Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 81

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Classification Of Pork Loin Based On Lipid Composition To Predict Sensory And Textual Properties, Steven M. Lonergan, Rodney Goodwin, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Stalder, Kenneth J. Prusa, Travis J. Knight, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

Classification Of Pork Loin Based On Lipid Composition To Predict Sensory And Textual Properties, Steven M. Lonergan, Rodney Goodwin, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Stalder, Kenneth J. Prusa, Travis J. Knight, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

There is significant interest in developing quality standards to predict eating quality in fresh pork. We classified 1976 pork loin chops into 6 groups based on lipid composition. Lipid classification did affect pork texture and sensory tenderness, but did not contribute to variation in juiciness or flavor of pork. Factors other than lipid content should be considered when developing quality standards for fresh pork.


Use Of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 And Dietary Calcium Manipulations To Improve Tenderness Of Beef, Kristen M. Carnagey, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan, Ronald L. Horst, Allen H. Trenkle, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

Use Of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 And Dietary Calcium Manipulations To Improve Tenderness Of Beef, Kristen M. Carnagey, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan, Ronald L. Horst, Allen H. Trenkle, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

Improving tenderness of beef from cows is desirable because it could increase marketability of these carcasses and, thereby, increase profits to producers. In this study, two dietary treatments, supplemental 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D3) and manipulations of dietary calcium, were examined as methods of increasing plasma and muscle calcium concentrations as a means for improving tenderness of beef. Our results indicate that the environment created in the muscle by supplementing 25-OH D3, increasing dietary calcium, or both is conducive to increased activity of calpain, a calcium-dependent enzyme responsible for postmortem tenderization of beef. Increased calpain activity could lead to improved beef ...


Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjuntivitis (Ibk) , Jose E. Rodriguez, Abebe T. Hassen, James M. Reecy Jan 2006

Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjuntivitis (Ibk) , Jose E. Rodriguez, Abebe T. Hassen, James M. Reecy

Animal Industry Report

The analysis of field data, revealed an estimate of .18 for heritability of resistance to pinkeye and an average decrease in weaning weight of 9.5 kg for infected animals. Tear samples were collected for the 2004 pinkeye season for the analysis of two factors (IgA and Lactoferrin) involved in ocular defense. Significant differences were found between infected and non- infected animals, in the levels of tear fluid IgA.


Digestibility Of Diets With Corn Grain And Urea Replaced With Corn Distillers Grains Or Solubles, David Pingel, Allen H. Trenkle Jan 2006

Digestibility Of Diets With Corn Grain And Urea Replaced With Corn Distillers Grains Or Solubles, David Pingel, Allen H. Trenkle

Animal Industry Report

Ten steers were used in a digestion experiment to evaluate replacing dry rolled corn and urea with 4% and 8% condensed distiller solubles (CDS), or 10% and 20% wet corn distillers grain with solubles (DGS). The steers were placed in digestion crates for total collection of feces during a 5 d period following 14 d of diet adaptation. Intake (kg/d) of DM, starch, NDF, ADF, CP, and fat were: 7.99, 8.71, 8.62 & 8.41, 7.84; 4.92, 4.87, 4.93, & 4.81, 3.95; 1.19, 1.25, 1.19, & 1.42, 1.42; 0.43, 0.48, 0.45, & 0.56, 0.55; 0.96, 1.08, 1.03 ...


The Accuracy Of Real-Time Ultrasound Measurements For Body Composition Traits With Carcass Traits In Feedlot Heifers, Flavio Ribeiro, Richard G. Tait Jr., Gene H. Rouse, Doyle E. Wilson, W. Darrell Busby Jan 2006

The Accuracy Of Real-Time Ultrasound Measurements For Body Composition Traits With Carcass Traits In Feedlot Heifers, Flavio Ribeiro, Richard G. Tait Jr., Gene H. Rouse, Doyle E. Wilson, W. Darrell Busby

Animal Industry Report

This study compared ultrasound measurements of body composition to carcass measurements of 145 heifers harvested in five groups. Results show that this technology can accurately measure URIBFT, UREA, and UMARB prior to slaughter. URIBFT was the trait that had the highest correlations and acceptable standard error of predictions (SEPs) and bias. The other two traits, UREA and UMARB, had lower correlation values but acceptable SEPs and bias. Real-time ultrasound is an accurate tool to measure body composition and can be used very effectively as a selection or sorting tool in the feedlot.


