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A Comparison Of Bioaccumulation And Digestive Enzyme Solubilization Of Copper In Two Species Of Sea Cucumbers With Different Feeding Habits., John W. Bundridge Dec 2003

A Comparison Of Bioaccumulation And Digestive Enzyme Solubilization Of Copper In Two Species Of Sea Cucumbers With Different Feeding Habits., John W. Bundridge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The mode of feeding exhibited by different organisms may influence the form or quantity of copper that is bioaccumulated. This hypothesis has been tested by exposing 2 species of sea cucumbers, Pentacta anceps and Stichopus chloronotus, which possess different feeding modes, to varying concentrations of copper.

The digestive tract and body wall were dissected and analyzed for copper concentration using atomic absorption spectroscopy. A trend was present, exhibiting a small dose dependent curve. The results did not show a significant difference between species or treatments. This study indicates that feeding mode may influence the amount of copper accumulated but it ...


The Osteogenic Effects Of 12 Weeks Of Oral Supplementation Of Androstenedione In Middle-Aged Men., Troy Matthew Wills Dec 2003

The Osteogenic Effects Of 12 Weeks Of Oral Supplementation Of Androstenedione In Middle-Aged Men., Troy Matthew Wills

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent evidence suggests that declining bone mineral density (BMD) in males is related to declining circulating estrogens. The majority of endogenous plasma estrogens in males result from peripheral aromatization of plasma androgens. Thus, it was hypothesized that dietary supplementation with an aromatizable androgen (androstenedione) may stimulate increases in BMD.

BMD (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (1, 25 OH2 Vitamin D, calcitonin, deoxypyrodinoline, and parathyroid hormone) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of dietary androstenedione supplementation (200 mg/d). Twenty-four volunteers were randomized into either an androstenedione supplementation or placebo groups. Study volunteers ...


The Effects Of Neoprene Sleeve Application On Knee Joint Proprioception In Adolescent Female Athletes., George Ballou Barrett Dec 2003

The Effects Of Neoprene Sleeve Application On Knee Joint Proprioception In Adolescent Female Athletes., George Ballou Barrett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fifteen female subjects ages 13-16 were recruited to determine if differences exist in knee joint proprioception, with and without application of a neoprene knee sleeve (NKS), when performing reproduction of target angle test (RTA), movement sensation test (MS) using a Biodex testing machine, and single leg standing test. Ten subjects had not worn a NKS and five subjects had worn a NKS.

After completing all IRB approved documentation subjects underwent a test trial of each of the three testing methods. Subjects were randomly assigned a number that determined if the subject began the test trial with or without a NKS ...


Attitudes And Motivational Factors For Participation In The Becoming An Outdoors-Woman (Bow) Program, Katherine Crippens Dec 2003

Attitudes And Motivational Factors For Participation In The Becoming An Outdoors-Woman (Bow) Program, Katherine Crippens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Women participating in Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program workshops were surveyed as to their attitudes, interests, and participation in outdoor recreation activities. The survey, administered to 265 women between October 2002 and June 2003, examined demographic characteristics, motivational factors for participation, similarities and differences between firsttime and returning participants, and their change in recreational behavior after the workshops. The study identified most BOW participants as urban, white, 45 - 50 years of age, highly educated and with a high household income. Most have maintained a long-term relationship, but have no children in the household. The participants had a wide range of ...


The Potential For Carbon Sequestration In Soils On Lignite Coal Minelands In East Texas, Cynthia Blake Dec 2003

The Potential For Carbon Sequestration In Soils On Lignite Coal Minelands In East Texas, Cynthia Blake

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global warming is becoming an ever-important topic in the world today. In 1998, it was estimated that 40.5 % of U.S. anthropogenic CO2 emissions was attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels during the generation of electricity (U.S. Department of Energy 2000a). In an attempt to mitigate emissions, electric utility companies have become interested in the potential of forests to sequester large amounts of carbon in their above- and below-ground biomass as well as in the soils. It has been estimated that if the world's deforested lands were reforested and properly managed, they could have the potential ...


