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Reducing Disproportional Discipline Referrals For African American Male Students At The Elementary Level, Kelly-Robin St. John Macpherson Dec 2016

Reducing Disproportional Discipline Referrals For African American Male Students At The Elementary Level, Kelly-Robin St. John Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The National Center for Educational Statistics documents that most teachers in urban/city schools are White, female teachers. Differences in communication styles, culture and involvement can have a negative impact on the educational experiences of minority and male students. However, there are White, female teachers who can demonstrate the ability to engage their students that have helped to the reduce the disciplinary disparity in their schools. This study focuses on answering the overarching question, what dispositional characteristics/qualities, instructional methods, environmental parameters and classroom management techniques do White, female teachers perceive contribute to lower classroom disciplinary referrals for African American ...

Voiceless In Medical School: Students With Physical Disabilities, Michael J. Donlan Dec 2016

Voiceless In Medical School: Students With Physical Disabilities, Michael J. Donlan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Students with physical disabilities are underrepresented in medical school. Individuals with physical disabilities have largely been left out the diversity movement, which has increased access to medical education for women and minority students (Steinberg, Iezzoni, Conill, & Stineman, 2010). For students with physical disabilities who are admitted, not much is known about their experiences, thus the focus of this study was to explore the medical school experiences of individuals with physical disabilities. as the theoretical framework, the social model of disability as developed by Oliver (2009) allowed for an examination of how medical students with physical disabilities experienced the medical school ...

A Study Of The Degree To Which School Districts In Virginia Include Legal Or Illegal Inquiries On Employment Application Forms For Teachers, Rodney Jamel Brown

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Federal legislation on illegal pre-employment inquiries has become increasingly well known. Unfortunately, many districts may learn too late that their employment application forms for teachers do not comply with federal regulations regarding pre-employment inquiries. This study examined teacher employment application forms used by school districts in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Examination of these applications identified the information that would likely disclose an applicant’s membership in a protected class. All 132 school districts employment applications were analyzed for compliant with EEOC guidelines. Despite knowledge of Title VII, its resulting legal decisions and millions of dollars paid by employers, all but ...

Textiles And Trade: Williamsburg's Material Culture, 1699-1815, Evelyn M. Strope Dec 2016

Textiles And Trade: Williamsburg's Material Culture, 1699-1815, Evelyn M. Strope

This undergraduate honors thesis analyzes the development of a distinct material culture in eighteenth-century Williamsburg, Virginia, arguing that the city remained a cultural and economic center after the capital moved to Richmond by retaining this material culture. It includes a case study of the textile trades and the tradesmen and women who produced and consumed a significant number of material goods throughout the century, providing cohesive examples of the fluidity of Williamsburg’s consumer and material cultures in the Revolution and the capital’s move to Richmond. In Williamsburg, an economic standard of choice formed through the consumer marketplace, which ...

Dec 2016

(Un)Stable Manifold Computation Via Iterative Forward-Backward Runge-Kutta Type Methods, Dmitriy Zhigunov

I present numerical methods for the computation of stable and unstable manifolds in autonomous dynamical systems. Through differentiation of the Lyapunov-Perron operator in [Casteneda, Rosa 1996], we find that the stable and unstable manifolds are boundary value problems on the original set of differential equation. This allows us to create a forward-backward approach for manifold computation, where we iteratively integrate one set of variables forward in time, and one set of variables backward in time. Error and stability of these methods is discussed.

Quantifying Variation In The Seed Scatter-Hoarder Relationship, Gina M. Sawaya Dec 2016

Quantifying Variation In The Seed Scatter-Hoarder Relationship, Gina M. Sawaya

The relationship between scatter-hoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time, location, and among species. We examined five tree species across five sites to quantify this variability: red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak, (Quercus alba), American chestnut (Castanea dentata), Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), and a hybrid American/Chinese chestnut. In the fall of 2012, 2013, and 2015, we set up field sites across the east coast, including in Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Maine. We tested the potential for mutualism between scatter-hoarders and trees by using a simple model proposed in the ...

Dec 2016

Animating Animals: Exploring Modes Of Animal Representation In Classic Animated Children’S Films, Meagan Phillips

This paper explores the intersection of film studies and critical animal studies in its examination of nonhuman animals in animated children's films. It examines various modes of representation of nonhuman animals and questions which representations generate empathy from the audience. It also considers the impact of anthropomorphism in the medium of animation.

