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Identity Negotiation, Saudi Women, And The Impact Of The 2011 Royal Decree: An Investigation Of The Cultural, Religious, And Societal Shifts Among Women In The Saudi Arabian Public Sphere, Maha Alshoaibi Dec 2018

Identity Negotiation, Saudi Women, And The Impact Of The 2011 Royal Decree: An Investigation Of The Cultural, Religious, And Societal Shifts Among Women In The Saudi Arabian Public Sphere, Maha Alshoaibi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Historically, Saudi Arabian culture has been deeply rooted in tradition, religious customs, family-oriented structures, and gender derived expectations for men and women alike. Saudi Arabian culture emphasizes a patriarchal family structure where men financially provide for their family whereas women are expected to manage internal household duties such as raising children, upholding household affairs, and working within a limited scope of employment. The concept of Saudi Arabian women integrating into the public workforce has been a source of contention and debate for the last several hundred years. Due to recent changes in political and economic events, a royal decree issued ...


The Rhetoric Of Missions Reporting, Bailey Cate Dec 2018

The Rhetoric Of Missions Reporting, Bailey Cate

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Missions, especially short-term trips, are becoming more and more controversial. As short-term missionaries interact in the field, they take pictures depicting the poverty, lack of resources, and overall sense of destitution around them. These photos have helped generate income, as many Christians who see the photos as part of updates on mission work they supported come to see themselves in a position of “savior” because they have resources to give to “those in need.” Evangelism is a critical component of Christianity; however, how people evangelize and how they communicate about that evangelism is equally critical. By analyzing both the church ...


The Effects Of Social Proof Through Social Media On Perceptions Of Responsibility, Taylor Powers Dec 2018

The Effects Of Social Proof Through Social Media On Perceptions Of Responsibility, Taylor Powers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Situational crisis communication theory, also referred to as SCCT, is a central and very well-developed theory in the field of crisis communication. The goal of SCCT is to create a response strategy based on stakeholders’ levels of attributions of responsibility. SCCT states there are two main factors stakeholders take into consideration when attributing responsibility to an organization in crisis: crisis type and performance history. While the previously stated factors are very important, the progressive development of social media is not taken into consideration in this theory, specifically the use of social proof through social media channels. According to the principle ...


A Multi-Case Study Of Electronic Communication Policy In Rural East Texas School Districts, Laura Lynn Dacus Oct 2018

A Multi-Case Study Of Electronic Communication Policy In Rural East Texas School Districts, Laura Lynn Dacus

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this descriptive case study was to conduct a policy analysis regarding electronic communication between educators and students in three rural East Texas school districts. The policy analysis for each district began with the initial implementation of teacher communication via electronic sources provided by the districts. The focus of the study was limited specifically to the policy regulating nonschool related, electronic communication by educators with students. The challenge faced by school districts to embrace technology with one-to-one classrooms, virtual classrooms, constant connectivity, school texting applications, and open availability to teachers via email, complicates restrictions placed on non-school related ...


Melting Hardened Desires: Confronting The Far Right By Cultivating Reflective Taste, Adam J. Goldsmith Aug 2018

Melting Hardened Desires: Confronting The Far Right By Cultivating Reflective Taste, Adam J. Goldsmith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prompted by the ascendance of the far right, this thesis reinterprets pertinent aspects of Kant's aesthetic philosophy to confront far-right political rhetoric. This aesthetic frame provides insights into the shortcomings of a predominant rational-deliberative rhetoric, new understanding of the resilience of far-right rhetoric, and imagines a cultivation of more open taste via reflective judgment to more effectively challenge this rhetoric and cultivates democratic practices. Examining key contemporary discursive examples, philosophy, and rhetorical theory, I first argue that (neo)fascism cannot be "fact-checked" out of existence; indifference to traditional evidence means those who adhere to far-right politics are antagonistic to ...


Gain Vs. Loss And Near Vs. Far Spatial Distance Message Framing And Support For Aquaculture Among U.S. Seafood Consumers, Sandaruwan P. Kumara Aug 2018

Gain Vs. Loss And Near Vs. Far Spatial Distance Message Framing And Support For Aquaculture Among U.S. Seafood Consumers, Sandaruwan P. Kumara

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the U.S., the aquaculture industry receives differential support from various publics due to the health and environmental concerns of seafood consumers. Since consumer communication plays a significant role in policy support, understanding how messages about aquaculture should be framed is important. This study investigated the influence of gain vs. loss and near vs. far spatial distance framing on support for aquaculture among seafood consumers in the U.S. The study used a 2*2 experimental design to vary gain/loss and near/far framing among 1052 U.S. residents from all 50 states. An online questionnaire, distributed by ...


