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Sentencing For The 'Crime Of Crimes': The Evolving 'Common Law' Of Sentencing Of The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda, Robert Sloane Dec 2006

Sentencing For The 'Crime Of Crimes': The Evolving 'Common Law' Of Sentencing Of The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda, Robert Sloane

Faculty Scholarship

Absent much prescriptive guidance in its Statute or other positive law, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) has been developing, in effect, a 'common law' of sentencing for the most serious international crimes: genocide and crimes against humanity. While it remains, as the Appeals Chamber has said, premature to speak of an emerging 'penal regime', and the coherence in sentencing practice that this denotes, this comment offers some preliminary reflections on the substantive law and process of sentencing as it has evolved through ICTR practice. Above all, I argue, sentencing must, but has not yet, become an integral part ...


Incentivizing And Protecting Informants Prior To Mass Atrocities Such As Genocide: An Alternative To Post Hoc Courts And Tribunals, Eric Talbot Jensen Dec 2006

Incentivizing And Protecting Informants Prior To Mass Atrocities Such As Genocide: An Alternative To Post Hoc Courts And Tribunals, Eric Talbot Jensen

Faculty Scholarship

International institutions are almost exclusively reactive to violations of international law. There are very few systemic methods of proactively trying to prevent egregious violations such as genocide; rather, international law seems to take punishing violators as its sole approach. In modern times, most of the punishment and post-event enforcement has come through international courts and tribunals. These courts and tribunals are astoundingly expensive and notoriously inefficient. More importantly, the threat of prosecution does not appear to act as an effective deterrent in preventing criminal acts. This is unacceptable. With hundreds of thousands of lives at stake, the international community must ...


The Iraqi High Tribunal And Rule Of Law: Challenges, Mark A. Drumbl Jan 2006

The Iraqi High Tribunal And Rule Of Law: Challenges, Mark A. Drumbl

Faculty Scholarship

None available.


Book Review: International Environmental Treaties And State Behavior: Factors Influencing Cooperation, Maxwell O. Chibundu Jan 2006

Book Review: International Environmental Treaties And State Behavior: Factors Influencing Cooperation, Maxwell O. Chibundu

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Between Rogues And Liberals: Towards Value Pluralism As A Theory Of Freedom Of Religion In International Law, Peter G. Danchin Jan 2006

Between Rogues And Liberals: Towards Value Pluralism As A Theory Of Freedom Of Religion In International Law, Peter G. Danchin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Rule-Skepticism, "Strategery," And The Limits Of International Law, David Gray Jan 2006

Rule-Skepticism, "Strategery," And The Limits Of International Law, David Gray

Faculty Scholarship

This is a review essay of Eric Posner and Jack Goldsmith's fascinating book, The Limits of International Law. In the essay I provide an exegesis of the core argument of the book, which is that the conduct of states in fields occupied by international law is more powerfully described by game theory than by law talk. In particular, the authors argue that state conduct traditionally described in terms of obedience and violation is actually determined by self-interest modified by the strategic conditions of identifiable games; principally coincidence games, coordination games, coercion games, and iterated prisoner dilemmas. In the essay ...


An Emerging Uniformity For International Law, David H. Moore Jan 2006

An Emerging Uniformity For International Law, David H. Moore

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


International Decisions–Guatemala Genocide Case, Naomi Roht-Arriaza Jan 2006

International Decisions–Guatemala Genocide Case, Naomi Roht-Arriaza

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A King Who Devours His People: Jiang Zemin And The Falun Gong Crackddown: A Bibliography, Michael J. Greenlee Jan 2006

A King Who Devours His People: Jiang Zemin And The Falun Gong Crackddown: A Bibliography, Michael J. Greenlee

Faculty Scholarship

In July 1999, the government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) began an official crackdown against the qigong cultivation group known as Falun Gong. Intended to quickly contain and eliminate what the PRC considers an evil or heretical cult (xiejiao), the suppression has instead created the longest sustained and, since the Tiananmen Square protests of June 1989, most widely known human rights protest conducted in the PRC. The Falun Gong has received worldwide recognition and support while the crackdown continues to provoke harsh criticism against the PRC as new allegations of human ...


