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Attitudes And Motivational Factors For Participation In The Becoming An Outdoors-Woman (Bow) Program, Katherine Crippens Dec 2003

Attitudes And Motivational Factors For Participation In The Becoming An Outdoors-Woman (Bow) Program, Katherine Crippens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Women participating in Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program workshops were surveyed as to their attitudes, interests, and participation in outdoor recreation activities. The survey, administered to 265 women between October 2002 and June 2003, examined demographic characteristics, motivational factors for participation, similarities and differences between firsttime and returning participants, and their change in recreational behavior after the workshops. The study identified most BOW participants as urban, white, 45 - 50 years of age, highly educated and with a high household income. Most have maintained a long-term relationship, but have no children in the household. The participants had a wide range of ...


The Potential For Carbon Sequestration In Soils On Lignite Coal Minelands In East Texas, Cynthia Blake Dec 2003

The Potential For Carbon Sequestration In Soils On Lignite Coal Minelands In East Texas, Cynthia Blake

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global warming is becoming an ever-important topic in the world today. In 1998, it was estimated that 40.5 % of U.S. anthropogenic CO2 emissions was attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels during the generation of electricity (U.S. Department of Energy 2000a). In an attempt to mitigate emissions, electric utility companies have become interested in the potential of forests to sequester large amounts of carbon in their above- and below-ground biomass as well as in the soils. It has been estimated that if the world's deforested lands were reforested and properly managed, they could have the potential ...


A Comparison Of The Ecological Integrity Of Headwater Streams Draining Harvested And Un-Harvested Watersheds In The Western Mountains Of Maine, U.S.A., Darlene Siegel Dec 2003

A Comparison Of The Ecological Integrity Of Headwater Streams Draining Harvested And Un-Harvested Watersheds In The Western Mountains Of Maine, U.S.A., Darlene Siegel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of four headwater streams draining forested watersheds were compared to determine the effectiveness of Riparian Management Zones (RMZs) in protecting aquatic ecological integrity from the effects of forest harvesting. Two of the watersheds were harvested with a 30% sheltenvood cut and a 75 foot buffer was left adjacent to the streams. The other two watersheds were un-harvested and were used as reference conditions for comparison with the harvested watersheds. General environmental conditions in these four headwater streams during the study period were characterized as follows. Each stream was located within a mixed- wood forest dominated ...


Effects Of Fiberimatiux Interactions On The Interfacial Deformation Micromechanics Of Cellulose-Fiberipolymer Composites, William Tai-Yin Tze Aug 2003

Effects Of Fiberimatiux Interactions On The Interfacial Deformation Micromechanics Of Cellulose-Fiberipolymer Composites, William Tai-Yin Tze

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this dissertation was to gain an understanding of the relationship between interfacial chemistry and the micromechanics of the cellulose-fiber/polymer composites. Regenerated cellulose (lyocell) fibers were treated with amine-, phenylamine-, phenyl-, and octadecyl-silanes, and also styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer. Inverse gas chromatography was conducted to evaluate the modified surfaces and to examine the adsorption behavior of ethylbenzene, a model compound for polystyrene, onto the fibers. Micro-composites were formed by depositing micro-droplets of polystyrene onto single fibers. The fiber was subjected to a tensile strain, and Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the point-to-point variation of the strain- ...


Influence Of Firm Structure On Profitability In The U.S. Pulp And Paper Industry (1960-1998), Kanwar Muhammad Suleman May 2003

Influence Of Firm Structure On Profitability In The U.S. Pulp And Paper Industry (1960-1998), Kanwar Muhammad Suleman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study indicates that firm size, market share and equity/sales ratio are the principal factors contributing to the profitability (net income) of pulp and paper firms in the United States. Timberland ownership, exports, K-Factor (a measure of relative firm capacity), growth, new supply/real gross domestic product (RGDP) ratio and price index also influence the profitability of pulp and paper manufacturing firms. Market share, an index of the structure of the pulp and paper industry, is determined by a firm's size (assets) and net income. In addition, the number of a firm's production units, K-factor, whether the ...


The Short And Long-Term Effects Of Herbicide Application In Maine Clearcuts On Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Kerry Frances Lough May 2003

The Short And Long-Term Effects Of Herbicide Application In Maine Clearcuts On Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Kerry Frances Lough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The short and long-term effects of glyphosate application on the diversity and abundance of ants in Maine clearcuts was assessed in a two-year study. Glyphosate is applied to release coniferous trees from suppression by competition with deciduous vegetation after a forest is clearcut. Previous research indicates glyphosate has limited immediate and long-term effects on non-target fauna, though specific species can be affected. Limited research on the effects of herbicides on insects indicates some initial decrease in insect populations. Beneficial insects, such as pollinators and predators, positively influence the forest ecosystem, but little research has examined the effects of herbicide application ...


