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Synchronization In Advanced Optical Communications, Inwoong Kim Jan 2006

Synchronization In Advanced Optical Communications, Inwoong Kim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to generate high power ultrashort optical pulses from an all-semiconductor mode-locked laser system. The limitations of semiconductor optical amplifier in high energy, ultrashort pulse amplification are reviewed. A method to overcome the fundamental limit of small stored energy inside semiconductor optical amplifier called "eXtreme Chirped Pulse Amplification (X-CPA)" is proposed and studied theoretically and experimentally. The key benefits of the concept of X-CPA are addressed. Based on theoretical and experimental study, an all-semiconductor mode-locked X-CPA system consisting of a mode-locked master oscillator, an optical pulse pre-stretcher, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) pulse picker, an ...


Decoherence In Quantum Dot Charge Qubits: The Role Of Electromagnetic Fluctuations, James Mccracken Jan 2006

Decoherence In Quantum Dot Charge Qubits: The Role Of Electromagnetic Fluctuations, James Mccracken

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lateral semiconductor quantum dot structures have been proposed as an effective quantum bit (qubit) for quantum computation. A single excess electron with the freedom to move between two capacitively coupled quantum dots creates a `pseudo'-spin system with the same qubit behavior as the more natural two level system of a single electron spin. The excess electron in the double dot system is restricted to one of the two dots, thereby creating two separate and distinct states (usually referred to as |L> and |R>). The benefit of these charge qubits lie in the relative ease with which they can be ...


Integrated Inp Photonic Switches, Daniel May-Arrioja Jan 2006

Integrated Inp Photonic Switches, Daniel May-Arrioja

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photonic switches are becoming key components in advanced optical networks because of the large variety of applications that they can perform. One of the key advantages of photonic switches is that they redirect or convert light without having to make any optical to electronic conversions and vice versa, thus allowing networking functions to be lowered into the optical layer. InP-based switches are particularly attractive because of their small size, low electrical power consumption, and compatibility with integration of laser sources, photo-detectors, and electronic components. In this dissertation the development of integrated InP photonic switches using an area-selective zinc diffusion process ...


Discrimination Of Automobile Carpet Fibers Using Multiple Analytical Techniques And The Subsequent Creation Of A Searchable Data, Derek Dorrien Jan 2006

Discrimination Of Automobile Carpet Fibers Using Multiple Analytical Techniques And The Subsequent Creation Of A Searchable Data, Derek Dorrien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Forensic fiber examination is an important part of trace evidence analysis. Fibers may be recovered from a crime scene that could link a particular suspect to the scene. Clothing fibers are most frequently encountered but automobile carpeting fibers may also be recovered. An understanding of the frequency of occurrence and the discrimination power of different analytical techniques is needed in order to better establish the evidentiary value of automobile carpet fiber evidence. Seventy-five automobile carpet fiber samples were analyzed using a series of techniques ranging from nondestructive to destructive. These techniques included polarized light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, microspectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared ...


A Comparative Study Of Ant Colony Optimization, Matthew Becker Jan 2006

A Comparative Study Of Ant Colony Optimization, Matthew Becker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) belongs to a class of biologically-motivated approaches to computing that includes such metaheuristics as artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, and artificial immune systems, among others. Emulating to varying degrees the particular biological phenomena from which their inspiration is drawn, these alternative computational systems have succeeded in finding solutions to complex problems that had heretofore eluded more traditional techniques. Often, the resulting algorithm bears little resemblance to its biological progenitor, evolving instead into a mathematical abstraction of a singularly useful quality of the phenomenon. In such cases, these abstract computational models may be termed biological metaphors. Mindful ...


Object Association Across Multiple Moving Cameras In Planar Scenes, Yaser Sheikh Jan 2006

Object Association Across Multiple Moving Cameras In Planar Scenes, Yaser Sheikh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we address the problem of object detection and object association across multiple cameras over large areas that are well modeled by planes. We present a unifying probabilistic framework that captures the underlying geometry of planar scenes, and present algorithms to estimate geometric relationships between different cameras, which are subsequently used for co-operative association of objects. We first present a local1 object detection scheme that has three fundamental innovations over existing approaches. First, the model of the intensities of image pixels as independent random variables is challenged and it is asserted that useful correlation exists in intensities of ...