Relaxed Coloring Of Sparse Graphs, Michael C. Kopreski Dec 2016

Relaxed Coloring Of Sparse Graphs, Michael C. Kopreski

A graph G is (d_1,d_2,… ,d_t)-colorable if its vertices may be partitioned into subsets V_1,V_2,...,V_t such that for each i, the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by V_i is at most d_i. We study this relaxed coloring of graphs with bounded maximum average degrees. Specifically, we use discharging and other methods to seek new upper and lower bounds for the maximum average degree of (1,1,0)-colorable graphs. We generalize this result to colorings of the type (1_1,1_2,...,1_a,0_1,...,0_b), improving the results by Dorbec, Kaiser, Montassier, and Raspaud (J. of Graph ...

College, Interrupted: A Case Study Of The Mental Health Leave Process, Rachel L. Mcdonald-Schneider Nov 2016

College, Interrupted: A Case Study Of The Mental Health Leave Process, Rachel L. Mcdonald-Schneider

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Students who experience a mental health crisis while enrolled in College experience an interruption to their college journey. This single site case study examined the mental health leave and reenrollment process and its impact on college student development using the lens of Nancy Schlossberg’s (2011) model of transition. This study also examined the perceptions and values of college staff as they worked to advocate for and support students who engaged in the process. Using my conceptual model of the mental health leave and reenrollment process for guidance, college personnel can use the four main transitions that occur during this ...

Chronic Sorrow In Family Members Of Addicts: An Investigation Of Partners Of Addicts And Divorcees To Explore Chronic Sorrow As A Theoretical Understanding Of The Experiences Of Family Members Of Addicts, Victoria Grace Mclaughlin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

CHRONIC SORROW IN FAMILY MEMBERS OF ADDICTS: AN INVESTIGATION OF PARTNERS OF ADDICTS AND DIVORCEES TO EXPLORE CHRONIC SORROW AS A THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXPERIENCES OF FAMILY MEMBERS OF ADDICTS ABSTRACT This study attempted to examine chronic sorrow as a theoretical understanding of the negative psychological symptoms of family members of addicts (FMoAs). Partners of addicts (PoAs) (n = 94) were compared against divorcees (n = 66) for chronic sorrow and codependence. Males (n = 53) and females (n = 107) were also compared for chronic sorrow and codependence. Some hypotheses were supported, such as chronic sorrow increased as codependence increased; female PoAs ...

High Achieving English Language Learners: The Schooling Experiences Of Former Ell Students Enrolled In Advanced High School Courses, Anthony Vladu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

With immigration at record levels, public schools are educating an increasing number of English Language Learners who are less academically successful. There is a dearth of research on academically successful former ELL students. The purpose of this study was to identify the shared schooling experiences, shared success factors, and shared inhibiting factors of former ELL students enrolled in AP and IB coursework at the high school level. This phenomenological study used structured student and teacher interviews as well as classroom observations for the generation and collection of data. Seven students participated in this study. This study found that former ELL ...

Ac Zeeman Force With Ultracold Atoms, Charles Fancher Nov 2016

Ac Zeeman Force With Ultracold Atoms, Charles Fancher

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Ultracold atom experiments use a gas of neutral atoms with temperatures less than 100 µK above absolute zero and offer unmatched experimental control of quantum states and coherence, which has allowed ultracold atom-based measurements to be some of the most precise to date. While ultracold atom experiments can control almost all atomic degrees of freedom, spin-dependent trapping and spatial manipulation has remained difficult if not inaccessible. We are developing a method of spin-dependent trapping and spatial manipulation for ultracold neutral atoms using the AC Zeeman force produced by a microwave magnetic near-field gradient generated by an atom chip. We measure ...

Physical Properties Of Traditional And Water-Miscible Oil Paints As Assessed By Single-Sided Nmr, Nicholas Anthony Sanchez Udell Nov 2016

Physical Properties Of Traditional And Water-Miscible Oil Paints As Assessed By Single-Sided Nmr, Nicholas Anthony Sanchez Udell

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Single-sided NMR has been demonstrated as a useful technique for the inexpensive and non-invasive study of cultural heritage objects, including numerous different painting and paint samples. The relatively recent invention of water-miscible oil paints – a new form of environmentally friendly oil paint that can be thinned and cleaned by water – provides a need for analysis of the physical properties of the cured paint films. Single-sided NMR offers an excellent analytical tool to study the structural effects of the emulsifying agent present in water-miscible oil paints on the paint linoxyn network by measuring the transverse (T2) relaxation times for various pigments ...

