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Adaptive Guidance: Effects On Self-Regulated Learning In Technology-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Adam Kanar, Xiangmin Liu, Jane Forman, Mila Singh Dec 2006

Adaptive Guidance: Effects On Self-Regulated Learning In Technology-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Adam Kanar, Xiangmin Liu, Jane Forman, Mila Singh

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Guidance provides trainees with the information necessary to make effective use of the learner control inherent in technology-based training, but also allows them to retain a sense of control over their learning (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002). One challenge, however, is determining how much learner control, or autonomy, to build into the guidance strategy. We examined the effects of alternative forms of guidance (autonomy supportive vs. controlling) on trainees’ learning and performance, and examined trainees’ cognitive ability and motivation to learn as potential moderators of these effects. Consistent with our hypotheses, trainees receiving adaptive guidance had higher levels of knowledge and performance ...


Globalisation Of Hr At Function Level: Exploring The Issues Through International Recruitment, Selection And Assessment Processes, Paul R. Sparrow Oct 2006

Globalisation Of Hr At Function Level: Exploring The Issues Through International Recruitment, Selection And Assessment Processes, Paul R. Sparrow

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Much of the debate around convergence-divergence is based around comparative analysis of HR systems. However, we need now to combine these insights with work in the field of IHRM on firm-level motivations to optimise, standardise and export HR models abroad. A series of the changes are being wrought on a range of IHRM functions – recruitment, global staffing, management development and careers, and rewards - by the process of globalisation highlighting the difference between globally standardised, optimised or localised HR processes. This paper reports on a study of firm-level developments in international recruitment, selection and assessment, drawing upon an analysis of four ...


Are Early Investments In Computer Skills Rewarded In The Labor Market? , Ferran Mane, John H. Bishop Oct 2006

Are Early Investments In Computer Skills Rewarded In The Labor Market? , Ferran Mane, John H. Bishop

CAHRS Working Paper Series

The paper assesses the relationship between investments in computer skills by adolescents and earnings at age 26. The heaviest investors earned 9 to 16 percent more than otherwise equivalent NELS-88 classmates. The payoff to early computer skills was substantial in jobs involving intense and complex uses of computers; negligible when computers were not used at work. It was non-gaming use of computers outside of school that enhanced future earnings, not playing video/computer games—which lowered earnings. Children in low SES families invested less in computer skills and thus benefited less from the job opportunities generated by the digital revolution.


What Is Strategic Competence And Does It Matter? Exposition Of The Concept And A Research Agenda, Paul R. Sparrow, Gerard P. Hodgkinson Oct 2006

What Is Strategic Competence And Does It Matter? Exposition Of The Concept And A Research Agenda, Paul R. Sparrow, Gerard P. Hodgkinson

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Drawing on a range of theoretical and empirical insights from strategic management and the cognitive and organizational sciences, we argue that strategic competence constitutes the ability of organizations and the individuals who operate within them to work within their cognitive limitations in such a way that they are able to maintain an appropriate level of responsiveness to the contingencies confronting them. Using the language of the resource based view of the firm, we argue that this meta-level competence represents a confluence of individual and organizational characteristics, suitably configured to enable the detection of those weak signals indicative of the need ...


The Value Of Stock Options To Non-Executive Employees, Kevin Hallock, Craig A. Olson Aug 2006

The Value Of Stock Options To Non-Executive Employees, Kevin Hallock, Craig A. Olson

CAHRS Working Paper Series

This study empirically investigates the value employees place on stock options using information from the option exercise behavior of individuals. Employees hold options for another period if the value from holding them and reserving the right to exercise them later is higher than the value of exercising them immediately and collecting a profit equal to the stock price minus the exercise price. This simple model implies the hazard describing employee exercise behavior reveals information about the value to employees of holding options another time period. We show the parameters of this model are identified with data on multiple option grants ...


Corporate Social Responsibility At Gap: An Interview With Eva Sage-Gavin, Patrick M. Wright, Eva Sage-Gavin Aug 2006

Corporate Social Responsibility At Gap: An Interview With Eva Sage-Gavin, Patrick M. Wright, Eva Sage-Gavin

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Gap Inc. is one of the world's largest specialty retailers, with more than 3,000 stores and fiscal 2005 revenues of $16 billion. They operate four of the most recognized apparel brands in the world — Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy and Forth & Towne. According to the company website “At Gap Inc., social responsibility isn't just a catchphrase or a feel good initiative. It's a reflection of who we are and how we operate as a company. To us, being socially responsible means striving to embed our values and ethics into everything we do — from how we run ...


Dynamic Organizations: Achieving Marketplace Agility Through Workforce Scalability, Lee Dyer, Jeff Ericksen Jun 2006

Dynamic Organizations: Achieving Marketplace Agility Through Workforce Scalability, Lee Dyer, Jeff Ericksen

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Dynamic organizations (DOs) operate in business environments characterized by frequent and discontinuous change, They compete on the basis of marketplace agility; that is on their ability to generate a steady stream of both large and small innovations in products, services, solutions, business models, and even internal processes that enable them to leapfrog and outmaneuver current and would-be competitors and thus eke out a series of temporary competitive advantages that might, with luck, add up to sustained success over time. Marketplace agility requires the ongoing reallocation of resources, including human resources. We use the term workforce scalability to capture the capacity ...