Specific Dynamic Action, Growth And Development In Larval Atlantic Cod, Gadus Morhua, Jessica A. Geubtner Dec 2003

Specific Dynamic Action, Growth And Development In Larval Atlantic Cod, Gadus Morhua, Jessica A. Geubtner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The larval stage of marine fish is a period of rapid growth and development. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are approximately 4-5 rnm in length upon hatch and feed endogenously from their yolk sac for the first week. After this time, larval cod must successfully capture live prey to survive and to fuel high growth rates of greater than 10%d". Previous studies have found that during exogenous feeding and at growth rates greater than 8%d1 larvae experience what appears to be cost free growth, where mass specific metabolic rate does not decrease with increasing mass. Due to size and ...


Analysis Of The Spatial Dynamics Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus) Fishery Along The Coast Of Maine, Kevin M. Scheirer Dec 2003

Analysis Of The Spatial Dynamics Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus) Fishery Along The Coast Of Maine, Kevin M. Scheirer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American lobster (Homarus americanus) supports the most valuable commercial fishery in the northeastern United States, thus the fishery is critical to Maine's economy. No systematic study has been done to collect information about, identify, and quantify the spatial dynamics of the Maine lobster fishery. This project helps to provide a better understanding of Maine's lobster fishery dynamics, and it will aid f'iture efforts to improve the stock assessment of Maine's lobster fishery. The analysis consists of three distinct parts: (1) comparison of data collected by two separate fishery dependent sampling programs; (2) spatial analysis of ...


Hazardous Beach-System Development In Maine And Some Outcomes Of The Sand Dune Rules, Julia M. Knisel Dec 2003

Hazardous Beach-System Development In Maine And Some Outcomes Of The Sand Dune Rules, Julia M. Knisel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Damages to coastal property in southwestern Maine occur primarily as a result of storms, flooding, and erosion. Maine implemented the Sand Dune Rules in 1983 to protect sand dunes and mitigate coastal property damages. Prior to this study, no indicators of the outcome of these rules were identified or evaluated to determine the effectiveness of their implementation. Assessed building values (1987), National Flood Insurance Program claims and payments (1 978- l998), and sand dune permits (1 984- 1998) for development in Kennebunk and Saco, Maine were evaluated. A geographic information system was created to determine if (1) development on or ...


An Investigation Of The Cumulative Impacts Of Shrimp Trawling On Mud Bottom Fishing Grounds In The Gulf Of Maine: Effects On Habitat And Macrofaunal Community Structure, Anne W. Simpson Dec 2003

An Investigation Of The Cumulative Impacts Of Shrimp Trawling On Mud Bottom Fishing Grounds In The Gulf Of Maine: Effects On Habitat And Macrofaunal Community Structure, Anne W. Simpson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite the widespread occurrence of trawl fisheries on mud-bottoms, there is limited knowledge concerning the effects of trawling induced disturbance on these habitats and their resident macrofaunal communities. I investigated the cumulative impacts of seasonal commercial shrimp trawling on infaunal habitat and macrofaunal community structure on two mud-bottom fishing grounds in the Gulf of Maine from June 2000 - December 2001. One fishing ground located near the Outer Pumpkin Ledges (Pumpkin) experienced trawling activity during the 2000-2001 fishing season. In contrast, the other fishing ground near Monhegan Island was not trawled during the same period because shrimp abundances were low. Consequently ...


Structural And Kinetic Characterization Of Myoglobins From Eurythermal And Stenothermal Fish Species, Peter William Madden Dec 2003

Structural And Kinetic Characterization Of Myoglobins From Eurythermal And Stenothermal Fish Species, Peter William Madden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teleost myoglobin (Mb) proteins from four fish species inhabiting different temperature environments were used to investigate the relationship between protein function and thermal stability. Mb was isolated from yellowfin tuna (homeothermal warm), mackerel (eurythermal warm), and the Antarctic teleost Notothenia coriiceps (stenothermal cold). Zebrafish (stenothermal tropical) myoglobin was expressed from cloned cDNA. N. coriiceps Mb cDNA has also been cloned, expressed at 20°C , and isolated from E. coli, but was not used in any of the functional and kinetic studies. These proteins differed in oxygen affinity, as measured by O2 dissociation rates and P50 values, and thermal ...


