carcass to vertebrate scavengers. Therefore, microbes must consume carcasses rapidly or evolve toxic defenses to protect themselves and their resource from their vertebrate competitors. Similarly, macroscavengers must evolve traits that allow rapid detection of carcasses or develop chemical defenses against microbial toxins. My modeling suggests that the most efficient macroscavenger adaptations increase the probability of carcass detection, which explains why highly vagile species, such as vultures, are the ...


Green And Blue Lasers Are Ineffectivefor Dispersing Deer At Night, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jason M. Gilsdorf, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Paul B. Fioranelli, John A. Wilson, Scott Barras Sep 2006

Green And Blue Lasers Are Ineffectivefor Dispersing Deer At Night, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jason M. Gilsdorf, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Paul B. Fioranelli, John A. Wilson, Scott Barras

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Over-abundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) create agriculturaland human health and safety issues. The increased economic damage associated with locally overabundant deer populations accentuates the need for efficient techniques to mitigate the losses. Although red lasers can be an efficient tool for reducing damage caused by birds, they are not effective for deer because deer cannot detect wavelengths in the red portion of the spectrum. No research has been conducted to determine if lasers of lower wavelengths could function as frightening devices for deer. We evaluated agreen laser (534nm, 120mW)and 2 models of blue lasers (473nm, 5 mW ...


Predation On A Northern Curlytail Lizard By A Loggerhead Shrike, Henry T. Smith, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Richard M. Engeman Sep 2006

Predation On A Northern Curlytail Lizard By A Loggerhead Shrike, Henry T. Smith, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Richard M. Engeman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Leiocephalus carinatus armouri is a well established, introduced, exotic species in Florida (Meshaka et al. 2004. The Exotic Amphibians and Reptiles of Florida, Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL. 155 pp.; Smith and Engeman 2004a. Florida Field Nat. 32:107-113; Meshaka et al. 2005. Southeastern Nat. 4:521-526); however, very few vertebrate predators of this species have been documented within its introduced range (Smith and Engeman 2003. Herpetol. Rev. 34:245- 246; Smith and Engeman 2004a. op cit.; Smith and Engeman 2004b. Herpetol. Rev. 35:169-170; Dean et al. 2005. Herpetol. Rev. 36:451). Only two avian species in Florida have ...


Fences And Deer-Damage Management: A Review Of Designs And Efficacy, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Scott Hygnstrom Aug 2006

Fences And Deer-Damage Management: A Review Of Designs And Efficacy, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Scott Hygnstrom

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) may cause more damage than any other species of wildlife. These damages include crop loss, automobile and aviation collisions, disease transmission, environmental degradation, and destruction of ornamental plantings. One practical method of controlling deer damage is the use of exclusionary fences. The relatively high cost of labor and materials required to build effective fences has limited most applications to the protection of orchards, vegetable farms, other high-value resources, and mitigation of human health and safety risks. Improvements in fence technology resulting in less expensive, yet effective fences have expanded the use of fences to manage damage ...


Blackbird Use And Damage Of Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots: The Second Year, Jonathan M. Raetzman, George M. Linz, William J. Bleier Aug 2006

Blackbird Use And Damage Of Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots: The Second Year, Jonathan M. Raetzman, George M. Linz, William J. Bleier

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Annual blackbird damage to sunflower is valued at $5 to $10 million. Perhaps more importantly, the National Sunflower Association has identified blackbirds as the key reason for growers to abandon sunflower in areas of prime production. North Dakota and South Dakota together produce approximately 70% of sunflower grown in the United States. This crop adds $906 million to the regional economy. To date, cost effective and environmentally safe methods to reduce bird damage to sunflower remain elusive. In the 1980’s, scientists from the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) showed that “decoy” sunflower plots can greatly reduce bird damage to ...


A Shocking Device For Protection Of Concentrated Food Sources From Black Bears, Stewart W. Breck, Nathan Lance, Peggy Callahan Aug 2006

A Shocking Device For Protection Of Concentrated Food Sources From Black Bears, Stewart W. Breck, Nathan Lance, Peggy Callahan

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Conflicts with American black bears (Ursus americanus) are increasing in rural and suburban areas throughout the United States. Human encroachment on bear range has increased availability of garbage, bird feeders, beehives, and other food sources. Preventing bears from attaining food from anthropogenic sources could mitigate these conflicts. We tested a new shocking mechanism that is being marketed to deter black bears from attaining food from clumped anthropogenic food sources. The Nuisance Bear Controller (NBC) has two 6-volt batteries wired to an automobile vibrator coil/condenser that emits 10,000–13,000 volts through a disk that triggers the device. Activation ...


Avian Influenza In Wild Birds: Status As Reservoirs, And Risks To Humans And Agriculture , Larry Clark, Jeffrey Hall Aug 2006

Avian Influenza In Wild Birds: Status As Reservoirs, And Risks To Humans And Agriculture , Larry Clark, Jeffrey Hall

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Influenza A viruses are naturally reservoired in wild bird populations, in which they generally exist as low-pathogenic subtypes. Historically, concern about avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds is related to its potential effects on agriculture and human health, and not to health issues of wild bird populations. Several subtypes (primarily H5 and H7) have caused severe outbreaks of disease in domestic bird populations. In some cases, genetic and spatial temporal analyses suggest that these high-pathogenic subtypes may originate in wild bird populations that transmit low-pathogenic forms to domestic birds; after passage in domestic birds, the low-pathogenic subtypes convert to ...