Has Conduct In Iraq Confirmed The Moral Inadequacy Of International Humanitarian Law? Examining The Confluence Between Contract Theory And The Scope Of Civilian Immunity During Armed Conflict, 16 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 249 (2006), Samuel Vincent Jones Jan 2006

Has Conduct In Iraq Confirmed The Moral Inadequacy Of International Humanitarian Law? Examining The Confluence Between Contract Theory And The Scope Of Civilian Immunity During Armed Conflict, 16 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 249 (2006), Samuel Vincent Jones

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Counterintuitive: Intelligence Operations And International Law, Glenn Sulmasy, John Yoo Jan 2006

Counterintuitive: Intelligence Operations And International Law, Glenn Sulmasy, John Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Private Law Beyond The State? Europeanization, Globalization, Privatization, Ralf Michaels, Nils Jansen Jan 2006

Private Law Beyond The State? Europeanization, Globalization, Privatization, Ralf Michaels, Nils Jansen

Faculty Scholarship

Although the changing relation between private law and the state has become the subject of many debates, these debates are often unsatisfactory. Concepts like 'law', 'private law', and 'globalization' have unclear and shifting meanings; discussions are confined to specific questions and do not connect with similar discussions taking place elsewhere. In order to initiate the necessary broader approach, this article brings together the pertinent themes and aspects from various debates. It proposes a conceptual clarification of key notions in the debate- "private law," "state," "Europeanization," "globalization," and "privatization"- that should be of use beyond the immediate purposes of the rest ...


Not Fully Committed? Reservations, Risk And Treaty Design, Laurence R. Helfer Jan 2006

Not Fully Committed? Reservations, Risk And Treaty Design, Laurence R. Helfer

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay responds to Reserving, a forthcoming Article by Professor Edward T. Swaine to be published in the Yale Journal of International Law. The Essay first reviews the Article's explanation of the complex and often counterintuitive rules that govern the filing of unilateral reservations to multilateral treaties. It then offers three modest additions to Professor Swaine's insightful contribution to the growing body of interdisciplinary scholarship on treaty design. First, the Essay applies Swaine's theory of state interests and information to a dynamic model that takes account of temporal issues such as when states file reservations and how ...


Foreign And International Law In Constitutional Gay Rights Litigation: What Claims, What Use And Whose Law?, William D. Araiza Jan 2006

Foreign And International Law In Constitutional Gay Rights Litigation: What Claims, What Use And Whose Law?, William D. Araiza

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


International Law And The Rise Of China, Eric A. Posner, John Yoo Jan 2006

International Law And The Rise Of China, Eric A. Posner, John Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

The standard example is that of Germany, whose economic and military might increased rapidly after unification in 1871, resulting in expansionist tendencies that were resisted by the status quo powers-France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.4 The basic strategic problem for the US is that it must yield to China as China's power increases, but it should not yield too much. Relatively minor incidents-America's accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in 1999 and China's capture of an American spy plane in 2001-provoked extreme public reactions in China.5 China's leaders have shown themselves ...


The Wall And The Law: A Tale Of Two Judgements, Susan Akram Jan 2006

The Wall And The Law: A Tale Of Two Judgements, Susan Akram

Faculty Scholarship

The seminal rulings in 2004 by the International Court of Justice and the Israeli High Court on the legality of the wall/barrier that Israel is building through the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem provide a study in contrast. While both judgements were critical of the wall/barrier, their judicial approaches and legal conclusions were strikingly divergent, particularly given that the two courts were purporting to rely upon the same principles of international law. The judgements also elicited quite different political and diplomatic reactions, especially among the parties most involved in the Israel/Palestine conflict. This article explores the ...