Molecular Characterization Of Zebrafish Interferon, Mx, And Mx Promoter, Stephen Altmann Dec 2003

Molecular Characterization Of Zebrafish Interferon, Mx, And Mx Promoter, Stephen Altmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Type I interferons (IFNs) represent a family of biological molecules whose antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory role is well known. IFNs were first identified in the 1950's and have since been used extensively for the treatment of various cancers, and viral infections. In order to more fully characterize the IFN response, it is often necessary to use animal models. Although the mouse has been used extensively for IFN studies, a lower order vertebrate model is also desirable, as it would provide information about the structure and function of a more ancestral IFN. To this end, herein is described the cloning ...


Can Dairy Manure Be Profitably Composted In Maine?, Anne Grant Dec 2003

Can Dairy Manure Be Profitably Composted In Maine?, Anne Grant

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Manure contains many important nutrients that are vital to the growth of crops. When this material is applied to fields in an inappropriate manner or in quantities too large for the soil to handle, this leads to pollution in the form of leaching and runoff, which causes contamination of ground and surface waters. An average cow produces one hundred pounds of manure per day (1 8 tons per year). Composted manure could provide farmers with a more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional manure management practices. A review of the composting literature determined that a wide variety of markets do exist ...


The Effect Of Whole Wild Blueberries On Endothelial Function Of The Sprague-Dawley Rat As Related To Cardiovascular Disease, Cynthia Ann Norton Dec 2003

The Effect Of Whole Wild Blueberries On Endothelial Function Of The Sprague-Dawley Rat As Related To Cardiovascular Disease, Cynthia Ann Norton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly fed three different diets (n=8 per group), a control diet (AIN '93) (C), a blueberry diet (B) for 13 weeks and a reverse diet (R)(C for 13 weeks, switched to B for 8 weeks). Aortae were excised, rings were prepared, and two intact and two denuded rings were immersed in tissue baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) at 37OC, aerated with 95% 0 2 and 5% CO2 (pH 7.4). Following equilibration and pre-conditioning under 1 Sgm preload, cumulative dose response curves were generated with six doses of the a-1 adrenergic receptor ...


Determination Of Residential-Use Turf Pesticides In Surface And Ground Water By Hplc/Dad, Danyun Zhu Dec 2003

Determination Of Residential-Use Turf Pesticides In Surface And Ground Water By Hplc/Dad, Danyun Zhu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A simple. relatively fast, and efficient method has been developed for the simultaneous detection of residual levels of the pesticides dithiopyr, fenoxaprop-1'-e~hyl, l~alofenozide, and oryzalin in surface and ground water. This method involves solid phase (SPE) extraction/clean-up of these pesticides from water, followed by detcction and quantification by a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with a photo diode array detector (DAD). The recoveries for dithiopyr, fenoxaprop-l'-c~I~yl. halofenozide, and oryzalin were performed by fortifying ground water from 0.1 ppb to 100 ppb, and surface water from 0.2 ppb to 100 ppb ...


The Role Of Larval Thermal Tolerance In The Distribution Of Blue Mussel Species Within The Gulf Of Maine, Susan J. Limbeck Dec 2003

The Role Of Larval Thermal Tolerance In The Distribution Of Blue Mussel Species Within The Gulf Of Maine, Susan J. Limbeck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two species of blue mussel, Myrilus edulis and Myrilus trossulus, are sympatric throughout much of the Canadian Maritime Provinces and into the Gulf of Maine. While the distribution of M edulis extends south to the Mid-Atlantic, that of M. trossulus ends abruptly in the Gulf of Maine. I have hypothesized that these differences in adult distribution are the result of species-specific variation in larval thermal tolerances. Previously, it has been shown that when reared at 20 OC, from 36 hour post-fertilization through settlement, M. trossulus had significantly higher mortality rates than M. edulis. This study examined whether species-specific differences in ...


