Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Foreign Students In The United States: Policies And Legislation, Chad Christian Haddal Oct 2006

Foreign Students In The United States: Policies And Legislation, Chad Christian Haddal

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[Excerpt] Five years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks by foreign nationals — including several terrorists on students visas — the security concerns over foreign student visas are being supplanted by competitiveness concerns. Potential foreign students, as well as all aliens, must satisfy Department of State (DOS) consular officers abroad and immigration inspectors upon entry to the United States that they are not ineligible for visas under the so-called “grounds for inadmissibility” of the Immigration and Nationality Act, which include security and terrorist concerns. The consular officers who process visa applicants are required to check the National Counterterrorism Center’s (NCTC ...


Topics In Aging: Income And Poverty Among Older Americans In 2005, Debra Whitman, Patrick Purcell Sep 2006

Topics In Aging: Income And Poverty Among Older Americans In 2005, Debra Whitman, Patrick Purcell

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[Excerpt] Older Americans are an economically diverse group. In 2005, the median income of individuals age 65 and older was $15,523, but incomes varied widely around this average. Twenty-seven percent of Americans 65 or older had incomes of less than $10,000 in 2005, while 11% had incomes of $50,000 or more. As Congress considers reforms to Social Security and the laws governing pensions and retirement savings plans, it may be helpful to examine how changes to one income source would affect each of the others, and thus the total income of older Americans.


Saving Incentives: What May Work, What May Not, Thomas L. Hungerford Jun 2006

Saving Incentives: What May Work, What May Not, Thomas L. Hungerford

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[Excerpt] Saving is the portion of national output that is not consumed and represents resources that can be used to increase, replace, or improve the nation’s capital stock. The U.S. net national saving rate reached a post-war peak of 12.4% in 1965 and has then trended downward since to a low of 0.8% in 2005. Many analysts claim that saving is too low. Among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the United States has the third lowest saving rate. Survey evidence suggests that people know why they should save, but many don’t ...


Retirement Savings And Household Wealth: Trends From 2001 To 2004, Patrick Purcell May 2006

Retirement Savings And Household Wealth: Trends From 2001 To 2004, Patrick Purcell

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] Since about 1980, the proportion of workers who participate in employer sponsored retirement plans has remained stable at about half of the workforce. Over the past 25 years, however, there has been a shift by employers from defined benefit (DB) pensions which pay a retirement benefit in the form of a lifelong annuity to defined contribution (DC) plans, which are more like savings accounts maintained by employers on behalf of each participating employee. One of the key distinctions between a defined benefit plan and a defined contribution plan is that in a DB plan, it is the employer ...


Unemployment Compensation (Insurance) And Military Service, Julie M. Whittaker May 2006

Unemployment Compensation (Insurance) And Military Service, Julie M. Whittaker

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] The Unemployment Compensation (UC) program contains several provisions relevant to current and former military service personnel and their families. The UC program does not provide benefits for military servicemembers on active duty. However, former active duty military personnel (and certain reservists) separated from active duty may be eligible for Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers (UCX). Spouses of military service personnel who voluntarily quit a job to accompany their spouses on account of a military transfer may be eligible for UC benefits, based on the laws of the state where the civilian spouse was employed. Military service of business owners ...


Social Unrest In China, Thomas Lum May 2006

Social Unrest In China, Thomas Lum

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] This report, which will be updated periodically, discusses the causes of growing social unrest in China and describes recent incidents, explains how the PRC government responds to protest activities, analyzes implications for PRC politics, and provides policy options for Congress.


Salaries Of Members Of Congress: A List Of Payable Rates And Effective Dates, 1789-2006, Paul E. Dwyer Apr 2006

Salaries Of Members Of Congress: A List Of Payable Rates And Effective Dates, 1789-2006, Paul E. Dwyer

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] Congress is required by Article I, Section 6, of the Constitution to determine its own pay. Prior to 1969, Congress did so by enacting stand-alone legislation. From 1789 through 1968, Congress raised its pay 22 times using this procedure. Congressional salaries initially were $1,500. By 1968, they had risen to $30,000. Stand-alone legislation may still be used to raise Member pay, as it was most recently in 1982, 1983, 1989, and 1991, but two other methods are now also available, an automatic annual adjustment procedure and a commission process. In January 2006, Members received a 1 ...