Strategic Hrm And Organizational Behavior: Integrating Multiple Levels Of Analysis, Patrick M. Wright, Lisa H. Nishii Jun 2006

Strategic Hrm And Organizational Behavior: Integrating Multiple Levels Of Analysis, Patrick M. Wright, Lisa H. Nishii

CAHRS Working Paper Series

[Excerpt] The purpose of this paper is related to these last two trends: we conceptually examine some of the mediating processes that might occur in the HRM – performance relationship, and try to make explicit their multilevel nature. In order to accomplish this, we will first explore the concept of variance, which is crucial to the analysis of any phenomena across multiple levels. We will show how virtually all existing SHRM research focuses on variance at one level of analysis while assuming constancy at other levels. We will next discuss the process through which HRM practices must act, and identify some ...


Why California Needs A High School Exit Examination System: Enrollment + Motivation + Engagement => Learning , John H. Bishop May 2006

Why California Needs A High School Exit Examination System: Enrollment + Motivation + Engagement => Learning , John H. Bishop

CAHRS Working Paper Series

[Excerpt] The purpose of the educational enterprise is LEARNING. Engagement is essential to achieving this purpose. Students must come to school, pay attention, do homework, engage with the subject and construct their new knowledge in ways that allow them to retrieve it later. How are students induced to do all this hard work? Teachers try to make their subject interesting, but sixty–one percent of American students, nevertheless, say they “often feel bored” (OECD 2002 p. 330). Studies of time use in classrooms have found that American students actively engage in a learning activity for only about half the time ...


How Can Multinational Corporations Retain Their Employees In China?, Ke (Michael) Fan May 2006

How Can Multinational Corporations Retain Their Employees In China?, Ke (Michael) Fan

CAHRS Working Paper Series

To address the headache encountered by many multinational companies in China retention of their Chinese employees, this study first examined the current Chinese labor market, identifying the unique characteristics of the market mainly comprised of university graduates and experienced white-collar employees; then tried to explain the reasons behind employees departures from a perspective of deep-rooted Chinese cultures; in the end, proposed effective and efficient solutions for retention purposes. All the proposed solutions aim to address key human resources management concerns, including compensation management, talent acquisition, performance management and communication. This study examined the best practices in employee retention adopted by ...


The Interactive Effects Of Recruitment Practices And Product Awareness On Job Seekers’ Employer Knowledge And Application Behaviors , Christopher J. Collins May 2006

The Interactive Effects Of Recruitment Practices And Product Awareness On Job Seekers’ Employer Knowledge And Application Behaviors , Christopher J. Collins

CAHRS Working Paper Series

In this paper, I draw on research from the literatures on marketing and recruitment to identify how recruitment practices and company product awareness are related to job seekers’ application behaviors through three aspects of job seekers’ employer knowledge. Based on results from a within-subjects design with data from 123 recruiting companies and 456 student job seekers, my findings suggested the relationships between recruitment strategies and application intentions and decisions are moderated by product awareness. Specifically, low-information recruitment practices are significantly and positively related to application behaviors through employer familiarity and employer reputation when product awareness is low rather than high ...


Examining The Link Between Diversity And Firm Performance: The Effects Of Diversity Reputation And Leader Racial Diversity, Quinetta M. Roberson, Hyeon Jeong Park Apr 2006

Examining The Link Between Diversity And Firm Performance: The Effects Of Diversity Reputation And Leader Racial Diversity, Quinetta M. Roberson, Hyeon Jeong Park

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Given the scarcity of empirical research on the impact of diversity on organizational performance, we used longitudinal data for 100 firms to test hypotheses related to the effects of diversity reputation and leader racial diversity on firm financial outcomes. The results showed a positive relationship between diversity reputation and book-to-market equity, and a curvilinear U-shaped relationship between leader diversity and revenues, net income and book-to-market equity. Our analyses suggest that economic benefits generated from diversity reputation may primarily derive from capital rather than product markets. Further, firm performance declines with increases in the representation of racial minorities in leadership up ...


Strategic Management And Hrm, Mathew R. Allen, Patrick M. Wright Apr 2006

Strategic Management And Hrm, Mathew R. Allen, Patrick M. Wright

CAHRS Working Paper Series

[Excerpt] The purpose of this chapter is to discuss this intersection between Strategic Management and HRM, what we know, and future directions for SHRM research. We will begin by briefly discussing the concept of strategy and the popularization of the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm. Next we will address its role in creating the link between HRM and Strategic Management including key questions that the RBV has raised in relation to SHRM. We will then examine the current state of affairs in SHRM; the progress made, and key questions and concerns occupying the attention of SHRM researchers. Finally, we ...