A Comparison Of The Ecological Integrity Of Headwater Streams Draining Harvested And Un-Harvested Watersheds In The Western Mountains Of Maine, U.S.A., Darlene Siegel Dec 2003

A Comparison Of The Ecological Integrity Of Headwater Streams Draining Harvested And Un-Harvested Watersheds In The Western Mountains Of Maine, U.S.A., Darlene Siegel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of four headwater streams draining forested watersheds were compared to determine the effectiveness of Riparian Management Zones (RMZs) in protecting aquatic ecological integrity from the effects of forest harvesting. Two of the watersheds were harvested with a 30% sheltenvood cut and a 75 foot buffer was left adjacent to the streams. The other two watersheds were un-harvested and were used as reference conditions for comparison with the harvested watersheds. General environmental conditions in these four headwater streams during the study period were characterized as follows. Each stream was located within a mixed- wood forest dominated ...


Molecular Padlock Assay Of Crude Plant Leaf Extracts For Detection Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Allison L. Hurlburt Dec 2003

Molecular Padlock Assay Of Crude Plant Leaf Extracts For Detection Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Allison L. Hurlburt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A molecular padlock assay was developed and assessed for detection of Listeria monocytogenes that operated in crude plant extracts. The molecular padlock assay was developed by Liu et al. (1996) and modified by Lizardi et al. (1998). We further modified and described a padlock probe that detected L. monocytogenes oligonucleotide, cDNA and genomic DNA containing a 16s rRNA sequence (GenBank Acc. No. X56 153). This technique was effective in the presence of crude potato leaf extracts in contrast to PCR, which failed to detect the presence of L. monocytogenes targets in crude leaf extracts. Sensitivity of the padlock procedure was ...


Cloning And Sequencing Of Glucosyltransferase (Gt) Genes From Grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi) Seedlings, Searching For 7-O-Gt., Mebrahtu Berhane Sibhatu Aug 2003

Cloning And Sequencing Of Glucosyltransferase (Gt) Genes From Grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi) Seedlings, Searching For 7-O-Gt., Mebrahtu Berhane Sibhatu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids play crucial roles in plant life cycles and in human welfare. Grapefruit plants produce several glycosylated flavonoids and the glycosylation reactions are catalyzed by UDP-glucose: glucosyltransferases (GTs). Our objective was to use the SMART RACE RT-PCR strategy to obtain cDNA sequences of putative grapefruit flavonoid GTs. Gene specific primers were designed from the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG) box and used to amplify 5’GT clones. Clone-specific primers were designed from 5’clones to amplify 3’ GT clones. We obtained 5 5’ clones and 1 3’ clone as candidate GTs. We used 3 of these clones to predict 2 ...


Resilience Of Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis) Populations Following Fishing Mortality: Marine Protected Areas, Alternate Stable States, And Larval Ecology, John Vavrinec Iii Aug 2003

Resilience Of Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis) Populations Following Fishing Mortality: Marine Protected Areas, Alternate Stable States, And Larval Ecology, John Vavrinec Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis has been aggressively fished in Maine since 1986 resulting in severe population declines throughout portions of the state. This research used Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to evaluate the potential for recovery in depleted sea urchin populations. It was necessary to not only look at the direct impacts of the MPAs, but also at larval transport / supply and community interactions to gain a better understanding of the system. We found that MPAs in the Gulf of ~a!ne were of varied utility to restoring depleted sea urchin populations depending on location and community structure. MPAs ...


Susceptibility Of Adult Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa Decemlineata) To The Fungal Entomopathogen Beauveria Bassiana, Ellen Klinger Aug 2003

Susceptibility Of Adult Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa Decemlineata) To The Fungal Entomopathogen Beauveria Bassiana, Ellen Klinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Factors influencing the susceptibility of adult Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), to the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.), were studied. In an assay comparing trials between a): laboratory reared, non-diapausing beetles and b): field collected, post-diapausing beetles, survival of B. bassiana treated beetles was higher for non-diapausing adults, however, control mortality was higher for post-diapausing adults. In a similar assay with field collected pre- and post-diapausing beetles, survival of B. bassiana treated individuals was higher for post-diapause adults and control mortality was higher for post-diapausing adults than pre-diapausing beetles. In a third experiment, the effect of time from ...