Paving The Way For Merleau-Ponty’S Eye And Mind In Organizational Communication Studies, Johan Bodaski Aug 2018

Paving The Way For Merleau-Ponty’S Eye And Mind In Organizational Communication Studies, Johan Bodaski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The body is a sense-based medium that creates and interprets organizations. Bodies create organization. An aesthetic theory of organizational communication reveals the significance of the body to the organization. Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy of aesthetics offers a theory of aesthetic organizational communication that is yet to be developed. Merleau-Ponty’s aesthetic essay on painting, Eye and Mind, describes the body as the medium through which painters turn the world into painting. His philosophy of painting builds bridges between aesthetics, the body, and organizational communication.

In chapter one, four theories of organizational communication are described: communication constitutes organization (CCO), text/interpreter ...


The Rhetoric Of The Opioid Crisis And Addiction To Prescription Pain Medicine, Rachel Kaplan May 2018

The Rhetoric Of The Opioid Crisis And Addiction To Prescription Pain Medicine, Rachel Kaplan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this historical moment, the United States is amidst an opioid crisis killing the young and the old; at least seventy-eight people die every day from an opioid-related overdose (Enomoto in Murthy III). Changing mindsets of the doctors who prescribe opioids is just as important as asking the patients who are prescribed them to demand an alternative medication. The different parties involved in the crisis all have a different agenda and their rhetorical bias is explored throughout this project. The pharmaceutical companies have launched aggressive marketing campaigns expressing the benefits of opioids and encouraged physicians to prescribe, the CDC has ...


Immersed In Fire: The Use Of Virtual Reality As An Attitude Assessor And Boundary Object In Wildland Fire Management, Casey Olechnowicz May 2018

Immersed In Fire: The Use Of Virtual Reality As An Attitude Assessor And Boundary Object In Wildland Fire Management, Casey Olechnowicz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Interest in using prescribed burning as a forest management tool to promote forest health and regeneration is growing in Maine. The goal for this research was to better understand the way that the public perceives prescribed burning practices in wildland-urban interfaces, with an emphasis placed on how immersive imagery, closely related to virtual reality (VR), compares to traditional communication methods. We specifically focus on the social acceptability of prescribed burning and analyze how the level of immersive imagery is related to that acceptability (Ahn, 2015; Bricken, 1990; Fogg, Cuellar, and Danielson, 2009; Smith 2015; Wiederhold, Davis, and Wiederhold, 1998). The ...


Looking At Innovation Dialogically: Teaching Communication And (Social) Change In The Innovation Engineering Program At The University Of Maine, Mark J. Congdon Jr. May 2018

Looking At Innovation Dialogically: Teaching Communication And (Social) Change In The Innovation Engineering Program At The University Of Maine, Mark J. Congdon Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Higher education institutions face two concurrent demands: preparing students for the job-market, while also developing informed and engaged citizens (Frey & Palmer, 2014; Gould, 2003). How universities reconcile these demands varies. The Innovation Engineering program (IE) at the University of Maine strives to both, “change the world by enabling innovation” (concern for social issues) and educate entrepreneurs (students) whose innovations reach markets quicker and at a decreased risk (capitalist orientation) (Hall, 2013; Kelly, 2014). The program uses a systems approach to innovation by teaching tools and methods for creating, communicating, and commercializing meaningfully unique ideas. Processes and contexts are important parts of a ...


“Friendship With A Brand”: Parasocial Interaction With Burger Brands On Social Media, Alexander E. Carter May 2018

“Friendship With A Brand”: Parasocial Interaction With Burger Brands On Social Media, Alexander E. Carter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present study represents a content analysis of the efforts of real-world brands to facilitate parasocial interaction with their followers. The researcher examined these social media exchanges through the scope of parasocial interaction theory, uncertainty reduction theory, and social response theory. The researcher examined posts in mid to late August 2017 and utilized a code sheet to find confirmed parasocial interaction triggers by brands, and examples of parasocial interaction in the posts of those brands’ followers. The researcher looked to see if the utilization of previous research in controlled environments could provide the framework for studying the non-controlled conditions of ...