An Improved Measurement Of The Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section On Hydrocarbon At Minerva, Dun Zhang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Neutrino interactions in the detectors of long baseline oscillation experiments are analyzed to determine the neutrino flavor and energy spectrum, allowing the neutrino mass ordering and mixing parameters to be determined. For neutrino interactions below the pion production threshold, the dominant reaction is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering. Oscillation experiments are made of heavy nuclei so the QE process occurs on nucleons that are embedded in the nuclear environment. Predictions of the QE cross-section suffer from significant uncertainties due to our understanding of that nuclear environment and the way it is probed by the weak interaction. I have developed a ...

Nov 2016

Algonquian Taskscapes And Changing Landscapes: Archaeobotanical Findings From Tidewater Virginia, Jessica Marie Herlich

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The historical ecology of Tidewater Virginia from the Late Archaic to Early Colonial eras (ca. 1200 BC–AD 1600) indicates human-environmental dynamics that modified the landscape and simultaneously impacted the histories of Native groups in the region. I consider Algonquian Tidewater Virginia through the perspectives of historical ecology, taskscapes (a model of the landscape interweaving space, time, and human activities [Ingold 1993, 2000]), and gendered landscapes to explore the intersections of place, labor, and time. The Middle Woodland (ca. 500 BC-AD 800) is an important time period in my discussion. During this era, the region’s archaeology suggests shifts towards ...

Nov 2016

The Materiality Of Authority: Ornamental Objects And Negotiations Of Sovereignty In The Algonquian Middle Atlantic (A.D. 900 - 1680), Christopher Judd Shephard

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation investigates the emergence, development, and transformation of centralized political authority within Algonquian societies of the Late Woodland and early Colonial period (A.D. 900 – 1680) southern Middle Atlantic. Sixteenth and 17th century European accounts describe coastal Algonquian-speaking societies of modern day Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina as organized into multi-community polities structured by hierarchical political authority, centralized decision-making and pervasive inequality. However, the hallmarks typically associated with chiefly political organization—monumental architecture, settlement hierarchies, and widespread differentiation in mortuary symbolism—are almost non-existent in the region’s archaeological record. Colonial chroniclers, however, were adamant that the objects most ...

Creolized Histories: Hybrid Literatures Of The Americas, Apostolos Rofaelas Nov 2016

Creolized Histories: Hybrid Literatures Of The Americas, Apostolos Rofaelas

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation is about a hemispheric understanding of the Americas by foregrounding hybrid literatures written both by Caribbean and U.S. American authors as the space where a transnational slave past of diversity, relation, and cross-cultural influence can be revealed and discussed. I use the term hybrid because these imaginary writings engage with actual events and real-life people that have shaped the history of the Americas, the interpretation of which is re-negotiated here though both history and literature. and literatures because it is not only novels but also epic poetry and oral stories that writers resort to in order to ...

Studies Of Respiratory Rhythm Generation Maintained In Organotypic Slice Cultures, Wiktor Samuel Phillips Nov 2016

Studies Of Respiratory Rhythm Generation Maintained In Organotypic Slice Cultures, Wiktor Samuel Phillips

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Breathing is an important rhythmic motor behavior whose underlying neural mechanisms can be studied in vitro. The study of breathing rhythms in vitro has depended upon reduced preparations of the brainstem that both retain respiratory-active neuronal populations and spontaneously generate respiratory-related motor output from cranial and spinal motor nerves. Brainstem-spinal cord en bloc preparations and transverse medullary slices of the brainstem have greatly improved the ability of researchers to experimentally access and thus characterize interneurons important in respiratory rhythmogenesis. These existing in vitro preparations are, however, not without their limitations. For example, the window of time within which experiments may ...

Nov 2016

Electron Neutrino Appearance In The Nova Experiment, Ji Liu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The NuMI off-Axis $\nu_e$ Appearance (NO$\nu$A) experiment is a long baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation experiment. It is designed to search for oscillations of $\nu_\mu$ to $\nu_e$ by comparing measurements of the NuMI beam composition in two detectors. These two detectors are functionally identical, nearly fully-active liquid-scintillator tracking calorimeters and located at two points along the beam line to observe the neutrinos. The Near Detector (ND), situated \unit[1]{km} away from the proton target at Fermilab, measures neutrinos prior to oscillation. Then the Far Detector (FD), located 810 km away at Ash River, Minnesota, measures the neutrinos ...

