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Sidestepping Lassiter On The Path To Civil Gideon: Civil Douglas, Steven D. Schwinn Jul 2006

Sidestepping Lassiter On The Path To Civil Gideon: Civil Douglas, Steven D. Schwinn

Faculty Scholarship

Civil Gideon advocates have at each turn faced the scourge of Lassiter v. Department of Social Services, which established (apparently out of whole cloth) a presumption that indigent litigants are entitled to appointed counsel only when physical liberty is at stake. This article proposes side-stepping that presumption by seeking a right to counsel on appeal via Douglas v. California, not a right to counsel at trial via Gideon v. Wainwright. Once established, a civil right to counsel on appeal would presage the inevitable downfall of Lassiter and the establishment of Civil Gideon. This article poses the argument in federal constitutional ...


Where To Go From Here? The Roberts Court At The Crossroads Of Sentencing, Nora V. Demleitner Apr 2006

Where To Go From Here? The Roberts Court At The Crossroads Of Sentencing, Nora V. Demleitner

Faculty Scholarship

As the Supreme Court has turned federal sentencing upside down in Booker, it has left a host of open questions in the wake of that decision. The outcome of these questions is often difficult to predict, for lower courts and commentators alike, as the Court has failed to develop an overarching sentencing philosophy to replace the rehabilitation-focused one that animated sentencing for so long. If the Court were to reach consensus on that issue, it would be better able to speak coherently on unresolved sentencing matters. This introduction to an Issue of the Federal Sentencing Reporter highlights some of the ...


The Paper Wars: First Amendment Challenges To School Material Distribution Policies, Leora Harpaz Mar 2006

The Paper Wars: First Amendment Challenges To School Material Distribution Policies, Leora Harpaz

Faculty Scholarship

Public schools are faced with an array of requests seeking permission to distribute material on school property. These requests may come from students, teachers or outside organizations. To respond to these requests, some school districts have adopted written policies to guide their determinations while others lack formal policies and respond on an ad hoc basis. Whether based on formal or informal policies, in deciding whether to permit distribution school officials typically take into account a variety of factors including the content of the material, the identity of the individual or group seeking permission and the time, place or manner of ...


Enumeration And Other Constitutional Strategies For Protecting Rights: The View From 1787/1791, Mark A. Graber Jan 2006

Enumeration And Other Constitutional Strategies For Protecting Rights: The View From 1787/1791, Mark A. Graber

Faculty Scholarship

This paper interprets the constitution of 1791 in light of the constitution of 1787. The persons responsible for the original constitution thought they had secured fundamental rights by a combination of representation, the separation of powers, and the extended republic. The Bill of Rights, in their view, was a minor supplement to the strategies previously employed for preventing abusive government practices. Proposed amendments were less a list of fundamental freedoms than an enumeration of those rights likely to appease moderate anti-Federalists. That many vaguely phrased rights lacked clear legal meaning was of little concern to their Federalist sponsors, who trusted ...


"The Most Extraordinarily Powerful Court Of Law The World Has Ever Known"? - Judicial Review In The United States And Germany, Peter E. Quint Jan 2006

"The Most Extraordinarily Powerful Court Of Law The World Has Ever Known"? - Judicial Review In The United States And Germany, Peter E. Quint

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Leading A Constitutional Court: Perspectives From The Federal Republic Of Germany, Peter E. Quint Jan 2006

Leading A Constitutional Court: Perspectives From The Federal Republic Of Germany, Peter E. Quint

Faculty Scholarship

This article, which was a contribution to a Symposium on the office of the Chief Justice of the United States, compares that office with the office of President of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. The article concludes that, while the American Chief Justice possesses more authority in most formal respects, the President of the German Court has on occasion exercised an informal public or private influence that goes well beyond anything of the sort that has been attempted (recently at least) by the American Chief Justice.


