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The Voting Rights Act Of 1965: A Selected Annotated Bibliography, Terrye Conroy Oct 2006

The Voting Rights Act Of 1965: A Selected Annotated Bibliography, Terrye Conroy

Faculty Publications

Several remedial or "special" provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which were enacted as temporary measures and were set to expire in August 2007 if not reauthorized by Congress, were recently extended for another twenty-five years. Ms. Conroy offers a selected bibliography of resources to introduce researchers to the issues involved in the debate over the Act's reauthorization and its future implementation.


Constitutional Referendum In The United States Of America, William B. Fisch Oct 2006

Constitutional Referendum In The United States Of America, William B. Fisch

Faculty Publications

The United States of America, as a federation of now 50 states each with its own constitution and legal system still enjoying a large degree of governmental autonomy within the national legal framework, presents a strikingly mixed picture regarding the use of direct democracy--the submission of proposed governmental action to a popular vote--in law- and constitution-making processes. At the national level, direct democracy has never been used for either type of enactment. At the state and local level, however, its use dates back to colonial times and has been increasing gradually (though still not universal) ever since. Since the mid-19th ...


The New Line Item Veto Proposal: This Time It’S Constitutional (Mostly), Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl Oct 2006

The New Line Item Veto Proposal: This Time It’S Constitutional (Mostly), Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Tom Delay: Popular Constitutionalist?, Neal Devins Jul 2006

Tom Delay: Popular Constitutionalist?, Neal Devins

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Resisting Deep Capture: The Commercial Speech Doctrine And Junk-Food Advertising To Children, David Yosifon May 2006

Resisting Deep Capture: The Commercial Speech Doctrine And Junk-Food Advertising To Children, David Yosifon

Faculty Publications

The present Article is more precisely dedicated to analyzing, from a critical realist perspective, the wisdom and constitutional viability of one possible policy response to the obesity crisis: a ban on junk-food advertising to children.

This Article seeks not only to show that an effective junk-food advertising ban could pass constitutional scrutiny, but also to demonstrate, through the rigor of a constitutional analysis, the wisdom of such an approach to this substantial social problem. Simultaneously, my purpose is to show, in the context of a difficult First Amendment question, that the critical realist approach to legal theory is capable of ...


Property, Place, And Public Discourse, Timothy Zick Apr 2006

Property, Place, And Public Discourse, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Taxation, Compensation, And Judicial Independence, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Taxation, Compensation, And Judicial Independence, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Article III of the Constitution seeks to protect judicial independence, partly through a guarantee of life tenure and partly through a clause that prohibits the diminution of judges' "compensation". The Compensation Clause does not address the subject of taxation, but it has always been understood to affect the federal government's taxing power. This article examines the framing of the Compensation Clause, some nineteenth-century detours that are inconsistent with the original understanding of the Clause, and the Supreme Court's jurisprudence on taxation of judges under the Clause. The article critically analyzes the Court's most recent case on the ...


Taxation, Compensation, And Judicial Independence: Hatter V. United States, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Taxation, Compensation, And Judicial Independence: Hatter V. United States, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Article III of the Constitution seeks to protect judicial independence, partly through a guarantee of life tenure and partly through a clause that prohibits the diminution of judges' "compensation". The Compensation Clause does not address the subject of taxation, but it has always been understood to affect the federal government's taxing power. This article examines the framing of the Compensation Clause, some nineteenth-century detours that are inconsistent with the original understanding of the Clause, and the Supreme Court's jurisprudence on taxation of judges under the Clause. The article critically analyzes the Court's most recent case on the ...


United States V. Hatter And The Taxation Of Federal Judges, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

United States V. Hatter And The Taxation Of Federal Judges, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Does the constitutional requirement that the "compensation" of federal judges "not be diminished during their Continuance in office" preclude Congress from subjecting sitting judges to the social security taxes from which they had previously been exempt? In Hatter v. United States, the Federal Circuit ruled for judges claiming such an exemption, and, after the Supreme Court granted cert, the authors wrote the first of these two articles, arguing why, for a multitude of reasons, the Supreme Court should reverse and make it clear that judges may constitutionally be subject to a tax of general application. After the Supreme Court held ...


The Green Costs Of Kelo: Economic Development Takings And Environmental Protection, Jonathan H. Adler Feb 2006

The Green Costs Of Kelo: Economic Development Takings And Environmental Protection, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

This Article is the first academic paper to systematically consider the environmental impact of the Supreme Court's decision in Kelo v. City of New London and of economic development condemnations more generally. Kelo upheld economic development takings - condemnations that transfer property from one private owner to another solely on the ground that doing so might improve the local economy or increase tax revenue. The decision stands in sharp contrast to the Michigan Supreme Court's ruling in County of Wayne v. Hathcock, which forbade the use of eminent domain for economic development.

Part I briefly explains the rationales of ...


