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Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw Feb 2019

Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro ...


Neuropathological And Genetic Correlates Of Survival And Dementia Onset In Synucleinopathies: A Retrospective Analysis, David J. Irwin, Murray Grossman, Daniel Weintraub, Howard I. Hurtig, John E. Duda, Sharon X. Xie, Edward B. Lee, Vivianna M. Van Deerlin, Oscar L. Lopez, Julia K. Kofler, Peter T. Nelson, Gregory A. Jicha, Randy Woltjer, Joseph F. Quinn, Jeffery Kaye, James B. Leverenz, Debby Tsuang, Katelan Longfellow, Dora Yearout, Walter Kukull, C. Dirk Keene, Thomas J. Montine, Cyrus P. Zabetian, John Q. Trojanowski Jan 2017

Neuropathological And Genetic Correlates Of Survival And Dementia Onset In Synucleinopathies: A Retrospective Analysis, David J. Irwin, Murray Grossman, Daniel Weintraub, Howard I. Hurtig, John E. Duda, Sharon X. Xie, Edward B. Lee, Vivianna M. Van Deerlin, Oscar L. Lopez, Julia K. Kofler, Peter T. Nelson, Gregory A. Jicha, Randy Woltjer, Joseph F. Quinn, Jeffery Kaye, James B. Leverenz, Debby Tsuang, Katelan Longfellow, Dora Yearout, Walter Kukull, C. Dirk Keene, Thomas J. Montine, Cyrus P. Zabetian, John Q. Trojanowski

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Background

Great heterogeneity exists in survival and the interval between onset of motor symptoms and dementia symptoms across synucleinopathies. We aimed to identify genetic and pathological markers that have the strongest association with these features of clinical heterogeneity in synucleinopathies.

Methods

In this retrospective study, we examined symptom onset, and genetic and neuropathological data from a cohort of patients with Lewy body disorders with autopsy-confirmed α synucleinopathy (as of Oct 1, 2015) who were previously included in other studies from five academic institutions in five cities in the USA. We used histopathology techniques and markers to assess the burden of ...


Activated Mtorc1 Promotes Long-Term Cone Survival In Retinitis Pigmentosa Mice, Aditya Venkatesh, Shan Ma, Yun Z. Le, Michael N. Hall, Markus A. Ruegg, Claudio Punzo Apr 2015

Activated Mtorc1 Promotes Long-Term Cone Survival In Retinitis Pigmentosa Mice, Aditya Venkatesh, Shan Ma, Yun Z. Le, Michael N. Hall, Markus A. Ruegg, Claudio Punzo

GSBS Student Publications

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited photoreceptor degenerative disorder that results in blindness. The disease is often caused by mutations in genes that are specific to rod photoreceptors; however, blindness results from the secondary loss of cones by a still unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is required to slow the progression of cone death during disease and that constitutive activation of mTORC1 in cones is sufficient to maintain cone function and promote long-term cone survival. Activation of mTORC1 in cones enhanced glucose uptake, retention, and utilization, leading to increased levels of ...


Functional And Developmental Identification Of A Molecular Subtype Of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized To Regulate Breathing Dynamics, Rachael D. Brust, Andrea E. Corcoran, George B. Richerson, Eugene Nattie, Susan M. Dymecki Dec 2014

Functional And Developmental Identification Of A Molecular Subtype Of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized To Regulate Breathing Dynamics, Rachael D. Brust, Andrea E. Corcoran, George B. Richerson, Eugene Nattie, Susan M. Dymecki

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT) dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. By manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one by one chemogenetically, we find that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Furthermore, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections-increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory ...


Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Nmda Receptor Insertion Depends On Fyn But Not Src Kinase Pathway In Prefrontal Cortical Neurons, Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao, Yueqiao Huang Jan 2010

Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Nmda Receptor Insertion Depends On Fyn But Not Src Kinase Pathway In Prefrontal Cortical Neurons, Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao, Yueqiao Huang

PCOM Scholarly Papers

Background. Interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the prefrontal cortex are essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor functions by dopamine D1 receptor is believed to play a critical role in these functions. The aim of the work reported here is to explore the signaling pathway underlying D1 receptor-mediated trafficking of NMDA receptors in cultured rat prefrontal cortical neurons. Results. Activation of D1 receptor by selective agonist SKF-81297 significantly increased the expression of NR2B subunits. This effect was completely blocked by small interfering RNA knockdown of Fyn, but not Src. Under control conditions ...


Dopamine Controls Locomotion By Modulating The Activity Of The Cholinergic Motor Neurons In C. Elegans, Andrew T. Allen Jan 2009

Dopamine Controls Locomotion By Modulating The Activity Of The Cholinergic Motor Neurons In C. Elegans, Andrew T. Allen

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, where it plays a regulatory role in the coordination of movement and cognition by acting through two classes of G protein-coupled receptors to modulate synaptic activity. In addition, it has been shown these two receptor classes can exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects on neurotransmission. However, while the pharmacology of the mammalian dopamine receptors have been characterized in some detail, less is known about the molecular pathways that act downstream of the receptors. As in mammals, the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses two classes of dopamine receptors to control neural activity and thus ...


Bad Nature, Bad Nurture, And Testimony Regarding Maoa And Slc6a4 Genotyping In Murder Trials, Nita A. Farahany, William Bernet, Cindy L. Vnencak-Jones, Stephen A. Montgomery Jan 2007

Bad Nature, Bad Nurture, And Testimony Regarding Maoa And Slc6a4 Genotyping In Murder Trials, Nita A. Farahany, William Bernet, Cindy L. Vnencak-Jones, Stephen A. Montgomery

Faculty Scholarship

Recent research—in which subjects were studied longitudinally from childhood until adulthood—has started to clarify how a child’s environment and genetic makeup interact to create a violent adolescent or adult. For example, male subjects who were born with a particular allele of the monoamine oxidase A gene and also were maltreated as children had a much greater likelihood of manifesting violent antisocial behavior as adolescents and adults. Also, individuals who were born with particular alleles of the serotonin transporter gene and also experienced multiple stressful life events were more likely to manifest serious depression and suicidality. This research ...


Behavioural Genetics In Criminal Cases: Past, Present And Future, Nita A. Farahany, William Bernet Jan 2006

Behavioural Genetics In Criminal Cases: Past, Present And Future, Nita A. Farahany, William Bernet

Faculty Scholarship

Researchers studying human behavioral genetics have made significant scientific progress in enhancing our understanding of the relative contributions of genetics and the environment in observed variations in human behavior. Quickly outpacing the advances in the science are its applications in the criminal justice system. Already, human behavioral genetics research has been introduced in the U.S. criminal justice system, and its use will only become more prevalent. This essay discusses the recent historical use of behavioral genetics in criminal cases, recent advances in two gene variants of particular interest in the criminal law, MAOA and SLC6A4, the recent expert testimony ...