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A Unified 2d Representation Of Fuzzy Reasoning, Cbr, And Experience Based Reasoning, Zhaohao Sun, G. Finnie Oct 2006

A Unified 2d Representation Of Fuzzy Reasoning, Cbr, And Experience Based Reasoning, Zhaohao Sun, G. Finnie

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Fuzzy reasoning, case-based reasoning (CBR) and experience-based reasoning (EBR) or natural reasoning have been seriously studied for years. However, these studies essentially can be considered as a 1-dimensional approach, because their reasoning paradigm is 1-dimensional. This paper will propose a 2-dimensional (2D) approach that represents fuzzy reasoning, CBR, and EBR in a unified way. This approach also integrates many reasoning paradigms such as abduction, deduction and similarity-based reasoning into a unified treatment. The proposed approach will facilitate research and development of fuzzy reasoning, knowledge/experience management, knowledge-based systems, and CBR.


Computing The Divisional Cost Of Capital Using The Pure Play Method, H. W. Collier, T. Grai, S. Haslitt, C. B. Mcgowan Oct 2006

Computing The Divisional Cost Of Capital Using The Pure Play Method, H. W. Collier, T. Grai, S. Haslitt, C. B. Mcgowan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The Cost of Capital Model is used to calculate the net present value of projects within a multi-unit corporation but may provide incorrect answers for projects that have a level of risk that differs from the overall average risk level for the corporation. We demonstrate the use of the Pure Play Method for calculating the required rate of return for a division of a corporation that has risk characteristics that differ from the risk characteristics of the overall corporation. We apply this methodology to the Integrated Electronic Systems Segment of the Motorola Corporation. We find that the IESS division cost ...


The Impact Of Family Complexity On The Attitudes Toward An International Career Of Russian Nationals, H. W. Collier, R. E. Jones, Carl B. Mcgowan Oct 2006

The Impact Of Family Complexity On The Attitudes Toward An International Career Of Russian Nationals, H. W. Collier, R. E. Jones, Carl B. Mcgowan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper examines attitudes of Russian MBA students toward international careers and finds that family complexity impacts responses. Respondents who have complex family situations were slightly favorable toward international careers with average survey response values of about 2.50. The average response values for survey respondents who were not in complex family situations were neutral (3.00) toward an international career. The results of this survey indicate that Russian MBA students are, on average, only slightly favorable toward international careers. The average response values were not different based on gender since the average response value for males was 2.65 ...


Corporate Social And Environmental Disclosure In Developing Countries: Evidence From Bangladesh, M. Hossain, K. Islam, J. Andrew Oct 2006

Corporate Social And Environmental Disclosure In Developing Countries: Evidence From Bangladesh, M. Hossain, K. Islam, J. Andrew

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extent and nature of social and environmental reporting in corporate annual reports. Specifically, we examine the relationship between social and environmental disclosure and several corporate attributes in a developing country, Bangladesh. In order to do this, we have developed and utilized a disclosure index to measure the extent of disclosure made by companies in corporate annual reports. This study reports significant differences in levels of social and environmental disclosure, as measured by the mean values of the social and environmental disclosure index in Bangladesh. This study reports that a very few ...


Exploring Mediating And Moderating Relationships Amongst Some Switching Barriers In The Business Services Sector, Venkata K. Yanamandram, L. White Oct 2006

Exploring Mediating And Moderating Relationships Amongst Some Switching Barriers In The Business Services Sector, Venkata K. Yanamandram, L. White

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper presents a research model to explore the (i) direct effects of independent variables (interpersonal relationship and attractiveness of alternatives) on behavioural loyalty, (ii) the mediating effects of dependence and calculative commitment on the relationship between independent variables and behavioural loyalty, and (iii) the moderating role of subjective knowledge on the relationship between attractiveness of alternatives and dependence. While the direct effects of interpersonal relationships and attractiveness of alternatives have been examined in a business-to-business (B2B) context, there is no research yet known that investigates these constructs under conditions of dissatisfaction in the B2B services sector. Similarly, there is ...


