# Digital Commons Network™

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## Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Estimating Variance Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty: Case Of Hierarchical Estimation, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2006

#### Estimating Variance Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty: Case Of Hierarchical Estimation, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

No abstract provided.

Fast Algorithms For Computing Statistics Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty, And Their Applications, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2006

#### Fast Algorithms For Computing Statistics Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty, And Their Applications, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many engineering applications, we have to combine probabilistic, interval, and fuzzy uncertainty. For example, in environmental analysis, we observe a pollution level x(t) in a lake at different moments of time t, and we would like to estimate standard statistical characteristics such as mean, variance, autocorrelation, correlation with other measurements. In environmental measurements, we often only measure the values with interval uncertainty. We must therefore modify the existing statistical algorithms to process such interval data.

In this paper, we provide a brief survey of algorithms for computing various statistics under interval (and fuzzy) uncertainty and of their applications ...

For Piecewise Smooth Signals, L1 Method Is The Best Among Lp: An Interval-Based Justification Of An Empirical Fact, Vladik Kreinovich, Arnold Neumaier Dec 2006

#### For Piecewise Smooth Signals, L1 Method Is The Best Among Lp: An Interval-Based Justification Of An Empirical Fact, Vladik Kreinovich, Arnold Neumaier

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Traditional engineering techniques use the Least Squares method (i.e., in mathematical terms, the l2-norm) to process data. It is known that in many practical situations, lp-methods with p=/=2 lead to better results. In different practical situations, different values of p are optimal. It is known that in several situations when we need to reconstruct a piecewise smooth signal, the empirically optimal value of p is close to 1. In this paper, we provide a new interval-based theoretical explanation for this empirical fact.

How To Take Into Account Dependence Between The Inputs: From Interval Computations To Constraint-Related Set Computations, With Potential Applications To Nuclear Safety, Bio- And Geosciences, Martine Ceberio, Scott Ferson, Vladik Kreinovich, Sanjeev Chopra, Gang Xiang, Adrian Murguia, Jorge Santillan Nov 2006

#### How To Take Into Account Dependence Between The Inputs: From Interval Computations To Constraint-Related Set Computations, With Potential Applications To Nuclear Safety, Bio- And Geosciences, Martine Ceberio, Scott Ferson, Vladik Kreinovich, Sanjeev Chopra, Gang Xiang, Adrian Murguia, Jorge Santillan

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many real-life situations, in addition to knowing the intervals Xi of possible values of each variable xi, we also know additional restrictions on the possible combinations of xi; in this case, the set X of possible values of x=(x1,..,xn) is a proper subset of the original box X1 x ... x Xn. In this paper, we show how to take into account this dependence between the inputs when computing the range of a function f(x1,...,xn).

Interview No. 1185, Simón Acosta Oct 2006

#### Interview No. 1185, Simón Acosta

##### Combined Interviews

Mr. Acosta remembers how he heard about the bracero program in Sinaloa, México, and how he traveled to Sonora to get contracted; he relates how he had to pick cotton to earn his card for contracting and how the process was conducted in Empalme, Sonora, México; moreover, he states how the processing center at El Centro, California worked, how he was fumigated with a spray, and that he had blood drawn when crossing the border into the United States; he recalls working in California picking beets, oranges and cutting lettuce; furthermore, he goes on to discuss how daily life was ...

What Users Say They Want In Documentation, David G. Novick, Karen Ward Oct 2006

#### What Users Say They Want In Documentation, David G. Novick, Karen Ward

##### Departmental Papers (CS)

While earlier work provided a partial view of users’ preferences about manuals, for most users in most work contexts the important question remains open: What do users want in documentation? This paper presents the results of a study in which a diverse cross-section of 25 users was interviewed in depth about their needs and preferences with respect to software help systems, whether printed or on-line, that they use at work. The study’s participants indicated that they preferred documentation, whether online or printed, that is easy to navigate, provides explanations at an appropriate level of technical detail, enables finding as ...

Why Don't People Read The Manual?, David G. Novick, Karen Ward Oct 2006

#### Why Don't People Read The Manual?, David G. Novick, Karen Ward

##### Departmental Papers (CS)

Few users of computer applications seek help from the documentation. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of why this is so and examines how, in real work, users solve their usability problems. Based on in-depth interviews with 25 subjects representing a varied cross-section of users, we find that users do avoid using both paper and online help systems. Few users have paper manuals for the most heavily used applications, but none complained about their lack. Online help is more likely to be consulted than paper manuals, but users are equally likely to report that they solve their ...

How To Efficiently Process Uncertainty Within A Cyberinfrastructure Without Sacrificing Privacy And Confidentiality, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich Oct 2006

#### How To Efficiently Process Uncertainty Within A Cyberinfrastructure Without Sacrificing Privacy And Confidentiality, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In this paper, we propose a simple solution to the problem of estimating uncertainty of the results of applying a black-box algorithm -- without sacrificing privacy and confidentiality of the algorithm.