Effects Of Dietary Macronutrients On Appetite-Related Hormones In Blood On Body Composition Of Lean And Obese Rats , Michelle Bohan, Lloyd L. Anderson, Allen H. Trenkle, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2006

Effects Of Dietary Macronutrients On Appetite-Related Hormones In Blood On Body Composition Of Lean And Obese Rats , Michelle Bohan, Lloyd L. Anderson, Allen H. Trenkle, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

Investigating the role of appetite-related hormones on energy balance and body composition when varying diets are consumed could provide insight into the etiology of obesity. Fifty-three adult male Sprague Dawley and 30 adult male Zucker Fatty rats were assigned randomly to one of five diets: Control, 75% control, American Heart Association (AHA), Atkins, or high fat (HF). Diets were fed for five weeks. Weekly plasma samples were collected and analyzed for ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and adiponectin. Terminal plasma samples were analyzed for ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, oxyntomodulin, adiponectin, and blood metabolites. Our results indicate that macronutrient composition of the diet ...


New Storage Design For Sand-Laden Dairy Manure, Daniel Meyer Jan 2006

New Storage Design For Sand-Laden Dairy Manure, Daniel Meyer

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


Northeast Iowa Dairy Foundation Grazing Center, Dale Thoreson, Larry Tranel Jan 2006

Northeast Iowa Dairy Foundation Grazing Center, Dale Thoreson, Larry Tranel

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Prepartum Intramammary Treatment With Pirlimycin Hydrochloride On Prevalence Of Early First-Lactation Mastitis, Jessica Schnitzler, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Effect Of Prepartum Intramammary Treatment With Pirlimycin Hydrochloride On Prevalence Of Early First-Lactation Mastitis, Jessica Schnitzler, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 178) from a central Iowa dairy farm were enrolled in a study to determine whether prepartum intramammary treatment of dairy heifers with pirlimycin hydrochloride would reduce the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) and lower the somatic cell count (SCC) during early lactation or improve 305-day mature equivalent milk production. Heifers were assigned to treatment and control groups, and treated heifers received a single 50-mg dose of pirlimycin in each mammary quarter approximately 10 days prior to parturition.

Treated heifers had a higher overall cure rate and cure rate for IMI caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), but ...


Use Of The California Mastitis Test And An On-Farm Culture System For Strategic Identification And Treatment Of Fresh Cow Subclinical Intramammary Infections And Treatment Of Clinical Mastitis, April Boll, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Use Of The California Mastitis Test And An On-Farm Culture System For Strategic Identification And Treatment Of Fresh Cow Subclinical Intramammary Infections And Treatment Of Clinical Mastitis, April Boll, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of an on-farm culture system in conjunction with the California Mastitis Test for the strategic treatment of subclinical mastitis in fresh cows and clinical mastitis. CMT showed high NPV indicating it was very effective in determining uninfected quarters. However, PPV were low resulting in many CMT+ quarters being uninfected; thus many uninfected quarters being treated also. Cure rates in both the fresh and clinical animals did not change when treatment was delayed for twenty-four hours while waiting for culture results This would indicate that waiting for culture results before instituting ...


Iowa State University Dairy Farm—2005 Review, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Iowa State University Dairy Farm—2005 Review, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

The Iowa State University Dairy Farm continues to be a vital and vibrant asset to all 3 missions of our land grant heritage (learning, discovery, and engagement) as well as the Iowa Dairy Industry and the national and international dairy communities. Learning opportunities have abounded for ISU students in Animal and Dairy Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, as well as local community colleges. Engagement and outreach has touched young (Animal Science Roundup) to adult (BRM training), and local (school tours) to international (visitors from around the world). Research related to improvement of the dairy industry is still a major mission ...


Effects Of Grazing Management On Pasture Characteristics Affecting Sediment And Phosphorus Pollution Of Pasture Streams (Progress Report), James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Wendy J. Powers, John D. Lawrence Jan 2006

Effects Of Grazing Management On Pasture Characteristics Affecting Sediment And Phosphorus Pollution Of Pasture Streams (Progress Report), James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Wendy J. Powers, John D. Lawrence

Animal Industry Report

To evaluate the effects of grazing management on pasture properties related to soil erosion and P pollution of streams, six 30-acre cool season grass pastures bisected by a stream were grazed by 15 fall-calving Angus cows by continuous stocking with full access to the stream, continuous stocking with stream access limited to a 16 x 80 foot stabilized crossing, or rotational stocking. The riparian paddocks of rotationally stocked pastures were never grazed to a sward height lower than 4 inches or longer than 4 days. Congregation areas in pastures had greater proportions of the ground that were bare or covered ...


Atrazine And The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In Sexually Maturing Precocial Birds , Kelly Wilhelms, Sara Cutler, John Proudman, Colin G. Scanes Jan 2006

Atrazine And The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In Sexually Maturing Precocial Birds , Kelly Wilhelms, Sara Cutler, John Proudman, Colin G. Scanes

Animal Industry Report

The herbicide atrazine is a putative endocrine disruptor. The present studies investigated the effects of atrazine in male Japanese quail during sexual maturation. Atrazine was administered for 2 weeks in the diet or systemically to birds under long photoperiods. Atrazine had no effect on mortality but depressed both feed intake and growth (average daily gain [ADG] in g/day) at dietary concentrations of 1000 ppm. Atrazine in the diet at 10 ppm, but at no other concentrations, increased testes weight and gonadal-somatic-index and decreased the seminiferous tubule diameter-to-testis weight ratio. Atrazine in the diet at 1000 ppm increased circulating concentrations ...


