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The Use Of Selected Water Quality Parameters To Identify Fecal Coliform Sources In Support Of The Sinking Creek Total Maximum Daily Load., Susana Maria Floresguerra Dec 2003

The Use Of Selected Water Quality Parameters To Identify Fecal Coliform Sources In Support Of The Sinking Creek Total Maximum Daily Load., Susana Maria Floresguerra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sinking Creek, located in upper east Tennessee, is on the 303(d) list for not meeting minimum water quality standards for recreation. A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for fecal coliforms was developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of water quality parameters to identify areas that contribute to the fecal coliform loading. Concentrations of nitrate-N, orthophosphates, BOD, alkalinity, hardness, and optical brighteners (OB) were monitored at fourteen stations monthly for one year. Site 3 (agricultural region) exhibited the highest average nitrate-N loadings (627.34 mg/sec) and orthophosphate (as PO43-) loadings (84.83 ...


Survey Of Health Effects Among Residents Adjacent To A National Priority List Site In Ssouthwest Virginia., Danette Haywood Dec 2003

Survey Of Health Effects Among Residents Adjacent To A National Priority List Site In Ssouthwest Virginia., Danette Haywood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville Waste Disposal Site is a National Priority List site used during the 77- year operation (1895–1972) of an electrolytic chlorine and caustic soda plant. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine disease prevalence among Saltville Medical Center (SMC) patients. Diseases associated with chronic exposures to mercury, arsenic, and lead were reviewed in patient records and these data were analyzed. Ratios of illness observed at the SMC were compared to health studies of similar environmental exposures and disease prevalence among residents of neighboring communities. Prevalence ratios were calculated for residents and non-residents of Saltville who were SMC patients ...


Development And Assessment Of A Spatial Decision Support System For Conservation Planning, Sean Murphy Dec 2003

Development And Assessment Of A Spatial Decision Support System For Conservation Planning, Sean Murphy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Land conservation is frequently cited as the most effective means of limiting the detrimental effects of anthropogenic forces on natural resources. Because governmental entities can be hampered by fiscal and political concerns, land trusts are increasing relied on to protect habitat. However, these groups often lack the analysis and research tools necessary to meet their mission. Geographic Information System (GIs) technologies such as Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) offer the promise of allowing decision makers to explore their decision space at a landscape level of analysis. But critics have charged that research in this arena is largely anecdotal in nature ...


The Effects Of The 2001-2002 Drought On Maine Surface Water Supplies, Catherine Schmitt Dec 2003

The Effects Of The 2001-2002 Drought On Maine Surface Water Supplies, Catherine Schmitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maine lakes and streams serve as significant sources of public water supply, serving 40% of the population. Drought affects surface water resources by reducing water quantity and altering water quality, for example by reducing inputs of materials from the watershed and increasing water residence times. The 2001-2002 drought was the worst in Maine in over thirty years, and it exposed deficiencies in current water resources planning and management. In this study, I evaluated the effects of the 2001-2002 drought on Maine public water systems in order to identify characteristics of systems vulnerable to drought and determine appropriate indicators of drought ...


A Comparison Of The Ecological Integrity Of Headwater Streams Draining Harvested And Un-Harvested Watersheds In The Western Mountains Of Maine, U.S.A., Darlene Siegel Dec 2003

A Comparison Of The Ecological Integrity Of Headwater Streams Draining Harvested And Un-Harvested Watersheds In The Western Mountains Of Maine, U.S.A., Darlene Siegel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of four headwater streams draining forested watersheds were compared to determine the effectiveness of Riparian Management Zones (RMZs) in protecting aquatic ecological integrity from the effects of forest harvesting. Two of the watersheds were harvested with a 30% sheltenvood cut and a 75 foot buffer was left adjacent to the streams. The other two watersheds were un-harvested and were used as reference conditions for comparison with the harvested watersheds. General environmental conditions in these four headwater streams during the study period were characterized as follows. Each stream was located within a mixed- wood forest dominated ...