The Engineering Of Experience, Zhaohao Sun, H. Huo Oct 2006

The Engineering Of Experience, Zhaohao Sun, H. Huo

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Experience has been playing an important role in history of human and current social activities. Automating experience is also one of the most important parts for artificial intelligence. This paper will examine experience and experience based reasoning, experience management, experience engineering and their interrelationships. Then it will propose a unified architecture of experience engineering from a viewpoint of systems development methodologies. This architecture ties together philosophies, methodologies, techniques, tools and applications into a unified framework that includes both logical and intelligent embodiments of the aspects of experience engineering. The proposed approach will facilitate the development of experience management, experience engineering ...


User Interfaces For The Exploration Of Hierarchical Multi-Dimensional Data, Mark Sifer Oct 2006

User Interfaces For The Exploration Of Hierarchical Multi-Dimensional Data, Mark Sifer

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

A variety of user interfaces have been developed to support the querying of hierarchical multi-dimensional data in an OLAP setting such as pivot tables and more recently Polaris. They are used to regularly check portions of a dataset and to explore a new dataset for the first time. In this paper, we establish criteria for OLAP user interface capabilities to facilitate comparison. Two criteria are the number of displayed dimensions along which comparisons can be made and the number of dimensions that are viewable at once¿visual comparison depth and width. We argue that interfaces with greater visual comparison depth ...


Demonstrations Of The Activity Theory Framework For Research In Is, Kate Crawford, Helen M. Hasan Sep 2006

Demonstrations Of The Activity Theory Framework For Research In Is, Kate Crawford, Helen M. Hasan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The holistic and insightful nature of the (cultural-historical) Activity Theory has led to its use by several researchers as a suitable vehicle for understanding and analysis in many areas of IS research and practice. This paper demonstrates the application of Activity Theory to the study of socio-technical systems which mediate complex, collective activities in the modern workplace and in everyday life. Vignettes from five ongoing research projects are reported in order to illustrate not only the explanatory power of the Activity Theory research framework but also its use in determining appropriate methods used to manage the data collection and analysis ...


Emergent Conversational Technologies That Are Democratising Information Systems In Organisations: The Case Of The Corporate Wiki, Helen M. Hasan, Charmaine C. Pfaff Sep 2006

Emergent Conversational Technologies That Are Democratising Information Systems In Organisations: The Case Of The Corporate Wiki, Helen M. Hasan, Charmaine C. Pfaff

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Conversational technologies such as discussion forums, chatrooms, Weblogs or blogs and Wikis have transformed the way information is exchanged and disseminated in civil society but their take up in corporations is slow. One reason for this is the way they democratise organisational information and knowledge with consequential changes in the distribution of power, rights and obligations. The authors will discuss the opportunities and the threats associated with the corporate Wiki and the implications of this for the future of the field of Information Systems.


Blending Diverse Community Capability For Regional Development: The Case Of An E-Commerce Initiative For Local Indigenous Artists, Ann Hodgkinson, Helen M. Hasan Sep 2006

Blending Diverse Community Capability For Regional Development: The Case Of An E-Commerce Initiative For Local Indigenous Artists, Ann Hodgkinson, Helen M. Hasan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Regional communities often encompass the variety of skills and knowledge needed to take advantage of the Internet in order to open up their products and services to the global market place. They can, however, lack the foresight to identify opportunities to bring this diverse capability together and then manage it to carry out projects to successful outcomes. This paper presents a case where economic and technical expertise from a regional university has joined with exceptional artists, working in a struggling local indigenous community, to conduct a project to develop an e-commerce website both to sell their art-works and to promote ...