Quantitative High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission To Electron Microscopy For Materials Science, Rumyana Petrova Jan 2006

Quantitative High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission To Electron Microscopy For Materials Science, Rumyana Petrova

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been widely used for characterization of materials; to identify micro- and nano-structures within a sample and to analyze crystal and defect structures. High-angle annular dark field (HAADF) STEM imaging using atomic number (Z) contrast has proven capable of resolving atomic structures with better than 2 A lateral resolution. In this work, the HAADF STEM imaging mode is used in combination with multislice simulations. This combination is applied to the investigation of the temperature dependence of the intensity collected by the HAADF detector in silicon, and to convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) to measure the ...


Simplified Low Copy Number Dna Analysis By Post Pcr Purification, Pamela Smith Jan 2006

Simplified Low Copy Number Dna Analysis By Post Pcr Purification, Pamela Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Frequently evidentiary items contain an insufficient quantity of DNA to obtain complete or even partial DNA profiles using standard forensic gentotyping techniques. Here, various methods of post PCR purification were evaluated for their effects on the sensitivity of fluophore-based allelic detection. A method of post PCR purification is described which increases the sensitivity of standard 28 cycle PCR such that low copy number DNA templates (<100 pg DNA) can be analyzed. Full profiles were consistently obtained with as little as 20 pg template DNA without increased cycle number. In mock case type samples with dermal ridge fingerprints, genetic profiles were obtained by amplification with 28 cycles followed by post-PCR purification whereas no profiles were obtained without purification of the PCR product. Allele drop-out, increased stutter, and contamination (allele drop-in) typical of LCN analysis were observed. A single incident of contamination was observed in a reagent blank (not duplicated upon re-amplification) however, no contamination was observed in negative amplification controls.


Effects Of Atmospheric Turbulence On The Propagation Of Flattened Gaussian Optical Beams, Doris Cowan Jan 2006

Effects Of Atmospheric Turbulence On The Propagation Of Flattened Gaussian Optical Beams, Doris Cowan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an attempt to mitigate the effects of the atmosphere on the coherence of an optical (laser) beam, interest has recently been shown in changing the beam shape to determine if a different power distribution at the transmitter will reduce the effects of the random fluctuations in the refractive index. Here, a model is developed for the field of a flattened Gaussian beam as it propagates through atmospheric turbulence, and the resulting effects upon the scintillation of the beam and upon beam wander are determined. A comparison of these results is made with the like effects on a standard TEM00 ...


On The Use Of Variable Coherence In Inverse Scattering Problems, Erwan Baleine Jan 2006

On The Use Of Variable Coherence In Inverse Scattering Problems, Erwan Baleine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Even though most of the properties of optical fields, such as wavelength, polarization, wavefront curvature or angular spectrum, have been commonly manipulated in a variety of remote sensing procedures, controlling the degree of coherence of light did not find wide applications until recently. Since the emergence of optical coherence tomography, a growing number of scattering techniques have relied on temporal coherence gating which provides efficient target selectivity in a way achieved only by bulky short pulse measurements. The spatial counterpart of temporal coherence, however, has barely been exploited in sensing applications. This dissertation examines, in different scattering regimes, a variety ...


High Birefringence And Low Viscosity Liquid Crystals, Chien-Hui Wen Jan 2006

High Birefringence And Low Viscosity Liquid Crystals, Chien-Hui Wen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual- frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ~0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ~0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the ...


Analytical Potential Of Polymerized Liposomes Bound To Lanthanide Ions For Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis Of Proteins, Marina Santos Jan 2006

Analytical Potential Of Polymerized Liposomes Bound To Lanthanide Ions For Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis Of Proteins, Marina Santos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the intriguing features of biological systems is the prevalence of highly selective and often very strong interactions among different cellular components. Such interactions play a variety of organizational, mechanical, and physiological roles at the cellular and organism levels. Antigen-antibody complexes are representative examples of highly selective and potent interactions involving proteins. The marked specificity of protein-antibody complexes have led to a wide range of applications in cellular and molecular biology related research. They have become an integral research tool in the present genomic and proteomic era. Unfortunately, the production of selective tools based on antigen-antibody interactions requires cumbersome ...


Up-Conversion In Rare-Earth Doped Micro-Particles Applied To New Emissive 2d Dislays, Anne Milliez Jan 2006

Up-Conversion In Rare-Earth Doped Micro-Particles Applied To New Emissive 2d Dislays, Anne Milliez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Up-conversion (UC) in rare-earth co-doped fluorides to convert diode laser light in the near infrared to red, green and blue visible light is applied to make possible high performance emissive displays. The infrared-to-visible UC in the materials we study is a sequential form of non-linear two photon absorption in which a strong absorbing constituent absorbs two low energy photons and transfers this energy to another constituent which emits visible light. Some of the UC emitters' most appealing characteristics for displays are: a wide color gamut with very saturated colors, very high brightness operation without damage to the emitters, long lifetimes ...