Eggplants And Peaches: Understanding Emoji Usage On Grindr, Emeka E. Moses May 2018

Eggplants And Peaches: Understanding Emoji Usage On Grindr, Emeka E. Moses

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on how gay men communicate on the Grindr dating app. Prior research has been conducted on how gay men construct their online identities, however, few studies explore how gay men experience interactions online, negotiate their relationships with other men online, and perceive other users. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 20 men who use the Grinder app, a location-based dating app used by men who have sex with men. Additional data were collected by observing user profiles on the app, which is free and public. This comprehensive, qualitative study of gay men who use Grindr provides insights ...


The Words Of War: A Content Analysis Of Republican Presidential Speeches From Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard M. Nixon, George W. Bush, And Donald J. Trump, Patrick Lee May 2018

The Words Of War: A Content Analysis Of Republican Presidential Speeches From Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard M. Nixon, George W. Bush, And Donald J. Trump, Patrick Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this analysis of public speeches from four American presidents from the Republican party, the ways in which those presidents discuss and position American defense activities and stances are examined, to track the progression from the 1960s to the present. Presidents from one party were chosen, who presided over a period of active armed conflict or cold war. The addresses analyzed comprised public addresses to Congress or the American people. The analysis groups recurring frames--conceptually developed based on framing and agenda setting theories--into thematic categories for each president. Some frames were more salient for certain presidents than for others. Other ...


The Motivations And Uses Of Instagram, Rehab Althobaiti May 2018

The Motivations And Uses Of Instagram, Rehab Althobaiti

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Instagram is revolutionary in social media and networking, but little is known about the factors, social or psychological, that motivate users to become constant users on this app. A comprehensive survey was created, 277 college-aged Instagram users responded about their motivation, attitude, purpose, and primary activities regarding Instagram. The results show that Instagram users have five fundamental social and psychological motives: social interaction, archiving, self-expression, escapism, and peeking. Results showed that males were different from females in the following areas of using Instagram: create a personal space, interact with a number of people, keep in touch with friends far away ...


Political Journalists Tweet About The Final 2016 Presidential Debate, Hannah Hopper May 2018

Political Journalists Tweet About The Final 2016 Presidential Debate, Hannah Hopper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Past research shows that journalists are gatekeepers to information the public seeks. Using the gatekeeping and agenda-setting theory, this study used a content analysis of tweets from political journalists during the final 2016 presidential debate to examine social media usage in efforts to convey information to followers and whether social media has allowed for journalists to present a more transparent view of candidates to the public. This study used feminist political theory to further analyze whether the tweets from political journalists portrayed Hillary Clinton, the female candidate, with stereotypical “female” traits, such as more emotional and more trustworthy. Applying these ...


Domestic Violence And Women: A Critical Analysis Of Us Help & Support Websites And Traditional News Media Representation, Jessica Lammon Oswald May 2018

Domestic Violence And Women: A Critical Analysis Of Us Help & Support Websites And Traditional News Media Representation, Jessica Lammon Oswald

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper critically examines the ways in which US government organizations that provide help for domestic violence victims and traditional news media, specifically The New York Times, communicate the various factors of domestic violence and its victims. The author provides a focused literature review of gender, sexism, race, power, and voice, related to the idea of domestic violence in the US society and culture today. The literature review also demonstrates the need to investigate this issue as represented through mediated forums in the backdrop of the 2016 Trump Presidential campaign. The analysis reveals that communication about domestic violence encompasses the ...


Feeding Behaviors And The Child With Posterior Tongue-Tie : Comparison To Norms., Mckenzie Sexton May 2018

Feeding Behaviors And The Child With Posterior Tongue-Tie : Comparison To Norms., Mckenzie Sexton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The tongue is an important muscle used in speech, mastication, swallowing, and breastfeeding. It plays an important role in facial development, dentition, and periodontal status. Posterior ankyloglossia, also known as posterior tongue-tie (PTT), is characterized by a tether beneath the lingual mucosa. Upon visual inspection, the frenulum is non-prominent but with the use of a grooved director it may appear abnormally prominent, short, thick, or cord-like. Palpation of the frenulum may reveal tightness. There is a lack of empirical data about PTT and the impact on feeding beyond early infancy. PTT is not well recognized and can be missed resulting ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Media Representation Of Us College Athletic Scandals In Traditional News Media And Mediated Communication Within The College, Colleen Starrs Apr 2018

A Comparative Analysis Of Media Representation Of Us College Athletic Scandals In Traditional News Media And Mediated Communication Within The College, Colleen Starrs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study critically analyzes organizational and mass media communication about the Penn State Child Sexual Abuse Scandal of 2011. The author examines the different ways in which Pennsylvania State University administrators and officials communicated the scandal internally to their community (campus community and surrounding city community) and compared it to how The New York Times communicated the scandal through their unique media platform to the world. The timeline for the data is from November 1, 2011, to July 31, 2012, as the scandal broke to the world, as well as, the months immediately after. The findings suggest that as the ...