Financial Literacy Research: Current Literature And Future Opportunities, Sonia Marcolin, Anne Abraham Sep 2006

Financial Literacy Research: Current Literature And Future Opportunities, Sonia Marcolin, Anne Abraham

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The need for financial literacy has become increasingly significant with the deregulation of financial markets and the easier access to credit; the ready issue of credit cards; the rapid growth in marketing financial products and the Government’s encouragement for its citizens to take more self-responsibility for their retirement incomes. This paper reviews, compares and analyses studies conducted in Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom to determine areas of both commonality and inconsistency. As a result of this analysis, the paper presents recurrent themes that could be extended, together with potential new areas for financial literacy research.


Transformational Leadership In A Cross-Cultural Setting, Mario Fernando, Yi-Feng Yang Sep 2006

Transformational Leadership In A Cross-Cultural Setting, Mario Fernando, Yi-Feng Yang

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper reports the findings of a study that examines the application of transformational leadership in a cross-cultural setting. This study used Baron and Kenny’s (1986) and Parker’s (2003) mediation model, Podsakoff and Mackenzie’s (1990) scale of transformational leadership behaviour, and Herscovitch and Meyer’s (2002) items on commitment to change. Participants comprising pastors and church members were drawn from six Chinese- and three English-speaking church congregations in St Louis, Missouri, USA. The research findings suggest that the members of Chinese-speaking churches were positively affected by task-oriented behaviors and three types of commitment to change. On the ...


Urban Water Demand With Fixed Volumetric Charging In A Large Municipality: The Case Of Brisbane, Australia, M. Hoffmann, A. C. Worthington, H. Higgs Sep 2006

Urban Water Demand With Fixed Volumetric Charging In A Large Municipality: The Case Of Brisbane, Australia, M. Hoffmann, A. C. Worthington, H. Higgs

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper uses suburb-level quarterly data to model residential water demand in Brisbane, Australia from 1998 to 2003. In this system, residential consumption is charged using a fixed annual service fee with no water entitlement followed by a fixed volumetric charge per kilolitre. Water demand is specified as average quarterly household water consumption and the demand characteristics include the marginal price of water, household income and size, and the number of rainy and warm days. The findings not only confirm residential water as price and income inelastic, but also that the price and income elasticity of demand in owner-occupied households ...


Market Risk In Demutualised Self-Listed Stock Exchanges: An International Analysis Of Selected Time-Varying Betas, A. C. Worthington, H. Higgs Sep 2006

Market Risk In Demutualised Self-Listed Stock Exchanges: An International Analysis Of Selected Time-Varying Betas, A. C. Worthington, H. Higgs

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper examines market risk in four demutualised and self-listed stock exchanges: the Australian Stock Exchange, the Deutsche Börse, the London Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. Daily company and MSCI index returns provide the respective asset and market portfolio data. A bivariate MA-GARCH model is used to estimate time-varying betas for each exchange from listing until 7 June 2005. While the results indicate significant beta volatility, unit root tests show the betas to be mean-reverting. These findings are used to suggest that despite concerns that demutualised and self-listed exchanges entail new market risks that merit regulatory intervention, the ...


Financial Management In The Nonprofit Sector: A Mission-Based Approach To Ratio Analysis In Membership Organizations, A. Abraham Sep 2006

Financial Management In The Nonprofit Sector: A Mission-Based Approach To Ratio Analysis In Membership Organizations, A. Abraham

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Nonprofit organisations (NPOs) are melting pots combining mission, members and money. Given that the mission of a nonprofit organisation is the reason for its existence, it is appropriate to focus on financial resources in their association with mission and with the individuals who are served by that mission (Parker 2003; Wooten et al 2003; Colby and Rubin 2005). Measurement of financial performance by ratio analysis helps identify organizational strengths and weaknesses by detecting financial anomalies and focusing attention on issues of organizational importance (Glynn et al 2003). Questions have been raised that relate the performance of NPOs to their financial ...