Popular Constitutionalism, Judicial Supremacy, And The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debates, Mark A. Graber Jan 2006

Popular Constitutionalism, Judicial Supremacy, And The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debates, Mark A. Graber

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Prayer For Constitutional Comparativism In Eighth Amendment Cases, David C. Gray Jan 2006

A Prayer For Constitutional Comparativism In Eighth Amendment Cases, David C. Gray

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Does It Really Matter? Conservative Courts In A Conservative Era, Mark A. Graber Jan 2006

Does It Really Matter? Conservative Courts In A Conservative Era, Mark A. Graber

Faculty Scholarship

This essay explores the likelihood that conservative federal courts in the near future will be agents of conservative social change. In particular, the paper assesses whether conservative justices on some issues will support more conservative policies than conservative elected officials are presently willing to enact and whether such judicial decisions will influence public policy. My primary conclusion is that, as long as conservatives remain politically ascendant in the elected branches of government, the Roberts Court is likely to influence American politics at the margins. The new conservative judicial majority is likely to be more libertarian than conservative majorities in the ...


Manson V. Brathwaite Revisited: Towards A New Rule Of Decision For Due Process Challenges To Eyewitness Identification Procedures, Timothy P. O'Toole, Giovanna Shay Jan 2006

Manson V. Brathwaite Revisited: Towards A New Rule Of Decision For Due Process Challenges To Eyewitness Identification Procedures, Timothy P. O'Toole, Giovanna Shay

Faculty Scholarship

Almost 30 years ago, in Manson v. Brathwaite--the Supreme Court set out a test for determining when due process requires suppression of an out-of-court identification produced by suggestive police procedures. The Manson Court rejected a per se exclusion rule in favor of a test focusing on whether an identification infected by suggestive procedures is nonetheless reliable when judged in the totality of the circumstances. The purpose of this Article is two-fold: to demonstrate that the Manson rule of decision fails to safeguard due process values, in part because it does not account for the intervening social science research, and to ...


Gender And Constitutional Design, Paula A. Monopoli Jan 2006

Gender And Constitutional Design, Paula A. Monopoli

Faculty Scholarship

Does the allocation of power between the legislative and executive branches, and the way we define the scope of the executive affect whether women ascend to executive office? In this article, Professor Monopoli argues that the constitutional process of boundary-drawing between the legislative and executive branches of government has implications for how successful women will be in ascending to executive positions. She posits that the Hamiltonian vision of an expansive executive with plenary power is the model least likely to result in women’s ascending to executive office. The essay traces the philosophical heritage of Hamilton’s vision and outlines ...


Is Suspension A Political Question, Amanda L. Tyler Jan 2006

Is Suspension A Political Question, Amanda L. Tyler

Faculty Scholarship

The article focuses on the Suspension Clause of the U.S. Constitution being a political issue. It says that once suspension is viewed as a nonjusticiable political question, it would turn as a subject on which most of the restraints imposed by the Constitution would not be subjected to judicial enforcement. It is claimed that such thought should be denied because it is at odds of writ of habeas corpus heritage and would only complicate the separation of powers and the institution of judicial reviews.


The Constitutional Law Of Presidential Transitions, Jack Beermann Jan 2006

The Constitutional Law Of Presidential Transitions, Jack Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

Presidential transition periods are times of uncertainty and contradiction. The outgoing president retains all the formal legal powers of the presidency, yet his last electoral success is four years removed and his political capital is at low ebb. Further complicating the matter is that the transition agendas of the two presidents are unlikely to be aligned. Even if both presidents are from the same political party, their goals in the transition period may be widely disparate. The outgoing president will be concerned with preserving his legacy. The incoming president, on the other hand, will be focused on beginning her own ...


My Father, John Locke, And Assisted Suicide: The Real Constitutional Right, John B. Mitchell Jan 2006

My Father, John Locke, And Assisted Suicide: The Real Constitutional Right, John B. Mitchell

Faculty Scholarship

This article discusses the right to assisted suicide, a right not derived from anything explicit or implied in any textual provision of the Constitution. It is a right derived from the two underlying political philosophies, which form the basis of the entire U.S. Constitutional enterprise: John Locke's Social Contract and Civic Republicanism. In Part I, this article discusses Glucksberg's fundamental rights analysis. So much has been written about this case that this article will limit comments to briefly adding thoughts as to why, given the combination of the Court's motivation, both institutional and pragmatic, in approaching ...