The Constitutional Right To Make Medical Treatment Decisions: A Tale Of Two Doctrines, B. Jessie Hill Feb 2006

The Constitutional Right To Make Medical Treatment Decisions: A Tale Of Two Doctrines, B. Jessie Hill

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court has taken very different approaches to the question whether individuals have a right to make autonomous medical treatment choices, depending on the context. For example, in cases concerning the right to choose ¿partial-birth¿ abortion and the right to use medical marijuana, the Supreme Court reached radically different results, based on radically different reasoning.

More recent developments, including last Term's decision in Gonzales v. Carhart, have only highlighted the doctrinal confusion and the need for a resolution. In light of this pressing need, the goal of this Article is to view all of the constitutional cases touching ...


Understanding Waiver, Jessica Wilen Berg Feb 2006

Understanding Waiver, Jessica Wilen Berg

Faculty Publications

Waiver plays a role in numerous areas of law, yet no one has attempted to provide a unifying theory of waiver, explaining why some rights cannot be waived and why courts and legislatures have set different standards for the validity of waivers in different circumstances. This article proposes that maximization of autonomy functions as an underlying goal of our legal system generally, and thus the concept of autonomy provides a basis for understanding waivers. It analyzes autonomy in some detail and offers an evaluative framework that functions both descriptively and normatively across different legal areas. There are two senses of ...


Interpreting The Sixteenth Amendment (By Way Of The Direct-Tax Clauses), Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Interpreting The Sixteenth Amendment (By Way Of The Direct-Tax Clauses), Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The Sixteenth Amendment and the direct-tax clauses have become subjects of interest in the legal academy and, as proposals for new forms of national taxation emerge on a seemingly daily basis, they could become subjects of more general interest as well. Under the direct-tax clauses, a direct tax must be apportioned among the states on the basis of population, making such a tax difficult, although not impossible, to implement. Following the Supreme Court decisions in the 1895 Income Tax Cases, which held that an 1894 income tax was a direct tax that had not been properly apportioned, the Sixteenth Amendment ...


The Taxing Power, The Sixteenth Amendment, And The Meaning Of ‘Incomes,’, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

The Taxing Power, The Sixteenth Amendment, And The Meaning Of ‘Incomes,’, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the debates leading to the enactment of the 1894 income tax, which the Supreme Court struck down in 1895, and the Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, and concludes that an income tax and a tax on consumption were understood to be fundamentally different types of taxes. The author argues that the term “taxes on incomes” in the Sixteenth Amendment should be interpreted with that distinction in mind. The Amendment was intended to make a “tax on incomes,” and only a tax on incomes, possible without the apportionment that would otherwise be required for a direct tax. For ...


Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The point of this essay is simple: a direct-consumption tax like the Forbes-Armey-Hall-Rabushka flat tax or the Nunn-Domenici USA tax is not a "tax on incomes" within the meaning of the Sixteenth Amendment. As a result, such a tax would be constitutional only if it were apportioned among the states on the basis of population. And since these taxes would not be apportioned-how could they be and work as they are intended to work?-they would be unconstitutional.


Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay responds to Professor Bruce Ackerman, who had challenged the author's understanding of the Direct-Tax Clauses of the Constitution and the Sixteenth Amendment to that Constitution.


Critical Theory And The Loneliness Of The Tax Prof, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Critical Theory And The Loneliness Of The Tax Prof, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay, prepared for a symposium on critical theory and tax law, has two goals: to suggest why feminist theory and critical race theory are spreading in taxation and to discuss some dangers of that criticism. The author evaluates three examples of the new criticism: an article on critical race theory by Professors Moran and Whitford; an article on feminist statutory interpretation by Professor Handelman; and a book, Taxing Women, by Professor McCaffery.


The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In debates about reorienting the American revenue system, nearly everyone assumes the Constitution is irrelevant. With few exceptions, the tax provisions in the original Constitution - particularly the direct-tax apportionment rule and the uniformity rule - have been interpreted to be paper tigers. And in only one major case has the Sixteenth Amendment, which excepts "taxes on incomes" from apportionment, been held to limit congressional power.

S Rejecting conventional wisdom, this Article argues that some consumption taxes would violate constitutional norms. The Article focuses on the requirement that “direct taxes” be apportioned among the states on the basis of population. From a ...


The Imaginary Connection Between The Great Law Of Peace And The United States Constitution: A Reply To Professor Schaaf, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Imaginary Connection Between The Great Law Of Peace And The United States Constitution: A Reply To Professor Schaaf, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article challenges the politically correct theory advanced in a 1989 article by Gregory Schaaf, “From the Great Law of Peace to the Constitution of the United States: A Revision of America’s Democratic Roots.” Professor Schaaf argued that large parts of the U.S. Constitution were based on the Great Law of Peace, the founding document of the Iroquois Confederacy. This article points to the lack of primary authority supporting such a counterintuitive proposition and questions the likelihood that Iroquois principles could have silently influenced American founders. Finally, the article questions whether it is desirable to try to further ...