Workplace Spirituality And Organizational Hypocrisy: The Holy Water-Gate Case, Mario Fernando, Michael Gross Sep 2006

Workplace Spirituality And Organizational Hypocrisy: The Holy Water-Gate Case, Mario Fernando, Michael Gross

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper is based on the sex scandal that enveloped the Archdiocese of Boston in 2002. In the face of increasing challenges to organizational deviance and silence, this paper showcases how the Catholic Church, entrusted with the upliftment of Christian spiritual values of its congregation and society, took the path of organizational hypocrisy. Drawing from the literature on organizational deviance and silence in profit driven organizations, we examine the practice of pseudo workplace spirituality. We argue that organizational hypocrisy is a major implication for profit driven organizations pursuing workplace spirituality for solely legitimacy reasons.


Inverse Alpha-Cuts And Interval [A, B)-Cuts, Zhaohao Sun, J. Han Aug 2006

Inverse Alpha-Cuts And Interval [A, B)-Cuts, Zhaohao Sun, J. Han

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper will propose the symmetric form of alpha-cut: inverse alpha-cut, and then alpha-induced fuzzy set and examine their properties. Further, it introduces interval cut, interval induced fuzzy set and examines their properties. The proposed approach will facilitate research of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy systems.


Environmental Volunteers: Are They Driven By Altruism And A Strong Feeling Of Regional Identity?, Melanie J. Randle, Sara Dolnicar Aug 2006

Environmental Volunteers: Are They Driven By Altruism And A Strong Feeling Of Regional Identity?, Melanie J. Randle, Sara Dolnicar

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The significant growth of the nonprofit sector in Australia has lead to increased competition between organisations in attracting and retaining volunteers. Nonprofit managers are under increasing pressure to adopt commercial marketing techniques in order to achieve volunteer targets, and are recognising the need for detailed market information in order to develop customised and targeted marketing strategies. Environmental organisations within Australia lack information in relation to the particular segment of the market which is most likely to volunteer for their type of cause. This study addresses this issue by investigating whether environmental volunteers display unique characteristics, such as strong levels of ...


Who Donates Time To The Benefit Of The Environment And Animal Rights? Profiling Volunteers From An International Perspective, Melanie J. Randle, Sara Dolnicar Aug 2006

Who Donates Time To The Benefit Of The Environment And Animal Rights? Profiling Volunteers From An International Perspective, Melanie J. Randle, Sara Dolnicar

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Despite increased competitive pressures in the volunteering industry, there remains a lack of studies which segment the volunteering market with the aim of gaining deeper insight into the characteristics of different groups of volunteers. This study addresses this issue by using data from the 1999-2002 World Values Survey, specifically investigating those individuals who volunteer for Environmental and Animal Rights (EAR) causes. Differences are found between (i) EAR volunteer and individuals who do not volunteer for any cause, and (ii) EAR volunteers and individuals who volunteer for causes other than the environment and animal rights. This information is useful for managers ...


Macroeconomic Risk Factors In Australian Commercial Real Estate, Listed Property Trust And Property Sector Stock Returns: A Comparative Analysis Using Garch-M, T. West, A. C. Worthington Aug 2006

Macroeconomic Risk Factors In Australian Commercial Real Estate, Listed Property Trust And Property Sector Stock Returns: A Comparative Analysis Using Garch-M, T. West, A. C. Worthington

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper employs a Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Mean (GARCH-M) model to consider the effect of macroeconomic factors on Australian property returns over the period 1985 to 2002. Three direct (office, retail and industrial property) and two indirect (listed property trust and property stock) returns are included in the analysis, along with market returns, short, medium and long-term interest rates, expected and unexpected inflation, construction activity and industrial employment and production. In general, macroeconomic factors are found to be significant risk factors in Australian commercial property returns. However, the results also indicate that forecast accuracy in these models is ...