Social Media Usage By Municipal Elected Officials For Open Government Community Engagement, Sarah Stoeckel Jan 2018

Social Media Usage By Municipal Elected Officials For Open Government Community Engagement, Sarah Stoeckel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As public administration has evolved with the technological advances in today's society, it can be challenging to ensure the demands of the public are being met in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and engagement. Nonetheless, a focus on community remains at the forefront of public administration. When looking at technology and the community, the tool known as social media emerges. Social media has allowed people to interact in new ways and therefore, has allowed the government to interact with citizens in ways they have not been able to in the past. In addition to attempting to modernize public administration, there ...


Public Speaking Instructors' Perceptions Of College Students Who Stutter, Charlotte Harvey Jan 2018

Public Speaking Instructors' Perceptions Of College Students Who Stutter, Charlotte Harvey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study queried collegiate level instructors of public speaking asking if there was a gender based difference in their attitudes and beliefs about stuttering. The survey examined for relationships between instructor level of education and: sources of knowledge, knowledge of causation and, amount of knowledge about stuttering. Communication literature searches indicated there were few, if any, studies which specifically addressed the knowledge levels, sources of knowledge and causation information for stuttering. Stuttering occurs in approximately 1% of the worldwide population so it is reasonable to expect that most collegiate level instructors would have individuals who stutter presenting in their classrooms ...


What #Nowomanever Wants To Hear: The Social Construction Of Corrective Facework After Street Harassment, Emily Knapp Jan 2018

What #Nowomanever Wants To Hear: The Social Construction Of Corrective Facework After Street Harassment, Emily Knapp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the social construction of women's corrective facework after experiencing gender based street harassment. A thematic analysis using open coding was used to explore, examine, and identify themes within the data. Three major themes were revealed in the data and they are 1) a resistance against a cycle of facework, 2) public spaces without accountability, and 3) disproportionate responses from men. In addition to the three themes, I will present an interpretation of Twitter as a public journal used to resist normative realities of gender based street harassment. These results are ...


A Complex Calculus: How Message Format And Processing Route Coordinate To Influence Hpv Vaccination Message Persuasiveness Among Young Adults, Laura Boutemen Jan 2018

A Complex Calculus: How Message Format And Processing Route Coordinate To Influence Hpv Vaccination Message Persuasiveness Among Young Adults, Laura Boutemen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may lead to cancer and genital warts yet can be prevented by a safe and effective vaccine recommended for individuals up to 26 years old. HPV vaccination rates remain low among college aged adults that represent a catch-up population still eligible to receive the HPV vaccine. This present study is a theory-based investigation employing the Heuristic Systematic Model to explore the effect of message format and processing route on attitude and behavioral intention in the context of HPV vaccination. Undergraduate students aged 17-26 years old (N = 261) from various majors (e.g., STEM, social sciences, humanities ...


Usda Instructional Risk Messages For High Pathogen Avian Influenza, Jenna Jones Jan 2018

Usda Instructional Risk Messages For High Pathogen Avian Influenza, Jenna Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

High Pathogen Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a highly contagious disease threatening United States poultry farms. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which current instructional risk communication by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meets the expectations of existing literature, particularly the IDEA model. This study examined two documents produced by the USDA for the ongoing threat of HPAI, the Red Book and the Defend the Flock campaign. The aim of the documents is to provide U.S. poultry farmers and the publics with knowledge and information about prevention and response to HPAI. The IDEA ...


Style Speaks: Clothing Judgments, Gender Stereotypes, And Expectancy Violations Of Professional Women, Jamie Lower Jan 2018

Style Speaks: Clothing Judgments, Gender Stereotypes, And Expectancy Violations Of Professional Women, Jamie Lower

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Clothing is a powerful nonverbal communicative tool and form of self-expression that provides others with clues about our personality, mood, education, culture, financial status, and social ranking, amongst numerous other impression cues. Research shows that physical appearance plays a prominent role in the formation of initial judgments and is significant in shaping a person's overall impression on others (Richmond, McCroskey, & Payne, 1991). The present study sought to quantitatively explore the effect that different styles of dress have on initial judgments formed about women in workplace settings. Using expectancy violation theory, the study investigates workplace gender bias and whether or ...


