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Synchronization In Advanced Optical Communications, Inwoong Kim Jan 2006

Synchronization In Advanced Optical Communications, Inwoong Kim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to generate high power ultrashort optical pulses from an all-semiconductor mode-locked laser system. The limitations of semiconductor optical amplifier in high energy, ultrashort pulse amplification are reviewed. A method to overcome the fundamental limit of small stored energy inside semiconductor optical amplifier called "eXtreme Chirped Pulse Amplification (X-CPA)" is proposed and studied theoretically and experimentally. The key benefits of the concept of X-CPA are addressed. Based on theoretical and experimental study, an all-semiconductor mode-locked X-CPA system consisting of a mode-locked master oscillator, an optical pulse pre-stretcher, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) pulse picker, an ...


Design And Characterization Of Noveldevices For New Generation Of Electrostaticdischarge (Esd) Protection Structures, Javier Salcedo Jan 2006

Design And Characterization Of Noveldevices For New Generation Of Electrostaticdischarge (Esd) Protection Structures, Javier Salcedo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The technology evolution and complexity of new circuit applications involve emerging reliability problems and even more sensitivity of integrated circuits (ICs) to electrostatic discharge (ESD)-induced damage. Regardless of the aggressive evolution in downscaling and subsequent improvement in applications' performance, ICs still should comply with minimum standards of ESD robustness in order to be commercially viable. Although the topic of ESD has received attention industry-wide, the design of robust protection structures and circuits remains challenging because ESD failure mechanisms continue to become more acute and design windows less flexible. The sensitivity of smaller devices, along with a limited understanding of ...


Heuristic 3d Reconstruction Of Irregular Spaced Lidar, Nicholas Shorter Jan 2006

Heuristic 3d Reconstruction Of Irregular Spaced Lidar, Nicholas Shorter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As more data sources have become abundantly available, an increased interest in 3D reconstruction has emerged in the image processing academic community. Applications for 3D reconstruction of urban and residential buildings consist of urban planning, network planning for mobile communication, tourism information systems, spatial analysis of air pollution and noise nuisance, microclimate investigations, and Geographical Information Systems (GISs). Previous, classical, 3D reconstruction algorithms solely utilized aerial photography. With the advent of LIDAR systems, current algorithms explore using captured LIDAR data as an additional feasible source of information for 3D reconstruction. Preprocessing techniques are proposed for the development of an autonomous ...


Integrated Inp Photonic Switches, Daniel May-Arrioja Jan 2006

Integrated Inp Photonic Switches, Daniel May-Arrioja

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photonic switches are becoming key components in advanced optical networks because of the large variety of applications that they can perform. One of the key advantages of photonic switches is that they redirect or convert light without having to make any optical to electronic conversions and vice versa, thus allowing networking functions to be lowered into the optical layer. InP-based switches are particularly attractive because of their small size, low electrical power consumption, and compatibility with integration of laser sources, photo-detectors, and electronic components. In this dissertation the development of integrated InP photonic switches using an area-selective zinc diffusion process ...


Sarp Net: A Secure, Anonymous, Reputation-Based, Peer-To-Peer Network, Sean Mondesire Jan 2006

Sarp Net: A Secure, Anonymous, Reputation-Based, Peer-To-Peer Network, Sean Mondesire

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the advent of Napster, the idea of peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures being applied to file-sharing applications has become popular, spawning other P2P networks like Gnutella, Morpheus, Kazaa, and BitTorrent. This growth in P2P development has nearly eradicated the idea of the traditional client-server structure in the file-sharing model, now placing emphasizes on faster query processing, deeper levels of decentralism, and methods to protect against copyright law violation. SARP Net is a secure, anonymous, decentralized, P2P overlay network that is designed to protect the activity of its users in its own file-sharing community. It is secure in the fact that public-key ...


Wide Viewing Angle Liquid Crystal Displays, Qi Hong Jan 2006

Wide Viewing Angle Liquid Crystal Displays, Qi Hong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, novel phase compensation technologies are applied to the designs of wide viewing angle and high transmittance liquid crystal displays. First, a design of wide viewing angle liquid crystal displays utilizing crossed linear polarizers is proposed. The designed multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal display predicts superb contrast ratio over wide viewing angles. Next, to increase the bright state transmittance while maintain the high contrast. Finally, to reduce the cost and improve the applicability of the broadband and wide-view circular polarizer, the device configuration of the broadband and wide-view circular polarizer is significantly simplified by the application of biaxial compensation ...