Entropy Conserving Probability Transforms And The Entailment Principle, Ronald R. Yager, Vladik Kreinovich Oct 2006

#### Entropy Conserving Probability Transforms And The Entailment Principle, Ronald R. Yager, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Our main result here is the development of a general procedure for transforming some initial probability distribution into a new probability distribution in a way that the resulting distribution has entropy at least as great as the original distribution. A significant aspect of our approach is that it makes use of the Zadeh's entailment principle which is itself a general procedure for going from an initial possibility distribution to a new possibility distribution so that the resulting possibility has an uncertainty at least as great of the original.

Two Etudes On Combining Probabilistic And Interval Uncertainty: Processing Correlations And Measuring Loss Of Privacy, Martine Ceberio, Gang Xiang, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich, Hung T. Nguyen, Daniel Berleant Oct 2006

#### Two Etudes On Combining Probabilistic And Interval Uncertainty: Processing Correlations And Measuring Loss Of Privacy, Martine Ceberio, Gang Xiang, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich, Hung T. Nguyen, Daniel Berleant

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many practical situations, there is a need to combine interval and probabilistic uncertainty. The need for such a combination leads to two types of problems: (1) how to process the given combined uncertainty, and (2) how to gauge the amount of uncertainty and -- a related question -- how to best decrease this uncertainty. In our research, we concentrate on these two types of problems. In this paper, we present two examples that illustrate how the corresponding problems can be solved.

Nova Quarterly: The University Of Texas At El Paso, The University Of Texas At El Paso University Communications Oct 2006

#### Nova Quarterly: The University Of Texas At El Paso, The University Of Texas At El Paso University Communications

##### NOVA

Fall 2006, Vol. 44, No. 3; No. 167

Borderplex Economic Outlook: 2006-2008, Thomas M. Fullerton Jr. Oct 2006

#### Borderplex Economic Outlook: 2006-2008, Thomas M. Fullerton Jr.

##### Border Region Modeling Project

No abstract provided.

Interview No. 1053, Alberto Mendoza Torres Sep 2006

#### Interview No. 1053, Alberto Mendoza Torres

##### Combined Interviews

Mr. Mendoza recalls his childhood in Tizapotla, Morelos, México, and memories of his father, a soldier in Emiliano Zapata’s army during the Mexican Revolution; he remembers the hardships he suffered while working the land his father left him, and the impact bad weather had on his farming; additionally, he details how he worked in factories, and his decision to join the Bracero Program; he enlisted in 1959, and relates the process he went through to get hired in Cuernavaca, Morelos, México, as well as the fumigation performed on him at the United States border; he describes working in Arizona ...

Comppknots: A Framework For Parallel Prediction And Comparison Of Rna Secondary Structures With Pseudoknots, Trilce Estrada, Abel Licon, Michela Taufer Sep 2006

#### Comppknots: A Framework For Parallel Prediction And Comparison Of Rna Secondary Structures With Pseudoknots, Trilce Estrada, Abel Licon, Michela Taufer

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Codes for RNA structure prediction based on energy minimization are usually very time and resource intensive. For this reason several codes have been significantly simplified: in some cases they are unable to predict complex secondary structures such as pseudoknots, while at other times they are able to predict structures with reduced lengths, or they are only able to predict some elementary and simple pseudoknots. Each of the existing codes has its strengths and weaknesses. Providing scientists with tools that are able to combine the strengths of the several codes is a worthwhile objective.

To address this need, we present compPknots ...

Canica: An Ide For The Java Modeling Language, Angelica B. Perez, Yoonsik Cheon, Ann Q. Gates Aug 2006

#### Canica: An Ide For The Java Modeling Language, Angelica B. Perez, Yoonsik Cheon, Ann Q. Gates

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Canica is an integrated development environment for the Java Modeling Language (JML), a formal behavioral interface specification language for Java. The JML distribution includes several support tools, such as a syntax checker, a compiler, and a document generator, and there are several third-party tools available for JML. However, most of these tools are command-line-based and work in isolation. Canica glues and streamlines these tools to provide a GUI-based, integrated environment for JML; for example, it automates unit testing completely from test data generation to test execution and test result determination. In this paper, we describe the key features of Canica ...

Finding Least Expensive Tolerance Solutions And Least Expensive Tolerance Revisions: Algorithms And Computational Complexity, Inna Pivkina, Vladik Kreinovich Aug 2006

#### Finding Least Expensive Tolerance Solutions And Least Expensive Tolerance Revisions: Algorithms And Computational Complexity, Inna Pivkina, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

For an engineering design, tolerances in design parameters are selected so that within these tolerances, we guarantee the desired functionality. Feasible algorithms are known for solving the corresponding computational problems: the problem of finding tolerances that guarantee the given functionality, and the problem of checking whether given tolerances guarantee this functionality.