Multiple View Geometry For Video Analysis And Post-Production, Xiaochun Cao Jan 2006

Multiple View Geometry For Video Analysis And Post-Production, Xiaochun Cao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multiple view geometry is the foundation of an important class of computer vision techniques for simultaneous recovery of camera motion and scene structure from a set of images. There are numerous important applications in this area. Examples include video post-production, scene reconstruction, registration, surveillance, tracking, and segmentation. In video post-production, which is the topic being addressed in this dissertation, computer analysis of the motion of the camera can replace the currently used manual methods for correctly aligning an artificially inserted object in a scene. However, existing single view methods typically require multiple vanishing points, and therefore would fail when only ...


Video Content Extraction: Scene Segmentation, Linking And Attention Detection, Yun Zhai Jan 2006

Video Content Extraction: Scene Segmentation, Linking And Attention Detection, Yun Zhai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this fast paced digital age, a vast amount of videos are produced every day, such as movies, TV programs, personal home videos, surveillance video, etc. This places a high demand for effective video data analysis and management techniques. In this dissertation, we have developed new techniques for segmentation, linking and understanding of video scenes. Firstly, we have developed a video scene segmentation framework that segments the video content into story units. Then, a linking method is designed to find the semantic correlation between video scenes/stories. Finally, to better understand the video content, we have developed a spatiotemporal attention ...


Collaboration Enforcement In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Ning Jiang Jan 2006

Collaboration Enforcement In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Ning Jiang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) have attracted great research interest in recent years. Among many issues, lack of motivation for participating nodes to collaborate forms a major obstacle to the adoption of MANETs. Many contemporary collaboration enforcement techniques employ reputation mechanisms for nodes to avoid and penalize malicious participants. Reputation information is propagated among participants and updated based on complicated trust relationships to thwart false accusation of benign nodes. The aforementioned strategy suffers from low scalability and is likely to be exploited by adversaries. To address these problems, we first propose a finite state model. With this technique, no reputation ...


On Modeling Hiv Infection Of Cd4+ T Cells, Amy Comerford Jan 2006

On Modeling Hiv Infection Of Cd4+ T Cells, Amy Comerford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We examine an early model for the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T cells in vivo and define possible parameters and effects of said parameters on the model. We then examine a newer, more simplified model for the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T cells that also considers four populations: uninfected T cells, latently infected T cells, actively infected T cells, and free virus. The stability of both the disease free steady state and the endemically infected steady state are examined utilizing standard methods and the Routh-Hurwitz criteria. We show that if N, the number of infectious virions produced per ...


Frames In Hilbert C*-Modules, Wu Jing Jan 2006

Frames In Hilbert C*-Modules, Wu Jing

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the discovery in the early 1950's, frames have emerged as an important tool in signal processing, image processing, data compression and sampling theory etc. Today, powerful tools from operator theory and Banach space theory are being introduced to the study of frames producing deep results in frame theory. In recent years, many mathematicians generalized the frame theory from Hilbert spaces to Hilbert C*-modules and got significant results which enrich the theory of frames. Also there is growing evidence that Hilbert C*-modules theory and the theory of wavelets and frames are tightly related to each other in ...


On The Use Of Gaussian Filter Functions For Adaptive Optics, Merfit Assad Jan 2006

On The Use Of Gaussian Filter Functions For Adaptive Optics, Merfit Assad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For adaptive optic systems, the use of aperture filter functions calculated using various Zernike modes can be useful in removing lower-order aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence. Traditionally, these filter functions are calculated using the step function depicting a hard aperture that introduces integrals that are sometimes difficult to integrate and must be done numerically. The Gaussian method can be used in place of the conventional method for calculating the aperture filter functions. Evaluation of the Gaussian approximation for modeling a finite receiver aperture can be made by comparison of reduction in phase variance with results achieved using the conventional method ...