Landscape Use And Movements Of Wolves In Relation To Livestock In A Wildland–Agriculture Matrix, Andreas S. Chavez, Eric M. Gese Aug 2006

Landscape Use And Movements Of Wolves In Relation To Livestock In A Wildland–Agriculture Matrix, Andreas S. Chavez, Eric M. Gese

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wolves (Canis lupus) have expanded their distribution into areas of the midwest United States that have not had wolves for several decades. With recolonization of wolves into agricultural areas, there is increasing concern of wolf–livestock conflicts. To assess the risk wolves may pose to livestock, we initiated a 3-year study investigating the activity patterns, movements, habitat use, visitation to livestock pastures by wolves, and the occurrence of depredation events in an agricultural–wildland matrix in northwestern Minnesota, USA. From June 1997 to November 1999, we captured 23 wolves, including pups, from 3 packs; we radio-collared 16 of these wolves ...


Limitations Of Receiver/Data Loggers For Monitoring Radiocollared Animals, Stewart W. Breck, Nathan Lance, Jean Bourassa Aug 2006

Limitations Of Receiver/Data Loggers For Monitoring Radiocollared Animals, Stewart W. Breck, Nathan Lance, Jean Bourassa

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We evaluated the effectiveness of receiver/data loggers for monitoring the presence/absence of radiocollared animals in discrete areas. Our primary objective was to determine how variation in transmitter signal strength affected the size of area being monitored. This information will help researchers better manage the uncertainty related to determining an animal’s location relative to a discrete boundary. We used an adjustable attenuator to measure signal strength to determine the minimum number of decibels (dB) required to eliminate detection of a radio signal by receiver/data loggers. We quantified how dB varied depending upon orientation of the transmitter on ...


Information Content Of Coyote Barks Howls, Brian R. Mitchell, Maja M. Makagon, Michael M. Jaeger, Reginald H. Barrett Aug 2006

Information Content Of Coyote Barks Howls, Brian R. Mitchell, Maja M. Makagon, Michael M. Jaeger, Reginald H. Barrett

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The information content of coyote (Canis latrans) vocalizations is poorly understood, but has important implications for understanding coyote behavior. Coyotes probably use information present in barks or howls to recognize individuals, but the presence of individually-specific information has not bean demonstrated. We found that coyote barks and howls contained individually specific characteristics: discriminant analysis correctly classified barks of five coyotes 69% of the time and howls of six coyotes 83% of the time. We also investigated the stability of vocalization characteristics at multiple distances from the source. Recordings were played back and re-recorded at 10 m, 600m, and 1,000m ...


Susceptibility Of Greater Sage-Grouse To Experimental Infection With West Nile Virus, Larry Clark, Jeffrey Hall, Robert Mclean, Michael Dunbar, Kaci Klenk, Richard Bowen, Cynthia A. Smeraski Aug 2006

Susceptibility Of Greater Sage-Grouse To Experimental Infection With West Nile Virus, Larry Clark, Jeffrey Hall, Robert Mclean, Michael Dunbar, Kaci Klenk, Richard Bowen, Cynthia A. Smeraski

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45– 80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental studies. Grouse were challenged by subcutaneous injection of WNV (103.2 plaque-forming units [PFUs]). All grouse died within 6 days of infection. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 50% survival was 4.5 days. Mean peak viremia for nonvaccinated birds was 106 ...


A Simulation Model For Determining Cost-Effectiveness Of Fences For Reducing Deer Damage, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Scott E. Hygnstrom Aug 2006

A Simulation Model For Determining Cost-Effectiveness Of Fences For Reducing Deer Damage, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Scott E. Hygnstrom

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The installation of fences to protect agricultural products, natural resources, or other areas from deer (Odocoileus spp.) can be expensive and potential benefits of fencing are difficult to quantify. A rational method is needed to help evaluate whether fencing can be cost-effective and which fence designs will be optimal for particular applications. We describe an interactive, dynamic simulation model that conducts economic analyses and predicts economic benefit associated with fences for crops relative to area and perimeter of protected plot, value of crop, percentage of crop damaged by deer annually prior to fencing, efficacy of fence, and costs of fence ...


Baylisascaris Procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) In Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) From Duval County, Texas, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott E. Henke Aug 2006

Baylisascaris Procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) In Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) From Duval County, Texas, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott E. Henke

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Baylisascaris procyonis, or the raccoon roundworm, primarily utilizes the raccoon as its definitive host, and has been found in >90 species of North American animal intermediate hosts (mostly birds, lagomorphs, and rodents) (Kazacos 2001). In non-raccoon hosts, including humans, larvae of this parasitic nematode can cause severe neurological disease (cerebrospinal nematodiasis) and often damage visceral and ocular tissues (Kazacos 2001). Formerly, B. procyonis was not thought to occur in Texas (Chandler 1942; Schaffer et al. 1981). However, it was recently discovered in raccoons occurring in moist environments of coastal areas (Kerr et al. 1997) and in eastern portions of the ...