Effects Of Fiberimatiux Interactions On The Interfacial Deformation Micromechanics Of Cellulose-Fiberipolymer Composites, William Tai-Yin Tze Aug 2003

Effects Of Fiberimatiux Interactions On The Interfacial Deformation Micromechanics Of Cellulose-Fiberipolymer Composites, William Tai-Yin Tze

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this dissertation was to gain an understanding of the relationship between interfacial chemistry and the micromechanics of the cellulose-fiber/polymer composites. Regenerated cellulose (lyocell) fibers were treated with amine-, phenylamine-, phenyl-, and octadecyl-silanes, and also styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer. Inverse gas chromatography was conducted to evaluate the modified surfaces and to examine the adsorption behavior of ethylbenzene, a model compound for polystyrene, onto the fibers. Micro-composites were formed by depositing micro-droplets of polystyrene onto single fibers. The fiber was subjected to a tensile strain, and Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the point-to-point variation of the strain- ...


Evaluating Attitudes Of Obesity And Their Change Processes Among Student Teachers And School Teachers On The World Wide Web Using The Elaboration Likelihood Model, Anne L. Hague Aug 2003

Evaluating Attitudes Of Obesity And Their Change Processes Among Student Teachers And School Teachers On The World Wide Web Using The Elaboration Likelihood Model, Anne L. Hague

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers have an active role in helping to prevent and deter stigmatizing acts toward children labeled as "fat." The objective was to examine attitudes of obesity and their change processes among student teachers and schoolteachers, when exposed to a Web-based educational module promoting size acceptance, using the Elaboration- Likelihood Model (ELM). The ELM is a theoretical approach to message-based persuasion specifying conditions under which attitude change occurs. The theory was used to explain the impact of the module (content included etiological factors of obesity, implications of weight loss efforts, and emotionaVpsychosocia1 effects of obesity), high nutrition credibility of the module ...


Hydroperiod Of Wetlands And Reproduction In Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) And Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Mary Beth Kolozsvary Aug 2003

Hydroperiod Of Wetlands And Reproduction In Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) And Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Mary Beth Kolozsvary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many amphibians rely on wetlands for reproduction and the differential distribution of amphibian species along a gradient of wetland permanence is striking, yet not absolute. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) are thought to rely on seasonal wetlands for greatest breeding success, but there is little documentation of their reliance on these or other habitats. In my first chapter, I studied these species in wetlands across a hydrologic gradient from seasonal wetlands of short flood duration to permanently flooded sites. My results indicate that wood frogs have greatest reproductive effort and success in seasonal wetlands of short ...


Host Defense Mechanisms In The Crayfish: The Effect Of Injection With Live Or Killed Bacteria., Kimberly R. Goins May 2003

Host Defense Mechanisms In The Crayfish: The Effect Of Injection With Live Or Killed Bacteria., Kimberly R. Goins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An increase in attachment of SRBCs to Procambarus clarkii hemocytes has been shown after the crayfish were injected with a live or killed Pseudomonas strain RS2b. The increase in attachment occurred at 8 hours post injection and peaked at 24 hours for both experimental groups. The population of hemocytes with receptors for LPS and mannose also increased at 8 hours post injection and peaked at 24 hours for both experimental groups. At 96 hours post injection the number of receptor bearing hemocytes and hemocytes bound to SRBCs began to decrease to the level of the control for both groups. The ...


Increasing Diabetes Awareness In Adolescents Through Educational Programs., Sandra J. Reese May 2003

Increasing Diabetes Awareness In Adolescents Through Educational Programs., Sandra J. Reese

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to increase knowledge of diabetes and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors to reduce diabetes onset in a community with a relatively high incidence of type 2 diabetes. Three hundred eighty seven students grades 7 – 12 participated in the program and taste test. Changes in knowledge before and after an educational program focusing on diabetes prevention were measured by comparison of identical pre, post, and retention tests. Students were also asked to name specific behaviors they could use to decrease the risk of diabetes. Responses were analyzed using Chi square analysis and content analysis. Overall, respondents ...