New Developments On High-Resolution Luminescence Spectroscopy And Their Application To The Direct Analysis Of Organic Pollutants, Shenjiang Yu Jan 2006

New Developments On High-Resolution Luminescence Spectroscopy And Their Application To The Direct Analysis Of Organic Pollutants, Shenjiang Yu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which comprise a complex class of condensed multi-ring benzenoid compounds, are important environmental pollutants originating from a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. PACs are generally formed during incomplete combustion of pyrolisis of organic matter containing carbon and hydrogen. Because combustion of organic materials is involved in countless natural processes or human activities, PACs are omnipresent and abundant pollutants in air, soil, and water. Chemical analysis of PACs is of great environmental and toxicological importance. Many of them are highly suspect as etiological agents in human cancer. Because PACs carcinogenic properties strongly depend on molecular ...


Algorithms For Haplotype Inference And Block Partitioning, Satya Ravi Vijaya Jan 2006

Algorithms For Haplotype Inference And Block Partitioning, Satya Ravi Vijaya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The completion of the human genome project in 2003 paved the way for studies to better understand and catalog variation in the human genome. The International HapMap Project was started in 2002 with the aim of identifying genetic variation in the human genome and studying the distribution of genetic variation across populations of individuals. The information collected by the HapMap project will enable researchers in associating genetic variations with phenotypic variations. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are loci in the genome where two individuals differ in a single base. It is estimated that there are approximately ten million SNPs in the ...


Improving Routing Efficiency, Fairness, Differentiated Servises And Throughput In Optical Networks, Bin Zhou Jan 2006

Improving Routing Efficiency, Fairness, Differentiated Servises And Throughput In Optical Networks, Bin Zhou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical networks are rapidly becoming the technology of choice in next-generation Internet architectures. This dissertation addresses the important issues of improving four aspects of optical networks, namely, routing efficiency, fairness, differentiated quality of service (QoS) and throughput. A new approach for implementing efficient routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks is proposed and evaluated. In this approach, the state of a multiple-fiber link is represented by a compact bitmap computed as the logical union of the bitmaps of the free wavelengths in the fibers of this link. A modified Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a ...


Truly Non Invasive Glucose Optical Sensor Based On Metal Nanoparticles Generation, Marisol Garcia Jan 2006

Truly Non Invasive Glucose Optical Sensor Based On Metal Nanoparticles Generation, Marisol Garcia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes is a disease that causes many complications in human normal function. This disease represents the sixth-leading cause of death in USA. Prevention of diabetes-related complications can be accomplished through tight control of glucose levels in blood. In the last decades many different glucose sensors have been developed, however, none of them are really non invasive. Herein, we present the study of the application of gold and silver nanoparticles with different shapes and aspect ratios to detect glucose traces in human fluids such as tears and sweat. This is to our knowledge the first truly non invasive glucose optical sensor ...


Raman Spectroscopy Of Glasseswith High And Broad Raman Gain In The Boson Peak Region, Yu Guo Jan 2006

Raman Spectroscopy Of Glasseswith High And Broad Raman Gain In The Boson Peak Region, Yu Guo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates Raman spectra of novel glasses and their correlation with structure for Raman gain applications. Raman gain for all-optical amplification by fibers depends significantly on the cross section for spontaneous Raman scattering allowing to compare signal strength and spectral coverage. We also investigate the relationship between glass structure and the Boson peak (enhancement of the low-frequency vibrational density of states) and report new inelastic neutron scattering spectra for niobium-phosphate glasses. Polarization resolved Raman spectra of glasses based on tellurite and phosphate formers have been measured from 6 – 1500 cm-1 using an excitation wavelength of 514 nm. The Tellurite ...


Near-Infrared Observations Of Comet-Asteroid Transition Objects, Julie Elaine Ziffer Jan 2006

Near-Infrared Observations Of Comet-Asteroid Transition Objects, Julie Elaine Ziffer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this research is to characterize the surface composition of five comet-asteroid transition objects via near-infrared spectroscopy. The five targets include two asteroids with Tisserand invariants lower than 3.0 (1373 Cincinnati and 2906 Caltech), one asteroid that is likely an extinct comet (944 Hidalgo), one intermittent activity comet (162P/Siding Spring), and one nearly dormant comet (28P/Neujmin1). Previous research regarding cometary end states and dynamical and physical properties of comets and asteroids provides the foundation for this work. Focusing primarily on the 1-2.5 µm spectral region of the five target objects, this project specifically ...