A Web-Based Intelligent Virtual Learning Environment For Industrial Continuous Improvement, X. Chi, T. A. Spedding Aug 2006

A Web-Based Intelligent Virtual Learning Environment For Industrial Continuous Improvement, X. Chi, T. A. Spedding

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Training in an industrial context is becoming more dynamic and time consuming due to the daily emergence of new technologies and the onset of globalization. People from higher education institutions and industries have applied various heuristic teaching methods in order to inspire students to acquire knowledge in a manufacturing and industrial context. Artificial intelligence techniques has been used for many years in educational systems, however the presentation of domain knowledge is one of the most concerning issues which stems the evolvement of the industrial training systems development. In this paper we present a web-based intelligent virtual learning environment which is ...


Factors Associated With Research Management In Australian Commerce And Business Faculties, R. Macgregor, M. Rix, D. K. Aylward, J. Glynn Jul 2006

Factors Associated With Research Management In Australian Commerce And Business Faculties, R. Macgregor, M. Rix, D. K. Aylward, J. Glynn

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Measurable research outputs have become part of the overall research management structure within Australian universities has over the past ten years. As such, policy makers and administrators alike have come to regard effective management structures and mechanisms as fundamental components of a research environment capable of generating desired quantities of quality outcomes. This paper is based on empirical research carried out over the past year that surveyed academics from commerce and business faculties in Australian universities. The data shows that factors such as gender, discipline and academic level appear to impinge on the relative importance of components that make up ...


Ranking And Clustering Australian University Research Performance, 1998-2002, Abbas Valadkhani, A. C. Worthington Jul 2006

Ranking And Clustering Australian University Research Performance, 1998-2002, Abbas Valadkhani, A. C. Worthington

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper clusters and ranks the research performance of thirty-six Australian universities over the period 1998-2002. Research performance is measured according to audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training) and analysed in both total and per academic staff terms. Hierarchical cluster analysis supports a binary division between fifteen higher and twenty-two lower-performing universities, with the specification in per academic staff terms identifying the self-designated research intensive ‘Group of Seven’ (Go7) universities, plus several others in the better-performing group. Factor analysis indicates that the top-three research performers ...


Exploring The Switching Costs-Behavioural Loyalty Relationship Amongst Dissatisfied Customers In The B2b Services Sector, Venkata K. Yanamandram, L. White Jul 2006

Exploring The Switching Costs-Behavioural Loyalty Relationship Amongst Dissatisfied Customers In The B2b Services Sector, Venkata K. Yanamandram, L. White

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper presents a research model to explore the mediating effects of dependence and commitment on the relationship between switching costs and behavioural loyalty, and the moderating role of criticality of purchase in the relationship between dependence and commitment in the B2B services sector. While studies have recognised the mediating role of dependence and commitment on relational intentions, there is no research identified that investigates mediating or moderating roles under conditions of dissatisfaction in the B2B services sector. We attempt to fill this knowledge gap by contributing to a better understanding of how customer loyalty towards service providers is formed ...


Simulation Framework As A Multi-User Environment For A Go*Team Game, J. Jagiello, M. Eronen, N. Tay, D. Hart, L. Warne, Helen M. Hasan Jul 2006

Simulation Framework As A Multi-User Environment For A Go*Team Game, J. Jagiello, M. Eronen, N. Tay, D. Hart, L. Warne, Helen M. Hasan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper describes the design and implementation of a computerized team version of the ancient strategy game of Go. The game is called Go*Team, and forms part of a research effort investigating how people and groups coordinate, cooperate and share information, especially in a military network-centric environment. Of particular interest in the research are human or group related factors that may impede or even prevent the successful achievement of such coordination, cooperation and information sharing despite the availability or presence of the technological capability to support it. Accordingly, Go*Team is designed to embed its players in an environment ...


Emerging Interorganizational Structures In The Australian Wine Industry: Implications For Smes, D. K. Aylward, Michael Zanko Jul 2006

Emerging Interorganizational Structures In The Australian Wine Industry: Implications For Smes, D. K. Aylward, Michael Zanko

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper discusses the globalization of the wine industry in terms of such issues as global production, distribution, technology transfer and branding. It also examines the increasing focus on localization and cluster development in light of the industry’s current rationalization. The paper argues that with such reconfiguration, ‘New’ and ‘Old World’ distinctions are blurring and may disappear. Furthermore, as the wine landscape evolves, regional cluster-based interorganizational domains are forming, along with the emergence of regional branding and the decline of a homogeneous Australian level industry. It is contended that these domains are essential in securing an ongoing role for ...