Nov 2016

Rethinking Privacy And Security Mechanisms In Online Social Networks, Xin Ruan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

With billions of users, Online Social Networks(OSNs) are amongst the largest scale communication applications on the Internet. OSNs enable users to easily access news from local and worldwide, as well as share information publicly and interact with friends. On the negative side, OSNs are also abused by spammers to distribute ads or malicious information, such as scams, fraud, and even manipulate public political opinions. Having achieved significant commercial success with large amount of user information, OSNs do treat the security and privacy of their users seriously and provide several mechanisms to reinforce their account security and information privacy. However ...

An Investigation Of School Counselor Understanding And Response To Help Seeking Among Second Generation Asian American Students In The Us Public School System, Sharon Chung

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Asian Americans are a rapidly growing population in the US and have high levels of psychological distress. However, Asian Americans tend not to ask for help from mental health professionals in regards to social/emotional issues, including school counselors. Asian American students are typical in terms of their presence within the US mainstream public school system, yet they are atypical in experiencing a variety of stressors and issues such as academic pressures, language and communication difficulties with parents/guardians, acculturative stress, and many more (Chang & Smith, 2015; Mouw & Xie, 1999; Berry, 2005). Despite mental health needs and the growing relevance of this population, research ...

The Myth Of Unity: The Contra War, 1980–1990, Benjamin Wyatt Medina Nov 2016

The Myth Of Unity: The Contra War, 1980–1990, Benjamin Wyatt Medina

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This research focuses on the anti-Sandinista forces popularly known as the "contras" who operated in Nicaragua from 1980 to 1990, in particular the Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense (FDN), the Alianza Revolucionaria Democrática (ARDE), and the two main Atlantic Coast contra groups: MISURA (Miskito Sumu and Rama Indians of the Atlantic Coast) and MISURASATA (Miskito, Sumu, Rama, Sandinista Aslatakanta [Working Together]). This thesis looks at the different ways these contra groups viewed their conflict and explained it to national and international audiences, as well as to those within the anti-Sandinista movement. Because there was such heterogeneity within the contra movement, a comparative ...

Developmental, Physiological, And Transcriptomic Analyses Of Neurons Involved In The Generation Of Mammalian Breathing, Andrew Kottick

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Breathing is a rhythmic motor behavior with obvious physiological importance: breathing movements are essential for respiration, which sustains homeostasis and life itself in a wide array of animals including humans and all mammals. The breathing rhythm is produced by interneurons of the brainstem preBötzinger complex (preBötC) whose progenitors express the transcription factor Dbx1. However, the cellular and synaptic neural mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis remain unclear. The first chapter of this dissertation examines a Dbx1 transgenic mouse line often exploited to study the neural control of breathing. It emphasizes the cellular fate of progenitors that express Dbx1 at different times during ...

Matrix Results And Techniques In Quantum Information Science And Related Topics, Diane Christine Pelejo Oct 2016

Matrix Results And Techniques In Quantum Information Science And Related Topics, Diane Christine Pelejo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this dissertation, we present several matrix-related problems and results motivated by quantum information theory. Some background material of quantum information science will be discussed in chapter 1, while chapter 7 gives a summary of results and concluding remarks. In chapter 2, we look at $2^n\times 2^n$ unitary matrices, which describe operations on a closed $n$-qubit system. We define a set of simple quantum gates, called controlled single qubit gates, and their associated operational cost. We then present a recurrence scheme to decompose a general $2^n\times 2^n$ unitary matrix to the product of ...

Oct 2016

The Thin Ribbon Silk Of The Brown Recluse Spider: Structure, Mechanical Behavior, And Biomimicry, Sean Robert Koebley

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Silk has enormous potential as a next-generation material: it is a biopolymer spun from protein at ambient temperature and pressure, and the best spider silks are as strong as steel and tougher than Kevlar. Because of its green production, mechanical robustness, and biocompatibility, silk has been researched for use in a range of engineering and biomedical applications. However, despite exciting recent advances in artificial silk fabrication via recombinant techniques, reserachers remain unable to fully replicate the complex assembly and hierarchical structure of native silks. Herein, we describe our morphological and mechanical characterization of a uniquely simple model silk system that ...

“The Improvements Made By America On The Ancient Mode”: Classicism And Nationalism In The Early American Republic, 1780-1850, Alexander Strickland

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Classicism, an interest in the history, society, and arts of the ancient world, became a staple of American culture with the first permanent European settlements, and reached its zenith in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The extant scholarship on early American classicism offers a wealth of information about how citizens of the nascent United States read and interpreted the sources of the ancient world. However, it has done little to address the political utility of that classicism. The first of the two studies presented here attempts to locate one possible utility of American classicism in the Federalist Papers ...