Pond-Breeding Amphibian Species Distributions In A Beaver-Modified Landscape, Acadia National Park, Mount Desert Island, Maine, Jesse Cunningham Dec 2003

Pond-Breeding Amphibian Species Distributions In A Beaver-Modified Landscape, Acadia National Park, Mount Desert Island, Maine, Jesse Cunningham

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In order to maintain pond-breeding amphibian species richness, it is important to understand how both natural and anthropogenic disturbances affect species assemblages and individual species distributions both at the scale of individual ponds and at a larger landscape scale. The goal of this project was to investigate what characteristics of ponds and the surrounding wetland landscape were most effective in predicting pond-breeding species richness and the individual occurrence of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and pickerel frog (Rana palustris) breeding sites in a beaver-modified landscape and how this landscape has changed over time. The wetland landscape of Acadia ...


A Re-Evaluation Of The Us Epa Radon Risk Categorization For Unicoi County, Tennessee., William Grant Parsons Aug 2003

A Re-Evaluation Of The Us Epa Radon Risk Categorization For Unicoi County, Tennessee., William Grant Parsons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Effective risk communication is based on appropriate risk characterization. A reevaluation of the 1987 US EPA radon risk categorization of Unicoi County Tennessee was conducted using in-home radon concentrations, determined in a long-term monitoring study. Radon concentrations were measured in 69 homes using Electret Passive Environmental Radon Monitors (E-PERM’s), following standard methods. Radon concentrations determined in this study (avg. 4.03 ± 3.04) were significantly higher than those measured in the USEPA study (avg. 1.96 ± 1.08). Using this study’s data, the risk categorization was recalculated with the US EPA Radon Index Matrix Model. The model re-categorized ...


An Engineering, Economic, And Political Approach To Beach Erosion Mitigation And Harbor Development: A Review Of The Beach Communities Of Camp Ellis, Maine, Wells, Maine, And Cape May, New Jersey, Edmund Cervone Aug 2003

An Engineering, Economic, And Political Approach To Beach Erosion Mitigation And Harbor Development: A Review Of The Beach Communities Of Camp Ellis, Maine, Wells, Maine, And Cape May, New Jersey, Edmund Cervone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The history of coastal engineering projects is fraught with problems. In this thesis I examine the federal navigation project at Wells, Maine. In Wells, an incomplete understanding of the coastal setting led to a faulty engineering design responsible for a poorly functioning inlet and harbor and damage to neighboring beaches and wildlife habitat. Project planners and designers did not account for all unforeseen problems that arose. Reviewing the history of Wells Harbor demonstrates how proper attention to the natural setting, economics, and the political environment is essential to a successful project and enables agencies and stakeholders better to address contingencies ...


Effects Of Nitrogen Deposition And Flow Permanence On Stream Organic Matter Dynamics, Michael Andrew Joseph Chadwick Aug 2003

Effects Of Nitrogen Deposition And Flow Permanence On Stream Organic Matter Dynamics, Michael Andrew Joseph Chadwick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of N enrichment and flow permanence on stream organic matter dynamics at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). BBWM is a paired-catchment manipulation of atmospheric (NH4)2SO4 deposition, and the goal of the experiment is to understand how increased N affects forested catchments. The treatment has increased stream nitrate and foliar N concentrations in the treatment watershed. Because streams draining BBWM are intermittent, this investigation provided an opportunity to investigate the combined effects of stream flow permanence and human alteration of N cycling in a forested ...


Susceptibility Of Adult Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa Decemlineata) To The Fungal Entomopathogen Beauveria Bassiana, Ellen Klinger Aug 2003

Susceptibility Of Adult Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa Decemlineata) To The Fungal Entomopathogen Beauveria Bassiana, Ellen Klinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Factors influencing the susceptibility of adult Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), to the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.), were studied. In an assay comparing trials between a): laboratory reared, non-diapausing beetles and b): field collected, post-diapausing beetles, survival of B. bassiana treated beetles was higher for non-diapausing adults, however, control mortality was higher for post-diapausing adults. In a similar assay with field collected pre- and post-diapausing beetles, survival of B. bassiana treated individuals was higher for post-diapause adults and control mortality was higher for post-diapausing adults than pre-diapausing beetles. In a third experiment, the effect of time from ...