On The Use Of Variable Coherence In Inverse Scattering Problems, Erwan Baleine Jan 2006

On The Use Of Variable Coherence In Inverse Scattering Problems, Erwan Baleine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Even though most of the properties of optical fields, such as wavelength, polarization, wavefront curvature or angular spectrum, have been commonly manipulated in a variety of remote sensing procedures, controlling the degree of coherence of light did not find wide applications until recently. Since the emergence of optical coherence tomography, a growing number of scattering techniques have relied on temporal coherence gating which provides efficient target selectivity in a way achieved only by bulky short pulse measurements. The spatial counterpart of temporal coherence, however, has barely been exploited in sensing applications. This dissertation examines, in different scattering regimes, a variety ...


High Birefringence And Low Viscosity Liquid Crystals, Chien-Hui Wen Jan 2006

High Birefringence And Low Viscosity Liquid Crystals, Chien-Hui Wen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual- frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ~0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ~0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the ...


Analyis Of Airborne Microwave Polarimetric Radiometer Measurements In The Presence Of Dynamic Platform Attitude Errors, Jean Yves Kabore Jan 2006

Analyis Of Airborne Microwave Polarimetric Radiometer Measurements In The Presence Of Dynamic Platform Attitude Errors, Jean Yves Kabore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are numerous applications for airborne imaging systems in remote sensing, and this thesis deals with a new microwave polarimetric radiometer technique for inferring ocean surface wind direction [3, 5, 7]. This technique is based upon the anisotropy of the polarized ocean blackbody emissions at microwave frequencies relative to the azimuth angle between the microwave radiometer antenna "look" direction and the direction of the wind. Because of the weak wind direction signature, it is important that all systematic brightness temperature (Tb) errors be eliminated, especially those that vary with the radiometer antenna scan position (look direction). This can be accomplished ...


Up-Conversion In Rare-Earth Doped Micro-Particles Applied To New Emissive 2d Dislays, Anne Milliez Jan 2006

Up-Conversion In Rare-Earth Doped Micro-Particles Applied To New Emissive 2d Dislays, Anne Milliez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Up-conversion (UC) in rare-earth co-doped fluorides to convert diode laser light in the near infrared to red, green and blue visible light is applied to make possible high performance emissive displays. The infrared-to-visible UC in the materials we study is a sequential form of non-linear two photon absorption in which a strong absorbing constituent absorbs two low energy photons and transfers this energy to another constituent which emits visible light. Some of the UC emitters' most appealing characteristics for displays are: a wide color gamut with very saturated colors, very high brightness operation without damage to the emitters, long lifetimes ...


Hurricane Wind Retrieval Algorithm Development For An Airborne Conical Scanning Scatterometer, Santhosh Vasudevan Jan 2006

Hurricane Wind Retrieval Algorithm Development For An Airborne Conical Scanning Scatterometer, Santhosh Vasudevan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Reliable ocean wind vector measurements can be obtained using active microwave remote sensing (scatterometry) techniques. With the increase in the number of severe hurricanes making landfall in the United States, there is increased emphasis on operational monitoring of hurricane winds from aircraft. This thesis presents a data processing algorithm to provide real-time hurricane wind vector retrievals (wind speed and direction) from conically scanning airborne microwave scatterometer measurements of ocean surface backscatter. The algorithm is developed to best suit the specifications for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division's airborne scatterometer – Integrated Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler ...


A Third-Order Differential Steering Robot And Trajectory Generation In The Presence Of Moving Obstacles, Vatana An Jan 2006

A Third-Order Differential Steering Robot And Trajectory Generation In The Presence Of Moving Obstacles, Vatana An

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, four robots will be used to implement a collision-free trajectory planning/replanning algorithm. The existence of a chained form transformation so that the robot's model can be control in canonical form will be analyzed and proved. A trajectory generation for obstacles avoidance will be derived, simulated, and implemented. A specific PC based control algorithm will be developed. Chapter two describes two wheels differential drive robot modeling and existence of controllable canonical chained form. Chapter 3 describes criterion for avoiding dynamic objects, a feasible collision-free trajectory parameterization, and solution to steering velocity. Chapter 4 describes robot implementation ...


Debris Characterization And Mitigation Of Droplet Laser Plasma Sources For Euv Lithography, Kazutoshi Takenoshita Jan 2006

Debris Characterization And Mitigation Of Droplet Laser Plasma Sources For Euv Lithography, Kazutoshi Takenoshita

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a next generation lithographic techniques under development for fabricating semiconductor devices with feature sizes smaller than 32 nm. The optics to be used in the EUVL steppers is reflective optics with multilayer mirror coatings on each surface. The wavelength of choice is 13.5 nm determined by the optimum reflectivity of the mirror coatings. The light source required for this wavelength is derived from a hot-dense plasma produced by either a gas discharge or a laser. This study concentrate only on the laser produced plasma source because of its advantages of scalability to higher repetition ...


