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Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, And Savings, David E. Bloom, David Canning, Rick Mansfield, Michael Moore Oct 2006

Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, And Savings, David E. Bloom, David Canning, Rick Mansfield, Michael Moore

Articles and Chapters

In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates.


[Review Of Pay Without Performance: The Unfulfilled Promise Of Executive Compensation], Kevin F. Hallock Jul 2006

[Review Of Pay Without Performance: The Unfulfilled Promise Of Executive Compensation], Kevin F. Hallock

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Every once in a while someone comes out with an important book concerning corporate governance or executive compensation. Like Aldolf A. Berle and Gardiner C. Means's The Modern Corporation and Private Property (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1932) and Graef S. Crystal's In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991), Bebchuk and Fried's new book is thought-provoking and interesting. It is a very important book and should be read not just by those interested in executive pay or corporate governance but by anyone interested in how corporations work.


Parting Shots: Immigration, Vernon M. Briggs Jul 2006

Parting Shots: Immigration, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Prevailing immigration policy and the toleration of its mass abuse by illegal immigration generates both "winners" and "losers."


A Public Lecture: Labour Markets And Economic Development, Gary S. Fields Jun 2006

A Public Lecture: Labour Markets And Economic Development, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] I want to put forward three propositions to you based on decades of work in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. First, economic development can be (but need not be) a win-win-win situation - for businesses, for individuals and groups of individuals, and for governments and non- governmental organisations (NGOs). Second, the labour market can (but need not) serve as an effective mechanism for contributing to economic growth and for transmitting the gains from economic growth. And third, in both of these areas, whether a country experiences the more favorable set of outcomes or the less favorable ones reflects a) its ...


Employment In Low-Income Countries: Beyond Labor Market Segmentation?, Gary S. Fields Jun 2006

Employment In Low-Income Countries: Beyond Labor Market Segmentation?, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Throughout the world, there are fundamentally two, and only two, ways that people can escape from poverty. One is by earning their way out of poverty. The other is by receiving socially-provided goods and services that lift them out of poverty. Even with multilateral and bilateral assistance, low-income countries are too poor to be able to make a significant dent in poverty by the social services route alone. This means that creating more and better earning opportunities for the poor is the only other option available.

In policy discussions, two mistakes are often made. One is to assume that ...


Labour Market Dualism In The Lewis Model: Reply, Gary S. Fields Jun 2006

Labour Market Dualism In The Lewis Model: Reply, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Excerpt] Richard Brown (2006) has written that the interpretation of the 1954 Lewis model that I presented in Fields (2004) is ‘flawed for a number of reasons’ and ‘Fields’s appreciation of the contribution of the Lewis model to understanding the process of wage determination in developing economies is therefore misplaced’. In this reply, I explain why I think the flaws are not mine but Brown’s.

Before proceeding, I wish to point out that the conference at which my paper was presented and the issue of The Manchester School in which my paper was published were entitled ‘The Lewis ...


Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin Mar 2006

Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

This paper compares management flexibility in employment decision-making in the United States and Canada through a cross-national survey of organizations in representative jurisdictions in each country, Pennsylvania and Ontario respectively, that investigates the impact of differences in their legal environments. The results indicate that, compared to their Ontario counterparts, organizations in Pennsylvania have a higher degree of flexibility in employment outcomes, such as higher dismissal and discipline rates, yet do not experience any greater flexibility or simplicity in management hiring and firing decisions. One explanation for this result may lie in the finding that organizations in Pennsylvania experience greater legal ...


Gender Equity In Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants Of Title Ix Compliance, Deborah J. Anderson, John J. Cheslock, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Mar 2006

Gender Equity In Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants Of Title Ix Compliance, Deborah J. Anderson, John J. Cheslock, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt The year 2002 marked the 30th anniversary of the passage of Title IX, which prohibits discrimination by gender in any federally funded educational activity. Although the scope of Title IX includes all aspects of education, the application of Title IX to college athletics has been especially complicated because athletics programs, unlike most academic classes, usually are sex-segregated by sport. As explained in more detail below, Title IX essentially requires that all institutes of higher education provide student access to sport participation on a gender-neutral basis. As a result, athletic opportunities for female undergraduates have expanded significantly since 1972. For ...


Job Opportunities For Older Workers: When Are Jobs Filled With External Hires?, Robert M. Hutchens Feb 2006

Job Opportunities For Older Workers: When Are Jobs Filled With External Hires?, Robert M. Hutchens

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines why firms sometimes employ older workers, but tend to not hire new older workers for the same job. It focuses on one aspect of that phenomenon: the propensity for firms to fill jobs from the inside rather than hire someone new from the outside. Using a survey of establishments with information on a white collar job currently held by an older worker, the paper tests hypotheses on what types of jobs are likely to be filled from the outside. Several of the results point to the potential importance of asymmetric information, whereby the firm has better information ...


[Review Of The Book Gurus, Hired Guns, And Warm Bodies: Itinerant Experts In A Knowledge Economy], Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ariel Avgar Jan 2006

[Review Of The Book Gurus, Hired Guns, And Warm Bodies: Itinerant Experts In A Knowledge Economy], Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ariel Avgar

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Over the past three decades the nature of work in many American organizations has drastically changed. Alongside a general organizational restructuring, the traditional employment relationship is being redefined and is taking on a variety of new shapes and forms. In this masterful and insightful book, Stephen Barley and Gideon Kunda study the intricate and often counter-intuitive consequences associated with the changing nature of work. Specifically, they examine one of the clear manifestations of organizational restructuring—the shift to contracted work in the high-tech sector. Employing their ethnographic expertise, Barley and Kunda successfully reclaim the mandate of organizational studies to ...