Coming To A Full Stop: An Investigation Of Menstrual Period Stigmas In College Students, Mary Jane O'Toole Jan 2018

Coming To A Full Stop: An Investigation Of Menstrual Period Stigmas In College Students, Mary Jane O'Toole

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study was to understand perceptions college students have regarding menstruation and if viewing a normalized media message may influence these perceptions. A treatment group of participants was randomly assigned to view an episode of the hit family sitcom Blackish that focused on menstruation and then answer survey questions. A control group of participants only answered the survey questions. A mixed methods analysis revealed three primary conclusions. First, these results contradict existing research in that the college students surveyed generally do not hold negative perceptions that may stigmatize menstruation. Second, the treatment that viewed the normalized media ...


Emergent Narrative: Stories Of Play, Playing With Stories, Eric Murnane Jan 2018

Emergent Narrative: Stories Of Play, Playing With Stories, Eric Murnane

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Emergent narrative, a phenomenon of unexpected contextual stories arising through play, has been researched in the field of game studies since 1999. However, that discussion largely lies in the realm of theoretical stories which are generated by either the system or the player. The purpose of this dissertation is to deepen our understanding of emergent narrative by examining real-world examples of the phenomenon. Four hundred player posts were gathered from forums relating to the video game Skyrim (a large, open world fantasy roleplaying game) and analyzed using a mixed-method framework which is informed by digital ethnography, fan studies, and game ...


Holding Off On The Fun Stuff: Academic Media Multitasking And Binge Watching Among College Students, Kelly Merrill Jr. Jan 2018

Holding Off On The Fun Stuff: Academic Media Multitasking And Binge Watching Among College Students, Kelly Merrill Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

College students are often faced with the temptation of engaging in academic media multitasking and binge watching or completing their academic coursework in a timely and effective manner. A quantitative survey (N = 651) explored trait individual differences in self-control and academic delay of gratification and situational individual differences in enjoyment, reward, procrastination, regret, and guilt as predictors of academic media multitasking frequency, binge watching frequency, and binge watching duration. Stepwise regressions reveal that self-control is not a predictor of these media behaviors, while age and greater enjoyment were the only predictors of academic media multitasking and gender and greater enjoyment ...


The Evolution Of Shared Responsibility And Instructional Risk Communication In Brazil's Campaign Against The Zika Virus, Rodrigo Soares Jan 2018

The Evolution Of Shared Responsibility And Instructional Risk Communication In Brazil's Campaign Against The Zika Virus, Rodrigo Soares

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study provides an evaluation of instructional risk communication practices in Brazil's response to the Zika virus during the 2016/2017 campaign. The communication was instructionally focused, explaining the way the disease is transmitted, what to do if the person is infected, and characteristics of the mosquito. The authorities also tried to convince the publics that, because the mosquito breeds in everyone's houses and apartments, everyone could be part of the solution. The social, economic and cultural characteristics of the country, the population's low levels of health literacy, and a long-lasting government credibility problem in the country ...


Gender And Conflict In Long-Term Romantic Relationships, Emily Hamlin Jan 2018

Gender And Conflict In Long-Term Romantic Relationships, Emily Hamlin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Conflict is inevitable, but not inherently negative. All relationships face conflict with some frequency and long-term romantic partnerships are no exception. This exploratory qualitative study investigated conflict types, approaches, and affective components using digital conflict journals. Participants logged their relational conflict for one month in order to gain insight into the communication practices and conflict perceptions of couples. A conflict cycle and sensemaking framework was applied to identify patterns and best practices.


Digital Citizenship Tools For Cause-Based Campaigns: A Broadened Spectrum Of Social Media Engagement And Participation-Scale Methodology, Jennifer Miller Jan 2018

Digital Citizenship Tools For Cause-Based Campaigns: A Broadened Spectrum Of Social Media Engagement And Participation-Scale Methodology, Jennifer Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Digital Citizenship Tools for Cause-Based Campaigns: A Broadened Spectrum of Social Media Engagement and Participation-Scale Methodology develops and applies two new tools for understanding, measuring, and recursively adjusting small to medium-size social media-based philanthropic campaigns to better foster participation and engagement—in other words, democratic digital citizenship. First, a theoretical model is offered broadening current binary conceptions of success and failure or impact of campaigns, situating specific participant actions in social media on a spectrum. Then, from that model, a new methodology is provided to measure participation and engagement generated by campaign posts. Recommendations are also offered for recursively adjusting ...