Using A General Indexing Paradigm To Monitor Rodent Populations, Richard M. Engeman, Desley Whisson Jul 2006

Using A General Indexing Paradigm To Monitor Rodent Populations, Richard M. Engeman, Desley Whisson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Population monitoring is a valuable component to managing invasive rodent populations. Indices can be efficient methods for monitoring rodent populations, as more labor-intensive density estimation procedures often are impractical or invalid to apply. Many monitoring objectives can be couched in an indexing framework. Indexing procedures obtain maximal utility if they exhibit key characteristics, including being practical to apply, being sensitive to population changes or differences in the target species, having an inherent variance formula to estimate precision of index values, and relying on as few assumptions as possible. Here, a general indexing paradigm that promotes the characteristics that make indices ...


Effectiveness Of A Motion-Activated Laser Hazing System For Repelling Captive Canada Geese, Scott J. Werner, Larry Clark Jul 2006

Effectiveness Of A Motion-Activated Laser Hazing System For Repelling Captive Canada Geese, Scott J. Werner, Larry Clark

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Effective management techniques are needed to disperse Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and reduce the human–wildlife conflicts associated with high population densities. We evaluated the effectiveness of a motion-activated laser hazing system for repelling captive Canada geese. The system decreased occupancy of 8 pairs of geese on the treated subplot by 83% during habituation trials. When an additional pair of geese were added to the experiment, occupancy of the treated subplot decreased .92% during each of the 20 nights of the extended habituation test. Avoidance (conditioned during the test) remained ,80% of pretreatment levels during the 2 days immediately following ...


Interspecies Comparison Of Pentosidine Accumulation And Its Correlation With Age In Birds, Jesse A. Fallon, Robert L. Cochrane, Brian Dorr, Hillar Klandorf Jul 2006

Interspecies Comparison Of Pentosidine Accumulation And Its Correlation With Age In Birds, Jesse A. Fallon, Robert L. Cochrane, Brian Dorr, Hillar Klandorf

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Recent studies suggest that a linear correlation exists between the age of individual birds and accumulation of the advanced glycation endproduct pentosidine (Ps). We compared Ps accumulation in skin tissue of Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Skin samples were taken from the breasts of 52 Ruffed Grouse of known ages ranging from a few days to 10 years. Skin was cleaned of feathers and adipose tissue, acid hydrolyzed, and measured for collagen content via hydroxyproline spectrophotometric assay. Pentosidine concentrations were determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fluorescent detection (excitation: 310 nm, emission: 385 nm) revealed that ...


Invasive Predators: A Synthesis Of The Past, Present, And Future, William C. Pitt, Gary W. Witmer Jul 2006

Invasive Predators: A Synthesis Of The Past, Present, And Future, William C. Pitt, Gary W. Witmer

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive predators have had devastating effects on species around the world and their effects are increasing. Successful invasive predators typically have a high reproductive rate, short generation times, a generalized diet, and are small or secretive. However, the probability of a successful invasion is also dependent on the qualities of the ecosystem invaded. Ecosystems with a limited assemblage of native species are the most susceptible to invasion provided that habitat and climate are favorable. In addition, the number of invasion opportunities for a species increases the likelihood that the species will successfully establish. The list of routes of entry or ...


The National Wildlife Research Center Research Update Jul 2006

The National Wildlife Research Center Research Update

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive Species
Aviary Construction at NWRC Sandusky, Ohio, Field Station
Grasses May Help Reduce Wildlife Strike Threats to Aviation
Kirtland’s Warbler Conservation Efforts
Thesis on Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots Defended
Dissertation on Coyote Space Use Defended
Chemical Repellents and Barriers
Genetic Markers for Mountain Beaver Studies
Coyote Lure Operative Devices Tracked
NWRC Supports VS Program at Plum Island Animal Disease Center
Wildlife Services Scientists Travel to Asia to Assist with Avian Influenza
Population Studies
Rodent Management
International Meetings and Conferences


Prevalence Of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Enterica In Rock Pigeons Captured In Fort Collins, Colorado, Kerri Pedersen, Larry Clark, William F. Andelt, M.D. Salman Jun 2006

Prevalence Of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Enterica In Rock Pigeons Captured In Fort Collins, Colorado, Kerri Pedersen, Larry Clark, William F. Andelt, M.D. Salman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The potential role of rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the epidemiology of shiga toxin– producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica is unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of STEC and S. enterica in pigeons at urban and dairy settings as a function of season. Prevalence of STEC and S. enterica was estimated by bacteriologic culture of cloacal swabs collected from pigeons trapped at urban and dairy locations in and around Fort Collins, Colorado from January to November 2003. Presumptive E. coli isolates were tested for the presence of virulence genes SLT-1, SLT-2, eae, hlyA, K1, CNF-1, CNF-2 ...