Accounting For Intellectual Property: Inconsistencies And Challenges, Lee C. Moerman, S. L. Van Der Laan Jul 2006

Accounting For Intellectual Property: Inconsistencies And Challenges, Lee C. Moerman, S. L. Van Der Laan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The recognition of the rights attached to some forms of intellectual property is a contested domain in legal frameworks, such as the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. The same can be said of economic frameworks, such as accounting which attempt to recognise and value intellectual property for the purposes of providing information for decision making. In this paper we explore the discourse of accounting in the recognition of intellectual property as an asset according to the new International Accounting Standards. We then contrast the legal and accounting discourses in which intellectual property rights are acknowledged, concluding that ...


Are R&D Collaborators Bound To Compete? Experience From Cooperative Research Centres In Australia, Samuel E. Garrett-Jones, T. Turpin, Kieren Diment Jun 2006

Are R&D Collaborators Bound To Compete? Experience From Cooperative Research Centres In Australia, Samuel E. Garrett-Jones, T. Turpin, Kieren Diment

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Increasingly, research of potential socio-economic value is being conducted within cross-sector (government, university, business) inter-organizational networks. Such networks encourage innovation and learning by breaking down rigidities in existing institutions and by providing for ‘knowledge creation in the context of application’. In the process, new organizational forms for research and development (R&D) are emerging. The Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) is the dominant organizational model for cross-sector collaborative R&D in Australia. Joining a cross-sector collaborative R&D centre poses a significant challenge for public sector research managers. Success depends on cooperation with businesses and other organizations whose interests, objectives, expectations and strategies at various times converge or conflict. The game is a risky one, with the possibility of unforeseen and unwelcome consequences such as partner opportunism and competition for resources. Yet little empirical evidence exists on how researchers perceive and manage the risks and rewards of participation in cross-sector R&D centres. Our study gives voice to the researchers within these inter-organizational networks. We draw evidence from a written survey of 370 respondents from public sector organizations involved in the management and conduct of CRC-based research. The survey questions permit an assessment of the main benefits and problems in CRC participation; the management strategies adopted; and the effect of CRC participation on careers. Responses to open-ended questions in the survey convey the ‘CRC experience’ in the participants own words. We find the concepts of risk common in the management and organizational studies literature inadequate to explain the dynamics of interaction ...


Innovative Socio-Technical Systems For Complex Decision-Making, Helen M. Hasan, Kate Crawford Jun 2006

Innovative Socio-Technical Systems For Complex Decision-Making, Helen M. Hasan, Kate Crawford

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper views the complex activities and decision-making of self-directed groups as socio-technical systems. Seven innovative ICT-based tools are presented that underpin such activities. Three projects are then described where suitable selections of these tools are used creatively in harmony with human and social processes. The Activity Theory hierarchy is used to explain how, in these three projects, the capacity of technology is exploited, where appropriate, to automate operations, while the choice and execution of actions remain with the people engaged in the activities. This provides a picture of decision support systems as socio-technical in nature, involving the exploitation of ...


Global Pipelines: Profiling Successful Sme Exporters Within The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward Jun 2006

Global Pipelines: Profiling Successful Sme Exporters Within The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Increasingly, entire industry sectors and individual firms are re-orienting their business strategies to align with the demands of rapid globalization. Sustainable export mechanisms are becoming an integral component of these strategies. Small, medium and large firms are focusing more than ever on marketing goals, branding, distribution channels and production quality in order to address the growing opportunities and challenges of this globalization. An industry in which firms are responding effectively to these opportunities and challenges is the Australian wine industry. In terms of export growth, intensity, diversity and sustainability, this industry is increasingly seen as a template for others. Using ...