Distributed Learning System Design: A New Approach And An Agenda For Future Research, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Apr 2006

Distributed Learning System Design: A New Approach And An Agenda For Future Research, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

CAHRS Working Paper Series

This article presents a theoretical framework designed to guide distributed learning design, with the goal of enhancing the effectiveness of distributed learning systems. The authors begin with a review of the extant research on distributed learning design, and themes embedded in this literature are extracted and discussed to identify critical gaps that should be addressed by future work in this area. A conceptual framework that integrates instructional objectives, targeted competencies, instructional design considerations, and technological features is then developed to address the most pressing gaps in current research and practice. The rationale and logic underlying this framework is explicated. The ...


The Impact Of Ehr On Professional Competence In Hrm: Implications For The Development Of Hr Professionals, Bradford S. Bell, Sae-Won Lee, Sarah K. Yeung Apr 2006

The Impact Of Ehr On Professional Competence In Hrm: Implications For The Development Of Hr Professionals, Bradford S. Bell, Sae-Won Lee, Sarah K. Yeung

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Information technology has been cited as a critical driver of HR’s transition from a focus on administrative tasks to a focus on serving as a strategic business partner. This strategic role not only adds a valuable dimension to the HR function but also changes the competencies that define the success of HR professionals. Interviews were conducted with HR representatives from 19 firms to examine the linkage between electronic human resources (eHR) and the reshaping of professional competence in HRM. Based on the findings, we draw implications for the development of HR competencies and identify learning strategies that HR professionals ...


Research Report On Phase 4 Of Cornell University/Gevity Institute Study Human Resource Management Practices And Firm Performance In Small Businesses: A Look At The Effects Of Hr Practices On Financial Performance And Turnover, Christopher J. Collins, Matthew Allen Mar 2006

Research Report On Phase 4 Of Cornell University/Gevity Institute Study Human Resource Management Practices And Firm Performance In Small Businesses: A Look At The Effects Of Hr Practices On Financial Performance And Turnover, Christopher J. Collins, Matthew Allen

CAHRS Working Paper Series

In this study, we found evidence that groups of HR practices that represent different strategies for managing employees were significantly related to the financial performance of small companies. In particular, we found that an employee selection strategy based on person-organization fit, employee management strategy based on self-management, and employee motivation and retention strategy based on creating a family-like environment were all significantly related to firm performance in terms of revenue and profit growth. In addition, we found that the relationships between these HR strategies and firm performance were stronger in firms that face greater competition, are pursuing growth strategies, and ...


Leading For The Bottom Line: A View Of Leadership In A Bottom-Line Context, Gary S. Fields , Cory Stern Mar 2006

Leading For The Bottom Line: A View Of Leadership In A Bottom-Line Context, Gary S. Fields , Cory Stern

CAHRS Working Paper Series

This paper sets out to establish and describe a new approach to leadership called Bottom Line Leadership. The essence of Bottom Line Leadership is that a leader’s most critical responsibility is to clearly identify, communicate and gain buy-in for the ultimate bottom-line objective of the organization he/she leads, subject to constraints imposed by the market and by the organization itself. In comparison to other leadership models that focus on the general attributes or behaviors characterizing effective leaders, Bottom Line Leadership emphasizes the link between an organization’s purpose and a leader’s behavior. The philosophy that serves as ...


Human Resource Management, Service Quality, And Economic Performance In Call Centers, Rosemary Batt, Lisa M. Moynihan Jan 2006

Human Resource Management, Service Quality, And Economic Performance In Call Centers, Rosemary Batt, Lisa M. Moynihan

CAHRS Working Paper Series

This paper examines the relationship between human resource practices, operational outcomes, and economic performance in call centers. The study draws on a sample of 64 call centers serving the mass market in a large telecommunications services company. Surveys of 1,243 employees in the 64 centers were aggregated to the call center level and matched to archival data on service process quality, as measured by customer surveys; call handling time, revenues per call, and net revenues per call. Our path analysis shows that human resource practices emphasizing employee training, discretion, and rewards lead to higher service quality, higher revenues per ...


On The Nature And Importance Of Cultural Tightness-Looseness, Michele J. Gelfand, Lisa Hisae Nishii, Jana L. Raver Jan 2006

On The Nature And Importance Of Cultural Tightness-Looseness, Michele J. Gelfand, Lisa Hisae Nishii, Jana L. Raver

CAHRS Working Paper Series

Cross-cultural research is dominated by the use of values despite their mixed empirical support and their limited theoretical scope. This article expands the dominant paradigm in crosscultural research by developing a theory of cultural tightness-looseness, the strength of social norms and degree of sanctioning within societies, and advancing a multilevel research agenda for future research. Through an exploration of the top-down, bottom-up, and moderating impact that societal tightness-looseness has on individuals and organizations, as well as on variability across levels of analysis, the theory provides a new and complementary perspective to the values approach.