An Improved Microwave Radiative Transfer Model For Ocean Emissivity At Hurricane Force Surface Wind Speed, Salem El-Nimri Jan 2006

An Improved Microwave Radiative Transfer Model For Ocean Emissivity At Hurricane Force Surface Wind Speed, Salem El-Nimri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An electromagnetic model for predicting the microwave blackbody emission from the ocean surface under the forcing of strong surface winds in hurricanes is being developed. This ocean emissivity model will be incorporated into a larger radiative transfer model used to infer ocean surface wind speed and rain rate in hurricanes from remotely sensed radiometric brightness temperature. The model development is based on measurements obtained with the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which routinely flys on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's hurricane hunter aircraft. This thesis presents the methods used in the wind speed model development and validation results ...


Prediction And Measurement Of Radiated Emissions Based On Empirical Time Domain Conducted Measurements, Larry Freeman Jan 2006

Prediction And Measurement Of Radiated Emissions Based On Empirical Time Domain Conducted Measurements, Larry Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis develops a novel method to predict radiated emissions measurements. The techniques used are based on standard Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) qualification test methods. The empirical data used to formulate the final results was restricted to pertinent data protocol waveforms however the entire method may be applied to any waveforms for which empirical radiated emissions have been measured. The method provides a concise means for predicting worst case radiated emissions profiles based on empirical measured data.


On-Chip Spiral Inductor/Transformer Design And Modeling For Rf Applications, Ji Chen Jan 2006

On-Chip Spiral Inductor/Transformer Design And Modeling For Rf Applications, Ji Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Passive components are indispensable in the design and development of microchips for high-frequency applications. Inductors in particular are used frequently in radio frequency (RF) IC's such as low-noise amplifiers and oscillators. High performance inductor has become one of the critical components for voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) design, for its quality factor (Q) value directly affects the VCO phase noise. The optimization of inductor layout can improve its performance, but the improvement is limited by selected technology. Inductor performance is bounded by the thin routing metal and small distance from lossy substrate. On the other hand, the in-accurate inductor modeling ...


High Slew Rate High-Efficiency Dc-Dc Converter, Xiangcheng Wang Jan 2006

High Slew Rate High-Efficiency Dc-Dc Converter, Xiangcheng Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Active transient voltage compensator (ATVC) has been proposed to improve VR transient response at high slew rate load, which engages in transient periods operating in MHZ to inject high slew rate current in step up load and recovers energy in step down load. Main VR operates in low switching frequency mainly providing DC current. Parallel ATVC has largely reduced conduction and switching losses. Parallel ATVC also reduces the number of VR bulk capacitors. Combined linear and adaptive nonlinear control has been proposed to reduce delay times in the actual controller, which injects one nonlinear signal in transient periods and simplifies ...


Chemical And Biological Treatment Of Mature Landfill Leachate, Eyad Batarseh Jan 2006

Chemical And Biological Treatment Of Mature Landfill Leachate, Eyad Batarseh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The challenges imposed on Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM) become difficult to be achieved with the conventional multiphase buck converter commonly used on PC motherboards. For faster data transfer, a decrease in the output voltage is needed. This decrease causes small duty cycle that is accompanied by critical problems which impairs the efficiency. Therefore, these problems need to be addressed. Transformer-based non-isolated topologies are not new approaches to extend the duty cycle and avoid the associated drawbacks. High leakage, several added components and complicated driving and control schemes are some of the trade-offs to expand the duty cycle. The objective of ...


Three-Photon Absorption Process In Organic Dyes Enhanced By Surface Plasmon Resonance, Ion Cohanoschi Jan 2006

Three-Photon Absorption Process In Organic Dyes Enhanced By Surface Plasmon Resonance, Ion Cohanoschi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of σ3' are small (10-81 ...


Additive Lithography Fabrication And Integration Of Micro Optics, Mahesh Pitchumani Jan 2006

Additive Lithography Fabrication And Integration Of Micro Optics, Mahesh Pitchumani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical elements are the fundamental components in photonic systems and are used to transform an input optical beam into a desired beam profile or to couple the input beam into waveguides, fibers, or other optical systems or devices. Macroscopic optical elements are easily fabricated using grinding and polishing techniques, but few methods exist for inexpensive fabrication of micro optical elements. In this work we present an innovative technique termed Additive Lithography that makes use of binary masks and controlled partial exposures to sculpt photoresist into the desired optical surface relief profile. We explore various masking schemes for fabricating a variety ...