Legal Issues In Coalition Warfare: A U.S. Perspective, Charles J. Dunlap Jr. Jan 2006

Legal Issues In Coalition Warfare: A U.S. Perspective, Charles J. Dunlap Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Legitimacy As An Assessment Of Existing Legal Standards: The Case Of The 2003 Iraq War, Charlotte Ku Jan 2006

Legitimacy As An Assessment Of Existing Legal Standards: The Case Of The 2003 Iraq War, Charlotte Ku

Faculty Scholarship

The Iraq war was a multiple assault on the foundations and rules of the existing UN-centered world order. It called into question the adequacy of the existing institutions for articulating global norms and enforcing compliance with the demands of the international community. It highlighted also the unwillingness of some key countries to wait until definitive proof before acting to meet the danger of the world's most destructive weapons falling into the hands of the world's most dangerous regimes. It was simultaneously a test of the UN's willingness and ability to deal with brutal dictatorships and a searching ...


Human Rights Enforcement In The Twenty-First Century, Douglas L. Donoho Jan 2006

Human Rights Enforcement In The Twenty-First Century, Douglas L. Donoho

Faculty Scholarship

The international human rights system enters the twenty-first century facing a profound anomaly. Despite remarkable normative and institutional developments since the system's inception, the world remains mired in widespread violations of human dignity. Genocidal episodes have repeatedly scarred the consciousness of humankind since World War ll. Floods of refugees and simmering ethnic conflicts continually challenge the international community's capacity to respond, and grotesque forms of physical abuse, such as torture and summary execution, remain commonplace Despite a promising trend toward democratic governance around the world, basic civil liberties for countless millions remain only an empty promise.' Most disheartening ...


Home Rule And Local Political Innovation, Richard Briffault Jan 2006

Home Rule And Local Political Innovation, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

As demonstrated by San Francisco's recent adoption of instant runoff voting and New York City's recent expansion of its program for funding candidates for municipal office, local governments around the country have been actively engaged in examining and revising electoral and governmental processes. These local initiatives include alternative voting systems, campaign finance reforms, conflicts of interest codes, term limits, and revisions to tax, budget and legislative procedures. These local innovations illustrate both the capacity of local governments to restructure basic features of their political organization and their interest in doing so. Local political innovations also test the scope ...


Safe-Conduct Theory Of The Alien Tort Statute, The , Thomas Lee Jan 2006

Safe-Conduct Theory Of The Alien Tort Statute, The , Thomas Lee

Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, Professor Lee introduces a novel explanation of the Alien Tort Statute (ATS) - a founding-era enactment that has achieved modern prominence as a vehicle for international human rights litigation. He demonstrates how the statute was intended to address violations of something called a "safe conduct" - a sovereign promise of safety to aliens from injury to their persons and property. The safe-conduct theory advances a new modern role for the ATS to redress torts committed by private actors - including aliens - with a U.S. sovereign nexus, and not for international law violations committed by anyone anywhere. In developing this ...


Universal Rights And Wrongs, Michael E. Tigar Jan 2006

Universal Rights And Wrongs, Michael E. Tigar

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Legal Limits Of Universal Jurisdiction, Anthony J. Colangelo Jan 2006

The Legal Limits Of Universal Jurisdiction, Anthony J. Colangelo

Faculty Scholarship

Despite all the attention it receives from both its supporters and critics, universal jurisdiction remains one of the more confused doctrines of international law. Indeed, while commentary has focused largely and unevenly on policy and normative arguments either favoring or undercutting the desirability of its exercise, a straightforward legal analysis breaking down critical aspects of this extraordinary form of jurisdiction remains conspicuously missing. Yet universal jurisdiction's increased practice by states calls out for such a clear descriptive understanding. This Essay engages this under-treated area. It offers to explicate a basic, but overlooked, feature of the law of universal jurisdiction ...


Innovation Through Intimidation: An Empirical Account Of Defamation Litigation In China, Benjamin L. Liebman Jan 2006

Innovation Through Intimidation: An Empirical Account Of Defamation Litigation In China, Benjamin L. Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines 223 recent defamation cases in China. Empirical analysis of claims and outcomes reveals that defamation litigation is developing on two tracks. Track-one cases are brought by public officials, government and Communist Party entities, and corporations to restrict and silence the increasingly autonomous Chinese media. Track-two cases are brought by ordinary persons against the media – which remain an arm of the Party-state.

Conventional wisdom takes track-one suits as the paradigm and perceives defamation litigation in Chinese courts as yet another lever of state control over the media. Such developments correspond to the use of defamation law in other ...