In this paper, we show that in many practical problems, the problem of choosing the optimal tolerances can also be solved by a feasible algorithm. We prove that a slightly different problem of finding the optimal tolerance revision is, in contrast, computationally difficult (namely, NP-hard). We also show that ...

A Model-Based Workflow Approach For Scientific Applications, Leonardo Salayandia, Paulo Pinheiro Da Silva, Ann Q. Gates, Alvaro Rebellon Aug 2006

#### A Model-Based Workflow Approach For Scientific Applications, Leonardo Salayandia, Paulo Pinheiro Da Silva, Ann Q. Gates, Alvaro Rebellon

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Productive design of scientific workflows often depends on the effectiveness of the communication between the discipline domain experts and computer scientists, including their ability to share their specific needs in the design of the workflow. Discipline domain experts and computer scientists, however, tend to have distinct needs for designing workflows including terminology, level of abstraction, workflow aspects that should be included in the design. This paper discusses the use of a Model-Based Workflow (MBW) approach as an abstract way to specify workflows that conciliate the needs of domain and computer scientists. Within the context of GEON, an NSF cyberinfrastructure for ...

Upper Rio Grande Workforce Development Board Industry Cluster Analysis, Mathew Mcelroy, Carlos Olmedo, Ed Feser, Ken Poole Aug 2006

#### Upper Rio Grande Workforce Development Board Industry Cluster Analysis, Mathew Mcelroy, Carlos Olmedo, Ed Feser, Ken Poole

##### IPED Technical Reports

No abstract provided.

Sun Metro Fixed Route Rider Survey, Dennis L. Soden, Mathew Mcelroy, Susanne Green Aug 2006

#### Sun Metro Fixed Route Rider Survey, Dennis L. Soden, Mathew Mcelroy, Susanne Green

##### IPED Technical Reports

No abstract provided.

Wavesurfer: A Tool For Sound Analysis, Ernesto Medina, Thamar Solorio Aug 2006

#### Wavesurfer: A Tool For Sound Analysis, Ernesto Medina, Thamar Solorio

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Researchers in the Interactive Systems Group at UTEP have been using a research tool called Didi for some time now. It was originally designed to be easily adaptable. This tool has proven to be adaptable as it has been changed by different researchers to suit particular needs. As a result, multiple versions of the program exist. In addition to this, the tool only works in Linux and has grown quite a bit. To solve these problems, the different versions could have been consolidated into one program and modified to produce a version that worked on other platforms, or another program ...

Workflow-Driven Ontologies: An Earth Sciences Case Study, Leonardo Salayandia, Paulo Pinheiro Da Silva, Ann Q. Gates, Flor Salcedo Aug 2006

#### Workflow-Driven Ontologies: An Earth Sciences Case Study, Leonardo Salayandia, Paulo Pinheiro Da Silva, Ann Q. Gates, Flor Salcedo

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

A goal of the Geosciences Network (GEON) is to develop cyber-infrastructure that will allow earth scientists to discover access, integrate and disseminate knowledge in distributed environments such as the Web, changing the way in which research is conducted. The earth sciences community has begun the complex task of creating ontologies to support this effort. A challenge is to coalesce the needs of the earth scientists, who wish to capture knowledge in a particular discipline through the ontology, with the need to leverage the knowledge to support technology that will facilitate computation, for example, by helping the composition of services. This ...

Guide To Ms508 Fanny Zlabovsky-National Council Of Jewish Women Case Files, Susan Goodman Novick Aug 2006

#### Guide To Ms508 Fanny Zlabovsky-National Council Of Jewish Women Case Files, Susan Goodman Novick

##### Finding Aids

Fanny Hutman Zlabovsky worked for the El Paso section of the National Council of Jewish Women from 1920 until the early 1940s, and kept the case files on those immigrants on whose cases she worked. The Fanny Zlabovsky-National Council of Jewish Women Case Files include 239 case files that include correspondence in English and Yiddish with immigrants and their families as well as with officials at the national office of the NCJW, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, and other national and international organizations that assisted immigrants in the 1920s to 1940s. In addition to these case files, there are other ...

For Complex Intervals, Exact Range Computation Is Np-Hard Even For Single Use Expressions (Even For The Product), Martine Ceberio, Vladik Kreinovich, Guenter Mayer Jul 2006

#### For Complex Intervals, Exact Range Computation Is Np-Hard Even For Single Use Expressions (Even For The Product), Martine Ceberio, Vladik Kreinovich, Guenter Mayer

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

One of the main problems of interval computations is to compute the range Y of the given function f(x1,...,xn) under interval uncertainty. Interval computations started with the invention of straightforward interval computations, when we simply replace each elementary arithmetic operation in the code for f with the corresponding operation from interval arithmetic. In general, this technique only leads to an enclosure for the desired range, but in the important case of single use expressions (SUE), in which each variable occurs only once, we get the exact range. Thus, for SUE expressions, there exists a feasible (polynomial-time) algorithm for ...