Fire, Soil, Native Species And Control Of Phalaris Arundinacea In A Wetland Recovery Project., Richard Douglas Foster May 2003

Fire, Soil, Native Species And Control Of Phalaris Arundinacea In A Wetland Recovery Project., Richard Douglas Foster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Southern Appalachian Phalaris arundinacea control was investigated by: 1) correlating cover and species richness with soil characteristics across transects; 2) burning and herbicide use to determine conditions facilitating native plant establishment; and 3) hemi-parasitic Pedicularis lanceolata tested as a biological control.

Phalaris cover was correlated with subsoil consolidation; areas without Phalaris had consolidated subsoil while Phalaris at >50% cover established on loose soil. Phalaris cover inhibited species richness (r2=0.78). No soil characteristic predicted species richness.

Herbicide reduced Phalaris cover and aerial biomass by 23% and 63% respectively, compared to controls. Burning was ineffective. Two summers after herbicide ...


Influence Of Firm Structure On Profitability In The U.S. Pulp And Paper Industry (1960-1998), Kanwar Muhammad Suleman May 2003

Influence Of Firm Structure On Profitability In The U.S. Pulp And Paper Industry (1960-1998), Kanwar Muhammad Suleman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study indicates that firm size, market share and equity/sales ratio are the principal factors contributing to the profitability (net income) of pulp and paper firms in the United States. Timberland ownership, exports, K-Factor (a measure of relative firm capacity), growth, new supply/real gross domestic product (RGDP) ratio and price index also influence the profitability of pulp and paper manufacturing firms. Market share, an index of the structure of the pulp and paper industry, is determined by a firm's size (assets) and net income. In addition, the number of a firm's production units, K-factor, whether the ...


Population Dynamics And Spatial Analysis Of The Maine Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis) Fishery, Robert C. Grabowski May 2003

Population Dynamics And Spatial Analysis Of The Maine Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis) Fishery, Robert C. Grabowski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fisheries research on the green sea urchin in Maine has been limited despite its importance to the state's fishing industry. The objective of this thesis was to generate critical information for the management and monitoring of the Maine green sea urchin fishery. In particular there are three main areas of interest: (1) an investigation of biological reference points; (2) spatial analysis and biomass estimation, and (3) the development of a simulation framework approach to determine an optimal sampling strategy for the fishery-independent survey program. Biological reference points are markers conlrnonly used to monitor and manage fisheries. For the Maine ...


The Use Of Acoustics To Resolve Nightly Excursions Of Hyperbenthos, Heather U. Abello May 2003

The Use Of Acoustics To Resolve Nightly Excursions Of Hyperbenthos, Heather U. Abello

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acoustic analysis of die1 vertical migration in the Darnariscotta River estuary, Maine, showed a fairly regular nightly increase in biovolume (mm3 m'3) of organisms in the water column, presumed to be due to emergence, the entry of hyperbenthic organisms into the water column. Timing of these events was significantly correlated with time of sunset and time of sunrise for more than 50% of the dates where emergence and re-entry could be identified, between June and October 2002. Emergence traps indicate that the mysid shrimp, Neomysis americana, is the predominant migrator. Daily fluctuations in irradiance influence the timing of emergence ...


Vaccines For Infection Salmon Anemia Virus, Nathan Edward Charles Brown May 2003

Vaccines For Infection Salmon Anemia Virus, Nathan Edward Charles Brown

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus is an emerging pathogen of fanned Atlantic salmon. Due to the massive economic losses inflicted by the ISA virus, effective measures to control future outbreaks are necessary. An attractive method for preventing ISA virus from infecting stocks of Atlantic salmon is vaccination. DNA vaccination is a proven cheap, effective means of protecting fish from aquatic viruses. In this thesis DNA vaccination of Atlantic salmon was investigated. Three different strains of ISA virus were cultured and purified by density gradient ultracentrifugation. ISA virus RNA was isolated and used to amplify full-length cDNAs of five ISA virus ...