Limits On Agency Discretion To Choose Between Rulemaking And Adjudication: Reconsidering Patel V. Ins And Ford Motor Co. V. Ftc, William D. Araiza Jan 2006

Limits On Agency Discretion To Choose Between Rulemaking And Adjudication: Reconsidering Patel V. Ins And Ford Motor Co. V. Ftc, William D. Araiza

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Beyond Lawrence: Metaprivacy And Punishment, Jamal Greene Jan 2006

Beyond Lawrence: Metaprivacy And Punishment, Jamal Greene

Faculty Scholarship

Lawrence v. Texas remains, after three years of precedential life, an opinion in search of a principle. It is both libertarian – Randy Barnett has called it the constitutionalization of John Stuart Mill's On Liberty – and communitarian – William Eskridge has described it as the gay rights movement's Brown v. Board of Education. It is simultaneously broad, in its evocation of our deepest spiritual commitments, and narrow, in its self-conscious attempts to avoid condemning laws against same-sex marriage, prostitution, and bestiality. This Article reconciles these competing claims on Lawrence's jurisprudential legacy. In Part I, it defends the view that ...


Foreign And International Law In Constitutional Gay Rights Litigation: What Claims, What Use And Whose Law?, William D. Araiza Jan 2006

Foreign And International Law In Constitutional Gay Rights Litigation: What Claims, What Use And Whose Law?, William D. Araiza

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


First Amendment Cases In The October 2004 Term, Joel Gora Jan 2006

First Amendment Cases In The October 2004 Term, Joel Gora

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, And Fact-Based Adjudication, Suzanne B. Goldberg Jan 2006

Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, And Fact-Based Adjudication, Suzanne B. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers an account of how courts respond to social change, with a specific focus on the process by which courts "tip" from one understanding of a social group and its constitutional claims to another. Adjudication of equal protection and due process claims, in particular, requires courts to make normative judgments regarding the effect of traits such as race, sex, sexual orientation, or mental retardation on group members' status and capacity. Yet, Professor Goldberg argues, courts commonly approach decisionmaking by focusing only on the 'facts" about a social group, an approach that she terms 'fact-based adjudication." Professor Goldberg critiques ...


Defining The Constitutional Question In Partisan Gerrymandering, Richard Briffault Jan 2006

Defining The Constitutional Question In Partisan Gerrymandering, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

In Vieth v. Jubelirer, a narrow majority of the Supreme Court determined that, at least for the moment, partisan gerrymandering is nonjusticiable. Yet, strikingly, all nine members of the Court also agreed that, justiciable or not, partisan gerrymanders raise a constitutional question, and some gerrymanders are unconstitutional. However, the Court gave little attention to just why gerrymandering might be unconstitutional. The justices bounced back and forth between justiciability and the standards for proving gerrymandering without considering what constitutional harm gerrymandering poses. This Article considers the question of why partisan gerrymandering might be unconstitutional. It finds four constitutional arguments against gerrymandering ...


Grutter At Work: A Title Vii Critique Of Constitutional Affirmative Action, Jessica Bulman-Pozen Jan 2006

Grutter At Work: A Title Vii Critique Of Constitutional Affirmative Action, Jessica Bulman-Pozen

Faculty Scholarship

This Note argues that Title VII doctrine both illuminates internal contradictions of Grutter v. Bollinger and provides a framework for reading the opinion. Grutter's diversity rationale is a broad endorsement of integration that hinges on the quantitative concept of critical mass, but the opinion's narrow-tailoring discussion instead points to a model of racial difference that champions subjective decisionmaking and threatens to jettison numerical accountability. Title VII doctrine supports a reading of Grutter that privileges a view of diversity as integration and therefore cautions against the opinion's conception of narrow tailoring. Grutter, in turn, can productively inform employment ...


Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, And Fact-Based Adjudication, Suzanne B. Goldberg Jan 2006

Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, And Fact-Based Adjudication, Suzanne B. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers an account of how courts respond to social change, with a specific focus on the process by which courts "tip" from one understanding of a social group and its constitutional claims to another. Adjudication of equal protection and due process claims, in particular, requires courts to make normative judgments regarding the effect of traits such as race, sex, sexual orientation, or mental retardation on group members' status and capacity. Yet, Professor Goldberg argues, courts commonly approach decisionmaking by focusing only on the "facts" about a social group, an approach that she terms "fact-based adjudication." Professor Goldberg critiques ...