Experimental Analysis And Evaluation Of Tidy Tree Drawing Algorithms, Pankaj Mahajan Jan 2006

Experimental Analysis And Evaluation Of Tidy Tree Drawing Algorithms, Pankaj Mahajan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tree Drawings have been used extensively in software engineering and many other business and computer applications. The basic structure of a tree allows for the organization and representation of complex information. Many commercial tools allow their users to draw or construct trees to represent a problem and/or its solution. Our focus is on dynamic trees - trees subject to frequent changes and redisplay in highly user-friendly interactive computer applications. Tree presentations in such interactive tools have to be precise and maintainable, which means, the tree presentations should maintain a particular structure so that user's mental perception of the tree ...


A Sparse Program Dependence Graph For Object Oriented Programming Languages, Keith Garfield Jan 2006

A Sparse Program Dependence Graph For Object Oriented Programming Languages, Keith Garfield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Program Dependence Graph (PDG) has achieved widespread acceptance as a useful tool for software engineering, program analysis, and automated compiler optimizations. This thesis presents the Sparse Object Oriented Program Dependence Graph (SOOPDG), a formalism that contains elements of traditional PDG's adapted to compactly represent programs written in object-oriented languages such as Java. This formalism is called sparse because, in contrast to other OO and Java-specific adaptations of PDG's, it introduces few node types and no new edge types beyond those used in traditional dependence-based representations. This results in correct program representations using smaller graph structures and simpler ...


Three-Photon Absorption Process In Organic Dyes Enhanced By Surface Plasmon Resonance, Ion Cohanoschi Jan 2006

Three-Photon Absorption Process In Organic Dyes Enhanced By Surface Plasmon Resonance, Ion Cohanoschi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of σ3' are small (10-81 ...


Additive Lithography Fabrication And Integration Of Micro Optics, Mahesh Pitchumani Jan 2006

Additive Lithography Fabrication And Integration Of Micro Optics, Mahesh Pitchumani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical elements are the fundamental components in photonic systems and are used to transform an input optical beam into a desired beam profile or to couple the input beam into waveguides, fibers, or other optical systems or devices. Macroscopic optical elements are easily fabricated using grinding and polishing techniques, but few methods exist for inexpensive fabrication of micro optical elements. In this work we present an innovative technique termed Additive Lithography that makes use of binary masks and controlled partial exposures to sculpt photoresist into the desired optical surface relief profile. We explore various masking schemes for fabricating a variety ...


Radiation Studies Of The Tin-Doped Microscopic Droplet Laser Plasma Light Source Specific To Euv Lithography, Chiew-Seng Koay Jan 2006

Radiation Studies Of The Tin-Doped Microscopic Droplet Laser Plasma Light Source Specific To Euv Lithography, Chiew-Seng Koay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extreme ultraviolet lithography(EUVL) is being developed worldwide as the next generation technology to be inserted in ~ 2009 for the mass production of IC chips with feature sizes <35 nm. One major challenge to its implementation is the development of a 13.5 nm EUV source of radiation that meets the requirements of current roadmap designs of the source of illumination in commercial EUVL scanners. The light source must be debris-free, in a free-space environment with the imaging EUV optics that must provide sufficient, narrow spectral band EUV power to print 100 wafers/hr. To meet this need, extensive studies on emission from a laser plasma source utilizing tin-doped droplet target was conducted. Presented in this work, are the many optical techniques such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and imaging, that were employed to characterize and optimize emission from the laser plasma source State of the art EUV spectrographs were employed to observe the source's spectrum under various laser irradiation conditions. Comparing the experimental spectra to those from theory, has allowed the determination of the Sn ion stages responsible for emitting into the useful EUV bandwidth. Experimental results were compared to spectral simulations obtained using Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium (CRE) model, as well. Moreover, extensive measurements surveying source emission from 2 nm to 30 nm, which is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as EUV, was accomplished. Absolutely calibrated metrology was employed with the Flying Circus instrument from which the source's conversion efficiency (CE)--from laser to the useful EUV energy--was characterized under various laser irradiation conditions. Hydrodynamic simulations of the plasma expansion together with the CRE model predicted the condition at which optimum conversion could be attained. The condition was demonstrated experimentally, with the highest CE to be slightly above 2%, which is the highest value among all EUV source contenders. In addition to laser intensity, the CE was found to depend on the laser wavelength. For better understanding, this observation is compared to results from simulations. Through a novel approach in imaging, the size of the plasma was characterized by recording images of the plasma within a narrow band, around 13.5 nm. The size, approximately 100 ìm, is safely within the etendue limit set by the optical elements in the EUV scanner. Finally, the notion of irradiating the target with multiple laser beams was explored for the possibility of improving the source's conversion efficiency.