Union Membership Statistics In 24 Countries, Jelle Visser Jan 2006

Union Membership Statistics In 24 Countries, Jelle Visser

Federal Publications

[From p. 38] An analysis of "adjusted" union membership data in 24 countries yields past and present union density rates; the data provide explanatory factors for the differences and trends in unionization.


Movimientos Obreros Y Por Los Derechos Humanos En América Latina: Convergencia, Divergencia Y Consecuencias Para La Promoción De Los Derechos Económicos, Sociales Y Culturales [Labor Movements And Human Rights In Latin America: Convergence, Divergence, And The Implications For The Promotion Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights], Maria Lorena Cook Jan 2006

Movimientos Obreros Y Por Los Derechos Humanos En América Latina: Convergencia, Divergencia Y Consecuencias Para La Promoción De Los Derechos Económicos, Sociales Y Culturales [Labor Movements And Human Rights In Latin America: Convergence, Divergence, And The Implications For The Promotion Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights], Maria Lorena Cook

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Los derechos propios del trabajo forman parte de los derechos humanos hace mucho tiempo y gozan del reconocimiento de pactos internacionales. La Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos, adoptada por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, en 1948, enumera los derechos a condiciones de trabajo justas y favorables; a igual remuneración por trabajo de igual valor; a una remuneración equitativa y favorable, y a formar sindicatos y afiliarse a ellos. El Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos (PIDCP) incluye los derechos a la libertad de asociación y a formar sindicatos y afiliarse a ellos. El Pacto Internacional de Derechos ...


The Interactive Effects Of Recruitment Practices And Product Awareness On Job Seekers’ Employer Knowledge And Application Behaviors, Christopher J. Collins Jan 2006

The Interactive Effects Of Recruitment Practices And Product Awareness On Job Seekers’ Employer Knowledge And Application Behaviors, Christopher J. Collins

Articles and Chapters

In this paper, I draw on research from the literatures on marketing and recruitment to identify how recruitment practices and company product awareness are related to job seekers’ application behaviors through three aspects of job seekers’ employer knowledge. Based on results from a within-subjects design with data from 123 recruiting companies and 456 student job seekers, my findings suggested the relationships between recruitment strategies and application intentions and decisions are moderated by product awareness. Specifically, low-information recruitment practices are significantly and positively related to application behaviors through employer familiarity and employer reputation when product awareness is low rather than high ...


The Many Facets Of Economic Mobility, Gary S. Fields Jan 2006

The Many Facets Of Economic Mobility, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The main point of this chapter is to show that the different indices used in the mobility literature are not measures of the same underlying conceptual entity. In elementary statistics, students are taught that the mean and median are both measures of central tendency but they are different measures of central tendency; the variance and Gini coefficient are measures of dispersion but they are different measures of dispersion; and central tendency and dispersion are fundamentally different concepts from one another. In much the same way, this chapter maintains that the different mobility indices in common use are measuring fundamentally ...


International Migration In Macro-Perspective: Bringing Power Back In, Marcel Paret, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2006

International Migration In Macro-Perspective: Bringing Power Back In, Marcel Paret, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This paper challenges the inward looking perspective of recent immigration research by situating migration to the United States within a global and historical context. This macro-stratification perspective breaks out of the confines of national contexts to explore how international migration is shaped by global power divides. We argue that in order to fully understand international migration, it is necessary to account for both the emergence of global power structures and the historical domination of Europe. We develop our argument by first outlining the significance of global power divides, with a particular focus on the United States. We then demonstrate how ...


Crafting A Class: The Trade-Off Between Merit Scholarships And Enrolling Lower-Income Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Liang Zhang, Jared M. Levin Jan 2006

Crafting A Class: The Trade-Off Between Merit Scholarships And Enrolling Lower-Income Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Liang Zhang, Jared M. Levin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is well known that test scores are correlated with students’ socio-economic backgrounds. Hence, to the extent that colleges are successful in “buying” higher test-score students, one should expect that their enrollment of students from families in the lower tails of the family income distribution should decline. However, somewhat surprisingly, there have been no efforts to test if this is occurring.

Our paper presents such a test. While institutional-level data on the dollar amounts of merit scholarships offered by colleges and universities are not available, data are available on the number of National Merit Scholarship (NMS) winners attending an ...


The Changing Nature Of The Faculty And Faculty Employment Practices, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2006

The Changing Nature Of The Faculty And Faculty Employment Practices, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The nature of faculty employment practices at American colleges and universities is changing rapidly. So too is the gender, racial and ethnic composition of American faculty members. These changes, along with the growing importance and costs of scientific research, the increased commercialization of faculty research, the elimination of mandatory retirement for tenured faculty members and the growing costs of retiree health insurance, the growing salary differentials across universities and academic fields within a university, and the growth of collective bargaining for tenured and tenure-track faculty and graduate assistants at public universities and now adjuncts at private universities, have put ...


The Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler Jan 2006

The Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The affect theory of social exchange places emotion and feelings at the center of social exchange theorizing (Lawler 2001). It posits that exchange generates emotions and that emotions are internal responses that reward and punish actors. Emotions that occur regularly in exchange processes include feeling good about successful exchange, feeling shame about the terms accepted, feeling gratitude toward a conciliatory exchange partner, and feeling anger at a difficult or hostile exchange partner. The theory argues that such emotions and feelings have important consequences for the relations, networks, and groups within which they occur.