Investigating Proton Spin Structure: A Measurement Of G_2^P At Low Q^2, Melissa Ann Cummings Oct 2016

Investigating Proton Spin Structure: A Measurement Of G_2^P At Low Q^2, Melissa Ann Cummings

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The $g_2^p$ collaboration performed the first measurement of the reaction $\vec{p}(\vec{e},e')X$ in the kinematic range 0.02 $<$ Q$^2$ $<$ 0.2 GeV$^2$ in the resonance region. Experiment E08-027 took place in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from March-May of 2012. Data was taken with a longitudinally polarized electron beam, using an NH$_3$ target polarized in both parallel and perpendicular configurations. Very preliminary results for $g_1^p$ and $g_2^p$ are shown in this thesis. to extract the spin structure functions, asymmetries are calculated from data taken with a 2.2 GeV electron beam and a 5 T target field, and combined with the Bosted model proton cross section. Preliminary dilution factors and preliminary radiative corrections are included in the asymmetry analysis. Sum rules and $\chi$PT allow us to test the Burkhardtt-Cottingham (BC) sum rule and obtain the spin polarizability quantities $\gamma_0$ and $\delta_{LT}$. The BC sum rule, valid for all values of $Q^2$, says that the integral of $g_2$ over all Bjorken $x$ vanishes. The very preliminary result presented here shows the contribution to the integral from the measured kinematic region. Although the contribution from the resonance region is not consistent with the expected result of zero, an extrapolation to high and low $x$ must be included to test whether the BC sum rule is satisfied. The difficulty in $\chi$PT calculations of $\gamma_0$ and $\delta_{LT}$ is how to include the resonance contributions, particularly the $\Delta$-resonance, which dominates. Recent developments have found better agreement with neutron experimental results, however this is little proton data to compare with the calculations, particularly at low $Q^2$. The very preliminary results shown here do not show agreement with any of the current $\chi$PT predictions. However, as this is only the contribution from the measured kinematic region, it is necessary to include the extrapolation outside the resonance region to draw a stronger conclusion. Further analysis is ongoing, and preliminary results, including a cross section extracted from data instead of a model prediction, are expected within the next year.

Enhancing The Sensing Capabilities Of Mobile And Embedded Systems, Daniel George Graham Oct 2016

Enhancing The Sensing Capabilities Of Mobile And Embedded Systems, Daniel George Graham

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this work, we aim to develop new sensors and sensing platforms that facilitate the development of new mobile and embedded devices. Mobile and embedded devices have become an integral part of our everyday lives and the sensing capabilities of these devices have improved throughout the years. Developing new and innovative sensors and sensing platforms will provide the building blocks for developing new sensing systems. In an effort to facilitate these innovations we have developed two new in-air sonar sensors and a new reconfigurable sensing platform. The first in-air sonar sensor is designed for ranging applications and uses the phone ...

Muskogee Internationalism In An Age Of Revolution, 1763-1818, James L. Hill Oct 2016

Muskogee Internationalism In An Age Of Revolution, 1763-1818, James L. Hill

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation reevaluates the consequences of the American Revolution by examining how indigenous peoples preserved their role as regional powers in the decades following the birth of the United States. Focusing on the Creek Indians of the present-day southeastern United States, I demonstrate that they maintained ties with Britons, Spaniards, and other Native peoples, employing these connections to their advantage. Creeks created borderlands that connected their societies with those of the British and Spanish Caribbean. The Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of Florida and their surrounding waters became zones of encounter and exchange between Native peoples, British wreckers from the Bahamas ...

Methods For Estimating The Diagonal Of Matrix Functions, Jesse Harrison Laeuchli Oct 2016

Methods For Estimating The Diagonal Of Matrix Functions, Jesse Harrison Laeuchli

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Many applications such as path integral evaluation in Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD), variance estimation of least square solutions and spline ts, and centrality measures in network analysis, require computing the diagonal of a function of a matrix, Diag(f(A)) where A is sparse matrix, and f is some function. Unfortunately, when A is large, this can be computationally prohibitive. Because of this, many applications resort to Monte Carlo methods. However, Monte Carlo methods tend to converge slowly. One method for dealing with this shortcoming is probing. Probing assumes that nodes that have a large distance between them in the ...