Radiation Studies Of The Tin-Doped Microscopic Droplet Laser Plasma Light Source Specific To Euv Lithography, Chiew-Seng Koay Jan 2006

Radiation Studies Of The Tin-Doped Microscopic Droplet Laser Plasma Light Source Specific To Euv Lithography, Chiew-Seng Koay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extreme ultraviolet lithography(EUVL) is being developed worldwide as the next generation technology to be inserted in ~ 2009 for the mass production of IC chips with feature sizes <35 nm. One major challenge to its implementation is the development of a 13.5 nm EUV source of radiation that meets the requirements of current roadmap designs of the source of illumination in commercial EUVL scanners. The light source must be debris-free, in a free-space environment with the imaging EUV optics that must provide sufficient, narrow spectral band EUV power to print 100 wafers/hr. To meet this need, extensive studies on emission from a laser plasma source utilizing tin-doped droplet target was conducted. Presented in this work, are the many optical techniques such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and imaging, that were employed to characterize and optimize emission from the laser plasma source State of the art EUV spectrographs were employed to observe the source's spectrum under various laser irradiation conditions. Comparing the experimental spectra to those from theory, has allowed the determination of the Sn ion stages responsible for emitting into the useful EUV bandwidth. Experimental results were compared to spectral simulations obtained using Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium (CRE) model, as well. Moreover, extensive measurements surveying source emission from 2 nm to 30 nm, which is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as EUV, was accomplished. Absolutely calibrated metrology was employed with the Flying Circus instrument from which the source's conversion efficiency (CE)--from laser to the useful EUV energy--was characterized under various laser irradiation conditions. Hydrodynamic simulations of the plasma expansion together with the CRE model predicted the condition at which optimum conversion could be attained. The condition was demonstrated experimentally, with the highest CE to be slightly above 2%, which is the highest value among all EUV source contenders. In addition to laser intensity, the CE was found to depend on the laser wavelength. For better understanding, this observation is compared to results from simulations. Through a novel approach in imaging, the size of the plasma was characterized by recording images of the plasma within a narrow band, around 13.5 nm. The size, approximately 100 ìm, is safely within the etendue limit set by the optical elements in the EUV scanner. Finally, the notion of irradiating the target with multiple laser beams was explored for the possibility of improving the source's conversion efficiency.


Dsp Implementation Of Dc Voltage Regulation Using Adaptive Control For 200 Kw 62000 Rpm Induction Generator, Othman Elkhomri Jan 2006

Dsp Implementation Of Dc Voltage Regulation Using Adaptive Control For 200 Kw 62000 Rpm Induction Generator, Othman Elkhomri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The thesis discusses the development of closed loop system to control the DC voltage for 200 kW induction generator rated at a speed of 62000 RPM under different load conditions. The voltage regulation has been implemented using PI controller. A gain scheduling control algorithm has been developed to select the appropriate controller gains with respect to the generator load. Further, a relationship between the generator loads and the controller gains has been established. This relationship has been modeled using adaptive control technique to vary the gains automatically at any load condition. The adaptive control technique has been successfully generalized for ...


Integrated Wavelength Stabilization Of Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers Using A Dual Grating Reflector, Jason O'Daniel Jan 2006

Integrated Wavelength Stabilization Of Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers Using A Dual Grating Reflector, Jason O'Daniel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A new fully integrated wavelength stabilization scheme based on grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers is explored. This wavelength stabilization scheme relies on two gratings. The first grating is fabricated on the p-side of the semiconductor laser in close proximity to the laser waveguide such that it couples light out of the guided mode of the waveguide into a propagating mode in the substrate; this grating is known as the grating coupler. The second grating is fabricated on the n-side of the substrate such that for the stabilization wavelength, this second grating operates in the Littrow condition and is known as the feedback ...


Applications Of Linear And Nonlinear Optical Effects In Liquid Crystals, Hakob Sarkissian Jan 2006

Applications Of Linear And Nonlinear Optical Effects In Liquid Crystals, Hakob Sarkissian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liquid crystals have been a major subject of research for the past decades. Aside from the variety of structures they can form, they exhibit a vast range of optical phenomena. Many of these phenomena found applications in technology and became an essential part of it. In this dissertation thesis we continue the line to propose a number of new applications of optical effects in liquid crystals and develop their theoretical framework. One such application is the possibility of beam combining using Orientational Stimulated Scattering in a nematic liquid crystal cell. Our numerical study of the OSS process shows that normally ...