Hydroperiod Of Wetlands And Reproduction In Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) And Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Mary Beth Kolozsvary Aug 2003

Hydroperiod Of Wetlands And Reproduction In Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) And Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Mary Beth Kolozsvary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many amphibians rely on wetlands for reproduction and the differential distribution of amphibian species along a gradient of wetland permanence is striking, yet not absolute. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) are thought to rely on seasonal wetlands for greatest breeding success, but there is little documentation of their reliance on these or other habitats. In my first chapter, I studied these species in wetlands across a hydrologic gradient from seasonal wetlands of short flood duration to permanently flooded sites. My results indicate that wood frogs have greatest reproductive effort and success in seasonal wetlands of short ...


The Short And Long-Term Effects Of Herbicide Application In Maine Clearcuts On Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Kerry Frances Lough May 2003

The Short And Long-Term Effects Of Herbicide Application In Maine Clearcuts On Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Kerry Frances Lough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The short and long-term effects of glyphosate application on the diversity and abundance of ants in Maine clearcuts was assessed in a two-year study. Glyphosate is applied to release coniferous trees from suppression by competition with deciduous vegetation after a forest is clearcut. Previous research indicates glyphosate has limited immediate and long-term effects on non-target fauna, though specific species can be affected. Limited research on the effects of herbicides on insects indicates some initial decrease in insect populations. Beneficial insects, such as pollinators and predators, positively influence the forest ecosystem, but little research has examined the effects of herbicide application ...


An Interhemispheric Comparison Of The Recession Of Mountain Glaciers In The Last 150 Years, Colby Smith Jan 2003

An Interhemispheric Comparison Of The Recession Of Mountain Glaciers In The Last 150 Years, Colby Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Historical records in the Northern Hemisphere show overall glacier retreat since about AD 1860-1890. A glacial retreat of similar timing and magnitude in the Southern Hemisphere is less well established. Comparison of the timing and magnitude of glacial recession in the two polar hemispheres over the past century can elucidate mechanisms driving global climatic change. In order to determine the recession patterns of Murchison, Hooker, and Tasman Glaciers in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, geomorphic maps were constructed and recent glacial deposits were dated using lichenometry. Since the mid-to-late nineteenth century, each glacier terminus has retreated about 1.5 ...


Relative Invertebrate Availability In Nebraska's Conservation Reserve Management Access Program, Ronald J. Leathers Jan 2003

Relative Invertebrate Availability In Nebraska's Conservation Reserve Management Access Program, Ronald J. Leathers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Conservation Reserve Management Access Program (CRP-MAP) is a joint effort of the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission and Pheasants Forever of Nebraska that seeks to address brood habitat needs of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and other grassland birds by light disking and interseeding legumes into portions of aging CRP fields. The program has two specific goals - increasing the total invertebrate availability as a food source for pheasant chicks and increasing the structural complexity of vegetation. This study compares invertebrate biomass and structural complexity of vegetation in treated (disked and interseeded with legumes) and idle portions of CRP-MAP fields to determine ...


People In Nature: Environmental History Of The Kennebec River, Maine, Daniel J. Michor Jan 2003

People In Nature: Environmental History Of The Kennebec River, Maine, Daniel J. Michor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The quality of a river affects the tributaries, lakes, and estuary it feeds; it affects the wildlife and vegetation that depend on the river for energy, nutrients, and habitat, and also affects the human community in the form of use, access, pride, and sustainability. In an age of mass consumerism and materialism, dwindling natural resources and wild spaces, and advanced technology, the ability to make a living and at the same time enjoy the benefits of rural living is increasingly difficult. Using the entire Kennebec River watershed as the scale of investigation with particular focus on the river corridor itself ...


Solar And Wind Energy Development In Maine: 1973-1997, Evan Rallis Jan 2003

Solar And Wind Energy Development In Maine: 1973-1997, Evan Rallis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Focusing on how Maine reflected, as well as stood out from national trends in the development of wind and solar energy, this study concentrates particularly on how Maine state government and environmental groups contributed to this development, as well as on the technological progress of these energy sources. It draws primarily on state government documents, newspapers, and periodicals for evidence. The 1973-74 energy crisis, combined with the rise of the environmental movement, led to an increased exploration of alternative energy sources, in particular those that were relatively friendly to the environment like solar and wind energy. Attempts to utilize these ...