Unemployment Insurance: Available Unemployment Benefits And Legislative Activity, Julie M. Whittaker Apr 2006

Unemployment Insurance: Available Unemployment Benefits And Legislative Activity, Julie M. Whittaker

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] A variety of benefits may be available to unemployed workers to provide them with income support during a spell of unemployment. When eligible workers lose their jobs, the Unemployment Compensation (UC) program may provide income support through the payment of UC benefits. Certain groups of workers who lose their jobs on account of international competition may qualify for additional or supplemental income support through Trade Adjustment Act (TAA) programs. UC benefits may be extended at the state level by the Extended Benefit (EB) program if certain economic situations within the state exist. As of this writing, the EB ...


Immigration Enforcement Within The United States, Alison Siskin, Coordinator, Andorra Bruno, Blas Nunez-Neto, Lisa M. Seghetti, Ruth Ellen Wasem Apr 2006

Immigration Enforcement Within The United States, Alison Siskin, Coordinator, Andorra Bruno, Blas Nunez-Neto, Lisa M. Seghetti, Ruth Ellen Wasem

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Introduction] An estimated 11 million unauthorized aliens reside in the United States, and this population is estimated to increase by 500,000 annually. Each year, approximately 1 million aliens are apprehended trying to enter the United States illegally. Although most of these aliens enter the United States for economic opportunities and family reunification, or to avoid civil strife and political unrest, some are criminals, and some may be terrorists. All are violating the United States’ immigration laws.


Health Insurance Coverage For Retirees, Hinda Chaikind Mar 2006

Health Insurance Coverage For Retirees, Hinda Chaikind

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] Many retirees depend on their former employer for retirement health insurance, either as their sole source of coverage for those under 65 or as a supplement to their Medicare coverage once reaching age 65. However, the future of these benefits is uncertain. With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. For this reason, many employers are re-examining their commitment to providing retiree health benefits. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated health insurance coverage for their retirees. Further, among employers who provide ...


The Link Between Medicaid And The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (Idea): Recent History And Current Issues, Elicia J. Herz Mar 2006

The Link Between Medicaid And The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (Idea): Recent History And Current Issues, Elicia J. Herz

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] As a condition of accepting funds under IDEA, public schools must provide special education and related services necessary for children with disabilities to benefit from a public education. Generally, states can finance only a portion of these costs with federal IDEA funds. Medicaid, the federal-state program that finances medical and health services for the poor, can cover IDEA required health-related services for enrolled children as well as related administrative activities (e.g., outreach for Medicaid enrollment purposes, medical care coordination/monitoring). However, the link between IDEA and Medicaid has not been seamless. Despite written federal guidance, schools have ...


The Americans With Disabilities Act (Ada): The Definition Of Disability, Nancy Lee Jones Mar 2006

The Americans With Disabilities Act (Ada): The Definition Of Disability, Nancy Lee Jones

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] The threshold issue in any Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) case is whether the individual alleging discrimination is an individual with a disability. The ADA definition is a functional one and does not list specific disabilities. It defines the term disability with respect to an individual as "(A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; (B) a record of such an impairment; or (C) being regarded as having such an impairment."

The Supreme Court in the landmark decision of Sutton v. United Air Lines examined the ...


Federal Employees: Pay And Pension Increases Since 1969, Patrick Purcell Feb 2006

Federal Employees: Pay And Pension Increases Since 1969, Patrick Purcell

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] Pay increases for current federal employees and cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for retired federal employees often differ because they are based on changes in different economic variables. Increases in pay for civilian federal workers are indexed to wage and salary increases in the private-sector, as measured by the Employment Cost Index (ECI), whereas federal retirement and disability benefits are indexed to price increases as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Both the ECI and the CPI are calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.


Foreign Science And Engineering Presence In U.S. Institutions And The Labor Force, Christine M. Matthews Jan 2006

Foreign Science And Engineering Presence In U.S. Institutions And The Labor Force, Christine M. Matthews

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs

[From Summary] The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry.

Many in the scientific community maintain that in ...