Effects Of Small-Gap Timber Harvests On Songbird Community Composition And Site-Fidelity, Mitschka John Hartley May 2003

Effects Of Small-Gap Timber Harvests On Songbird Community Composition And Site-Fidelity, Mitschka John Hartley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I investigated effects of small-gap timber harvests on bird communities at nine sites (10 ha each) within the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF), grouped into three replicated "blocks" (three sites each). Blocks were randomly treated with three treatments: 10% harvest, 20% harvest, and no harvest (i.e., control). I examined how treatments affected breeding songbird abundance, richness, and site-fidelity over four consecutive summers, including 1-3 years before and after each site was harvested. Ability to detect treatment effects was limited by the small number of replicates, but power analyses indicated that given the experimental design and observed variability, there was a ...


Effects Of Precommercial Thinning On Snowshoe Hares, Small Mammals, And Forest Structure In Northern Maine, Jessica A. Homyack May 2003

Effects Of Precommercial Thinning On Snowshoe Hares, Small Mammals, And Forest Structure In Northern Maine, Jessica A. Homyack

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The extent of precommercial thinning (PCT) to manipulate stand density in overstocked, regenerating stands and to accelerate growth, yield, and the rate of development of crop trees has been increasing within the Acadian forest of northeastern North America. Although the silvicultural responses of crop trees to thinning are well studied, few studies have evaluated the effects of PCT on forest-dependent wildlife and their habitat. I investigated the effects of PCT and stand succession on snowshoe hares, small mammals, and forest structure on 38 stands (25 treated with PCT, 13 unthinned stands) from 1 to 16 years post-treatment within 7 townships ...


Ten Years Of Change In Beech Stand In North Central Maine Long Affected With Beech Bark Disease, Amanda Farrar Jan 2003

Ten Years Of Change In Beech Stand In North Central Maine Long Affected With Beech Bark Disease, Amanda Farrar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Maine, northern hardwood stands long affected by beech bark disease often still have high numbers of beech trees. This is mostly due to sprouting, and most new stems become severely infected with the disease. Beech that are resistant to the scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., the inciting factor for the disease complex, do exist and often occur in clumps of root sprout origin. In 1989 a long-term study of the effects of commonly used seasonal harvesting regimes on regeneration initiation and survival was established in north central Maine. Treatments included harvest season (winter or summer) and intensity (clearcut or ...


Effect Of Stand Density On Behavior Of Leaf Area Prediction Models For Eastern White Pine (Pinus Strobus L.) In Maine, Micah D. Pace Jan 2003

Effect Of Stand Density On Behavior Of Leaf Area Prediction Models For Eastern White Pine (Pinus Strobus L.) In Maine, Micah D. Pace

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is little debate within the forest science community that leaf area (LA, the surface area of live foliage) or leaf area index (LAI, the total surface area of live foliage per unit of ground area) are important variables, central to enhancing the understanding of forest growth and many forest ecosystem processes. The ability to accurately measure LA1 has become a research priority and has resulted in various methods of estimation for a variety of species and regions. In this study LA estimation models for Pinus strobus L. were developed, tested, and compared across a wide range of densities for ...


Effects Of Strand Geometry On Selected Properties Of Long-Stand Structural Composite Lumber Made From Northeastern Hardwoods, Russell Edgar Jan 2003

Effects Of Strand Geometry On Selected Properties Of Long-Stand Structural Composite Lumber Made From Northeastern Hardwoods, Russell Edgar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Structural composite lumber (SCL) products often possess significantly higher design values than the top grades of solid lumber, making it a popular choice for both residential and commercial applications. The enhanced mechanical properties of SCL are mainly due to defect randomization and densification of the wood fiber, both largely functions of the size, shape and composition (species) of the wood element. Traditionally, SCL manufacturers have used thin, rectangular elements produced from either moderate density softwoods or low density hardwoods. Higher density hardwood species have been avoided, as they require higher pressures to adequately densify and consolidate the wood furnish. These ...


Future Of South Korean National Parks -- A Delphi Study, Byung-Kyu Lee Jan 2003

Future Of South Korean National Parks -- A Delphi Study, Byung-Kyu Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In a three-wave Delphi survey of a panel of 40 key experts of Korean National Parks conducted between February 2001 and March in 2002, four major issues -- (A) Park philosophy not clearly articulated; (B) Inadequate emphasis on ecosystem protection; (C) Widespread deficiency of management tools; and (D) Visitor services needed -- were asked to get the panel's opinions regarding 'importance' (1 = most important; 4 = least important) and 'likelihood' of being resolved (1= resolved in 5 years; 4 = not resolved in 5 years) of these four issues in Wave 3. In terms of 'importance,' Issue A (Park philosophy not clearly articulated ...