External Cavity Multiwavelength Semiconductor Mode-Locked Laser Gain Dynamics, Luis Archundia-Berra Jan 2006

External Cavity Multiwavelength Semiconductor Mode-Locked Laser Gain Dynamics, Luis Archundia-Berra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

External cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers can produce pulses of a few picoseconds. The pulses from these lasers are inherently chirped with a predominant linear chirp component that can be compensated resulting in sub-picosecond pulses. External cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers can be configured as multiwavelength pulse sources and are good candidates for time and wavelength division multiplexing applications. The gain medium in external cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers is a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), and passive and hybrid mode-locked operation are achieved by the introduction of a saturable absorber (SA) in the laser cavity. Pump-probe techniques were used to measure the intracavity ...


Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-Paraxial Scalar Diffraction, Andrey Krywonos Jan 2006

Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-Paraxial Scalar Diffraction, Andrey Krywonos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Scattering effects from rough surfaces are non-paraxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected wavefront. The ability to predict these effects is important in a variety of applications including x-ray and EUV imaging, the design of stray light rejection systems, and reflection modeling for rendering realistic scenes and animations of physical objects in computer graphics. Rayleigh-Rice (small perturbation method) and Beckmann-Kirchoff (Kirchhoff approximation) theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. In addition, Harvey and Shack developed a linear systems formulation of surface scatter phenomena in which the scattering behavior is characterized by a surface transfer ...


Prototype Of Coupling Unit Network For Power Line Communications, Bharath Srinivasan Jan 2006

Prototype Of Coupling Unit Network For Power Line Communications, Bharath Srinivasan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Power Line Communications has made impressive strides since its introduction. Power Line Communications (PLC) or Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) is the method of transmitting broadband signals over the power lines and making it available at the power outlet in homes. It provides last mile communication and makes use of existing power lines to transmit signals, thereby eliminating the need to lay cables all over again. PLC is fast becoming a commercial reality in the United States. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is working toward making PLC a standard with particular emphasis on power emission issues and interference with nearby ...


Pipelining Of Double Precision Floating Point Division And Square Root Operations On Field-Programmable Gate Arrays, Anuja Thakkar Jan 2006

Pipelining Of Double Precision Floating Point Division And Square Root Operations On Field-Programmable Gate Arrays, Anuja Thakkar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many space applications, such as vision-based systems, synthetic aperture radar, and radar altimetry rely increasingly on high data rate DSP algorithms. These algorithms use double precision floating point arithmetic operations. While most DSP applications can be executed on DSP processors, the DSP numerical requirements of these new space applications surpass by far the numerical capabilities of many current DSP processors. Since the tradition in DSP processing has been to use fixed point number representation, only recently have DSP processors begun to incorporate floating point arithmetic units, even though most of these units handle only single precision floating point addition/subtraction ...


Propagation Effect In Inhomogeneous Media, Including Media With Light-Induced And Fixed Gratings, Chang-Ching Tsai Jan 2006

Propagation Effect In Inhomogeneous Media, Including Media With Light-Induced And Fixed Gratings, Chang-Ching Tsai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical waves propagation in various types of volume gratings, materials with constant impendence and optical fibers are studied. Instability of cross–phase modulation and of Energy transfer via GRON-type (Grating-type Orientational Nonlinearity in Liquid Crystal) Stimulated Scattering is numerically observed. Two diffractive optical elements made of volume gratings are suggested and analyzed. A transmission hologram based on the analogy with Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) in nonlinear optics is proposed. This transmission hologram demonstrates high diffraction efficiency and low sensitivity to polarization and hologram strength. The other is a reflection hologram with two crossed-gratings. It features good angular selectivity in ...


Direct Nonlinear Optics Measurements Of Raman Gain In Bulk Glasses And Estimates Of Fiber Performance, Robert Stegeman Jan 2006

Direct Nonlinear Optics Measurements Of Raman Gain In Bulk Glasses And Estimates Of Fiber Performance, Robert Stegeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The need for more bandwidth in communications has stimulated the search for new fiberizable materials with properties superior to fused silica which is the current state-of-the-art. One of the key properties is Raman gain by which a pump beam amplifies a signal beam of longer wavelength. An apparatus capable of directly measuring the spectral dependence and absolute magnitude of the material Raman gain coefficient using nonlinear optics techniques has been built. Using radiation from a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser as the pump and from a tunable Optical Parametric Generator and Amplifier as the signal, the Raman gain spectrum was ...