#### Fast Computation Of Exact Ranges Of Symmetric Convex And Concave Functions Under Interval Uncertainty, Gang Xiang

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Many statistical characteristics y=f(x1,...,xn) are continuous, symmetric, and either concave or convex; examples include population variance V=(1/n)*(x1^2+...+xn^2)-E^2 (where E=(1/n)*(x1+...+xn), Shannon's entropy S=-p1*log(p1)-..-pn*log(pn), and many other characteristics. In practice, often, we often only know the intervals Xi=[xi-,xi+] that contain the (unknown) actual inputs xi. Since different values xi from Xi lead, in general, to different values of f(x1,...,xn), we need to find the range Y={f(x1,...,xn):x1 in X1,...,xn in Xn}, i ...

The Effectiveness Of Threshold-Based Scheduling Policies On Boinc Projects, Trilce Estrada, David A. Flores, Michela Taufer, Patricia J. Teller, Andre Kerstens, David P. Anderson Jul 2006

#### The Effectiveness Of Threshold-Based Scheduling Policies On Boinc Projects, Trilce Estrada, David A. Flores, Michela Taufer, Patricia J. Teller, Andre Kerstens, David P. Anderson

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Several scientific projects use BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) to perform large-scale simulations using volunteers� computers (workers) across the Internet. In general, the scheduling of tasks in BOINC uses a First-Come-First-Serve policy and no attention is paid to workers� past performance, such as whether they have tended to perform tasks promptly and correctly. In this paper we use SimBA, a discrete-event simulator of BOINC applications, to study new threshold-based scheduling strategies for BOINC projects that use availability and reliability metrics to classify workers and distribute tasks according to this classification. We show that if availability and reliability thresholds ...

Detecting Filled Pauses In Tutorial Dialogs, Gaurav Garg, Nigel Ward Jul 2006

#### Detecting Filled Pauses In Tutorial Dialogs, Gaurav Garg, Nigel Ward

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

As dialog systems become more capable, users tend to talk more spontaneously and less formally. Spontaneous speech includes features which convey information about the user's state. In particular, filled pauses, such as `um' and `uh', can indicate that the user is having trouble, wants more time, wants to hold the floor, or is uncertain. In this paper we present a first study of the acoustic characteristics of filled pauses in tutorial dialogs. We show that in this domain, as in other domains, filled pauses typically have flat pitch and fairly constant energy. We present a simple algorithm based on ...

Nova Quarterly: The University Of Texas At El Paso, The University Of Texas At El Paso University Communications Jul 2006

#### Nova Quarterly: The University Of Texas At El Paso, The University Of Texas At El Paso University Communications

##### NOVA

Summer 2006, Vol. 44, No. 2; No. 156

Civic Engagement

How To Measure Loss Of Privacy, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2006

#### How To Measure Loss Of Privacy, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

To compare different schemes for preserving privacy, it is important to be able to gauge loss of privacy. Since loss of privacy means that we gain new information about a person, it seems natural to measure the loss of privacy by the amount of information that we gained. However, this seemingly natural definition is not perfect: when we originally know that a person's salary is between \$10,000 and \$20,000 and later learn that the salary is between \$10,000 and \$15,000, we gained exactly as much information (one bit) as when we learn that the salary ...

Measuring Privacy Loss In Statistical Databases, Vinod Chirayath, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich Jun 2006

#### Measuring Privacy Loss In Statistical Databases, Vinod Chirayath, Luc Longpre, Vladik Kreinovich

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Protection of privacy in databases has become of increasing importance. While a number of techniques have been proposed to query databases while preserving privacy of individual records in the database, very little is done to define a measure on how much privacy is lost after statistical releases. We suggest a definition based on information theory. Intuitively, the privacy loss is proportional to how much the descriptional complexity of a record decreases relative to the statistical release. There are some problems with this basic definition and we suggest ways to address these problems.

Automatic Labeling Of Back Channels, Udit Sajjanhar, Nigel Ward Jun 2006

#### Automatic Labeling Of Back Channels, Udit Sajjanhar, Nigel Ward

##### Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In dialog, the proper production of back-channels is an important way for listeners to cooperate with speakers. Developing quantitative models of this process is important both for improving spoken dialog systems and for teaching second language learners. An essential step for the development of such models is labeling all back-channels in corpora of human-human dialogs. Currently this is done by hand. This report describes a method for automatically identifying back-channels in conversation corpora, using only the patterns of speech and silence by the speaker and the listener in the local context. Tested on Arabic, Spanish, and English, this method identifies ...