Long-Term Effects Of Herbicide And Precommercial Thinning Treatments On Species Composition, Stand Structure, And Net Present Value In Spruce-Fir Stands In Maine: The Austin Pond Study, R. Howard Daggett Jan 2003

Long-Term Effects Of Herbicide And Precommercial Thinning Treatments On Species Composition, Stand Structure, And Net Present Value In Spruce-Fir Stands In Maine: The Austin Pond Study, R. Howard Daggett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The long-term effect on the development of spruce-fir stands in Maine from combinations of herbicide (Glyphosate, Triclopyr, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, MSMA, Picloram, Water, and Control) and precommercial thinning (PCT and no PCT) treatments was examined 22 years after herbicide application and 13 years after PCT. The mean IRR for the herbicide treatments with no thinning was 8.2%. For PCT only the IRR was 6.3%. The mean IRR for plots receiving both herbicide and PCT treatments was 5.8%. Therefore, the rate of return for both herbicide and PCT and combinations of the two treatments would be ...


Vegetation Dynamics And Tree Radial Growth Response In Harvest Gaps, Natural Gaps, And Closed Canopy Conditions In Maine's Acadian Forest, Darci A. Schofield Jan 2003

Vegetation Dynamics And Tree Radial Growth Response In Harvest Gaps, Natural Gaps, And Closed Canopy Conditions In Maine's Acadian Forest, Darci A. Schofield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The creation of natural canopy gaps is an important ecological process in the Acadian forest. Designing harvest gaps that emulate natural gap dynamics may be important for maintaining structural and biological diversity, as well as naturally regenerating desired tree species. We used a controlled study to 1) compare vegetation dynamics among and within harvested gaps, natural gaps, and under a closed canopy, and 2) examine the growth response of mature overstory edge trees of harvests gap and saplings inside of gaps as possible methods for dating natural gaps in the Acadian forest. For the vegetation dynamics study (objective I), we ...


An Exploratory Look At An Evolving Tourism Industry: Maine's Nature-Based Tourism Industry In Transition, Marc Edwards Jan 2003

An Exploratory Look At An Evolving Tourism Industry: Maine's Nature-Based Tourism Industry In Transition, Marc Edwards

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maine's natural resources have been attracting visitors to the State for more than 150 years, from artists drawn to the beauty and wildness of the coast, such as Thomas Cole in 1844, to Henry David Thoreau's well-documented trip to Katahdin popularized in his collection of essays The Maine Woods. Early artists like Cole lodged with local farmers and Thoreau's journeys into the Maine woods were aided by Native American and local guides. These early artists and adventurers could be said to be among the first nature-based tourists in Maine, while those who provided lodging and guide services ...


Measuring The Adhesive Bond Quality Of Vinyl Ester-Glass Composites On Novolak Hmr Treated Wood, Leopold Eisenheld Jan 2003

Measuring The Adhesive Bond Quality Of Vinyl Ester-Glass Composites On Novolak Hmr Treated Wood, Leopold Eisenheld

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this research were to 1) reduce the drying time of novolak-based HMR coupling agent, 2) reinforce wood samples with E-glasslvinyl ester resin composite using the SCRIMPThq process, 3) evaluate the durability and strength properties of the FRP-wood composites, and 4) evaluate the bonding strength of wood-to-wood bonding using vinyl ester resin. To reduce the drying time of HMR-treated wood laminates, a randomized complete three factorial experiment was used to evaluate five HMR drying times, two HMR spread rates, and two HMR solids contents. The experiment evaluated the sensitivity of the HMR treatment process to accelerated drying. The ...


Understory Growth Dynamics And Mensuration Techniques In Uneven-Aged, Mixed-Species Northern Conifer Stands, Andrew R. Moores Jan 2003

Understory Growth Dynamics And Mensuration Techniques In Uneven-Aged, Mixed-Species Northern Conifer Stands, Andrew R. Moores

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Managing uneven-aged, mixed-species stands requires balancing the need for high leaf area allocation in the overstory where it is most efficient versus the need to allow for sufficient growth of younger cohorts in the understory. To help forest managers make informed decisions to maintain this balance, the understory growth dynamics of northern conifer species in stands managed under uneven-aged silvicultural systems were studied. Sapling height growth of Picea rubens Sarg., Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. were modeled as a function of overstory canopy openness (gap fraction) using regression analysis. Research was conducted in four uneven-aged northern ...