Constitutional Lessons From Europe, George A. Bermann Jan 2006

Constitutional Lessons From Europe, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

Given his range of interests, a tribute to Francis Jacobs could appropriately address just about any area of contemporary legal concern. But Francis Jacobs is one whose writings on and off the bench have, for an American, been especially illuminating, due to his unique capacity to translate fundamental issues of European constitutional law into terms that we can grasp. And so, notwithstanding the quantity of writing on the recent constitutional adventure of the European Union ("EU") that has already accumulated, I add yet one more set of reflections on this theme in Francis Jacobs' honor, this time on the possible ...


Congress, Article Iv, And Interstate Relations, Gillian E. Metzger Jan 2006

Congress, Article Iv, And Interstate Relations, Gillian E. Metzger

Faculty Scholarship

Article IV imposes prohibitions on interstate discrimination that are central to our status as a single nation, yet the Constitution also grants Congress broad power over interstate relations. This leads to the questions of whether Congress has power to authorize states to engage in conduct that otherwise would violate Article IV, and more generally of how we should conceive of Congress' role in the interstate relations context, what is sometimes called the horizontal dimension of federalism. These questions are of growing practical relevance, given recently enacted or proposed measures – the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is the most prominent example ...


Home Rule And Local Political Innovation, Richard Briffault Jan 2006

Home Rule And Local Political Innovation, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

As demonstrated by San Francisco's recent adoption of instant runoff voting and New York City's recent expansion of its program for funding candidates for municipal office, local governments around the country have been actively engaged in examining and revising electoral and governmental processes. These local initiatives include alternative voting systems, campaign finance reforms, conflicts of interest codes, term limits, and revisions to tax, budget and legislative procedures. These local innovations illustrate both the capacity of local governments to restructure basic features of their political organization and their interest in doing so. Local political innovations also test the scope ...


Defining The Constitutional Question In Partisan Gerrymandering, Richard Briffault Jan 2006

Defining The Constitutional Question In Partisan Gerrymandering, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

In Vieth v. Jubelirer, a narrow majority of the Supreme Court determined that, at least for the moment, partisan gerrymandering is nonjusticiable. Yet, strikingly, all nine members of the Court also agreed that, justiciable or not, partisan gerrymanders raise a constitutional question, and some gerrymanders are unconstitutional. However, the Court gave little attention to just why gerrymandering might be unconstitutional. The justices bounced back and forth between justiciability and the standards for proving gerrymandering without considering what constitutional harm gerrymandering poses. This Article considers the question of why partisan gerrymandering might be unconstitutional. It finds four constitutional arguments against gerrymandering ...


Lulac On Partisan Gerrymandering: Some Clarity, More Uncertainty, Richard Briffault Jan 2006

Lulac On Partisan Gerrymandering: Some Clarity, More Uncertainty, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

LULAC’s treatment of the partisan gerrymandering question, thus, may be as significant for the continuing divisions and uncertainties it reveals as for the result it achieved. A majority of the Court is willing to grapple with the gerrymandering issue but that majority is internally torn over what makes partisan gerrymandering a constitutional problem and when judicial intervention is appropriate. The Court’s difficulty is understandable. Gerrymandering is a challenge to democratic self-government, but judicial intervention requires a judicially manageable theory of democracy compatible with the Constitution and our political institutions. It remains to be seen whether the Court can ...


The Terrorist Surveillance Program And The Constitution, John Yoo Jan 2006

The Terrorist Surveillance Program And The Constitution, John Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Who's Afraid Of The Eleventh Amendment - The Limited Impact Of The Court's Sovereign Immunity Rulings, Jesse H. Choper, John C. Yoo Jan 2006

Who's Afraid Of The Eleventh Amendment - The Limited Impact Of The Court's Sovereign Immunity Rulings, Jesse H. Choper, John C. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Access And Exclusion Rights In Electronic Media:Complex Rules For A Complex World, Daniel A. Farber Jan 2006

Access And Exclusion Rights In Electronic Media:Complex Rules For A Complex World, Daniel A. Farber

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.