Commentary: The Extraordinary Revival Of Dred Scott, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Commentary: The Extraordinary Revival Of Dred Scott, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In a widely reprinted 1987 speech, Justice Thurgood Marshall characterized the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford as accurately reflecting the Founders' views on many subjects, including race. The author argues that Dred Scott was dead wrong on almost all counts-as many contemporaneous commentators, including Abraham Lincoln, understood. It was not helpful to our understanding of history and constitutional law for Justice Marshall to have resuscitated this horribly misguided decision.


The Penumbral Public Domain: Constitutional Limits On Quasi-Copyright Legislation, Aaron K. Perzanowski Jan 2006

The Penumbral Public Domain: Constitutional Limits On Quasi-Copyright Legislation, Aaron K. Perzanowski

Faculty Publications

This Article attempts to reconcile the breadth of the modern Commerce Clause with the notion of meaningful and enforceable limits on Congress' copyright authority under Article I, Section 8, Clause 8.

The Article aims to achieve two objectives. First, it seeks to outline a general approach to identifying and resolving inter-clause conflicts, sketching a methodology that has been lacking in the courts' sparse treatment of such conflicts. Second, it applies that general framework to the copyright power in order to outline the scope of constitutional prohibitions against quasi-copyright protections. In particular, this application focuses on the federal anti-bootlegging statutes and ...


Limited Powers In The Looking-Glass: Otiose Textualism, And An Empirical Analysis Of Other Approaches, When Activitists In Private Shopping Centers Claim State Constitutional Liberties, Richard J. Peltz-Steele Jan 2006

Limited Powers In The Looking-Glass: Otiose Textualism, And An Empirical Analysis Of Other Approaches, When Activitists In Private Shopping Centers Claim State Constitutional Liberties, Richard J. Peltz-Steele

Faculty Publications

This article examines closely a narrow range of highly factually analogous cases, in which state constitutional rights are asserted despite a clear lack of entitlement to assert any federal constitutional claim. Specifically, the cases selected are those in which private persons assert a right to conduct expressive activity, including electoral activity, in private shopping centers during hours when the properties are held open to the general public. These cases may be referred to colloquially as “the mall cases.” Selected here are only those which were decided after the federal question became clear. The Article first inquires into the role of ...


Judges, Legislators, And Europe's Law: Common-Law Constitutionalism And Foreign Precedents, Noga Morag-Levine Jan 2006

Judges, Legislators, And Europe's Law: Common-Law Constitutionalism And Foreign Precedents, Noga Morag-Levine

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Space, Place, And Speech: The Expressive Topography, Timothy Zick Jan 2006

Space, Place, And Speech: The Expressive Topography, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Speech And Spatial Tactics, Timothy Zick Jan 2006

Speech And Spatial Tactics, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Should The Supreme Court Fear Congress?, Neal Devins Jan 2006

Should The Supreme Court Fear Congress?, Neal Devins

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Thematics And The Peculiar Federal Marriage Amendment, Scott Dodson Jan 2006

Constitutional Thematics And The Peculiar Federal Marriage Amendment, Scott Dodson

Faculty Publications

These symposium remarks are a discussion of themes running through the Constitution, how the FMA, if adopted, might affect those themes, and why we ought to care. I first demonstrate that our Constitution is a thematic document, filled with broad, recognizable, and (mostly) coherent concepts. Separation of powers, representative democracy, federalism, individual liberty, and equality come readily to mind. I then explain that the thematic nature and the inter-coherence of these themes is critical in two ways: to identify those values held to be fundamental in our society, and to assist in the interpretation of the Constitution. The themes in ...


Coercion And Choice Under The Establishment Clause, Cynthia V. Ward Jan 2006

Coercion And Choice Under The Establishment Clause, Cynthia V. Ward

Faculty Publications

In recent Establishment Clause cases the Supreme Court has found nondenominational, state-sponsored prayers unconstitutionally "coercive" -although attendance at the events featuring the prayer was not required by the state; religious dissenters were free to choose not to say the challenged prayers; and dissenters who so chose, or who chose not to attend the events, suffered no state-enforced sanction. Part I of this Article lays out the historical background that gave rise to the coercion test, traces the development of that test in the Court's case law, and isolates the core elements in the vision of coercion that animates the ...


Reviving A Natural Right: The Freedom Of Autonomy, Michael A. Lawrence Jan 2006

Reviving A Natural Right: The Freedom Of Autonomy, Michael A. Lawrence

Faculty Publications

This article explores the historical foundations of the individual rights of equality and free choice on matters of natural private concern (collectively, “freedom of autonomy”) in America, looks at several present-day applications, and concludes that meaningful steps must be taken – by encouraging greater awareness among lawmakers and courts of original meanings of the constitutional terms “liberty,” “property,” “privileges,” and “immunities,” and perhaps even through constitutional amendment – to revive this most basic right from an overbearing government.


Bartnicki As Lochner: Some Thoughts On First Amendment Lochnerism, Howard M. Wasserman Jan 2006

Bartnicki As Lochner: Some Thoughts On First Amendment Lochnerism, Howard M. Wasserman

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.