Impact Of Antimicrobial Ingredients And Irradiation On The Survival Of Listeria Monocytogenes And The Quality Of Ready-To-Eat Turkey Ham , Meijun Zhu, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Hersham Ismail, Eun Lee, Dong U. Ahn Jan 2006

Impact Of Antimicrobial Ingredients And Irradiation On The Survival Of Listeria Monocytogenes And The Quality Of Ready-To-Eat Turkey Ham , Meijun Zhu, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Hersham Ismail, Eun Lee, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

Antimicrobial ingredients [2% sodium lactate (SL), 0.1% sodium diacetate (SDA), 0.1% potassium benzoate (PB)] and low-dose irradiation were combined and tested for their effects on the growth of L. monocytogenes and meat quality. The log10 reductions of L. monocytogenes in hams following 1.0 to 2.5 kGy irradiation ranged from 2.0 to 5.0. The D10 values were 0.52 kGy for control ham, ham with PB, SL or PB+SL, 0.49 kGy for ham with SL+SDA, and 0.48 kGy for ham with PB+SL+SDA (PSS). Addition of SL+SDA or PB ...


Polydactyl Pigs: There’S More To The Story Than Just Extra Toes , Benny Mote, Dominique Rocha, Liviu Totir, Rohan L. Fernando, Max F. Rothschild Jan 2006

Polydactyl Pigs: There’S More To The Story Than Just Extra Toes , Benny Mote, Dominique Rocha, Liviu Totir, Rohan L. Fernando, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Industry Report

Several pigs expressing a polydactyl (extra toes) phenotype were identified in the ISU purebred Yorkshire herd. Sires, dams, and littermate sibs to the polydactyl pigs were retained in the herd and planned matings were designed to enlarge the population. In addition to creating 12 pigs with either extra toes or dewclaws, the population also had an extremely high number of stillborn and mummified pigs. Furthermore, this population also showed differences in growth and reproduction. Multiple genes have been implicated in causing extra digits in several other species. Using comparative genomics as a guide many of these genes were expected to ...


Effects Of Oregano Supplemented Diets On Nursery Pig Performance , Charlwit Kulchaiyawat, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2006

Effects Of Oregano Supplemented Diets On Nursery Pig Performance , Charlwit Kulchaiyawat, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

There is increasing public concern over the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in livestock feed. Some companies are exploring alternative feed supplements, such as oregano. A study was conducted at the ISU Swine Nutrition Farm to study the effects of oregano-supplemented diets on nursery pig performance. A total of 80 pigs were used in the study and were weighed weekly for four weeks. Five treatment diets were fed: control (no additive), carbadox, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% added oregano. Pig performance was calculated as ADFI, ADG, and FE. The data were analyzed using the GLM model of SAS. Overall ...


Effects Of Finishing Pigs In Hoop Structures On Swine Performance, Pork Composition, And Pork Quality, Brenda Patton, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Mark S. Honeyman, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2006

Effects Of Finishing Pigs In Hoop Structures On Swine Performance, Pork Composition, And Pork Quality, Brenda Patton, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Mark S. Honeyman, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Industry Report

This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which finishing pigs in deep bedded hoop structures affects swine performance, pork composition and pork quality. Pigs finished in Hoop barns pigs gained significantly less per day and required significantly more feed for lean growth than pigs finished in confinement. Carcasses from confinement pigs had lower calculated percent fat free lean than carcasses from hoop finished pigs. Finishing environment did not affect pork quality.


Looking For A Job, Finding The Right Employee, James B. Kliebenstein, Terrance Hurley, Peter F. Orazem, Dale Miller, Steve May Jan 2006

Looking For A Job, Finding The Right Employee, James B. Kliebenstein, Terrance Hurley, Peter F. Orazem, Dale Miller, Steve May

Animal Industry Report

A survey of pig producers and employees was conducted to document trends in the industry. These surveys have been conducted four times: 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Producers use a number of methods to locate employees and employees likewise use a number of methods to locate employment opportunities. The information job search networks are the dominant strategy used by producer and employees alike. Nearly half of the producers indicated they used word-of-mouth to find employees. About three in five employees also rely on word of mouth. Other methods used most frequently are newspapers, magazines and family referrals. Professional and college ...


Palmer Holden Jan 2006

Palmer Holden

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Several Media For The Recovery Of Organisms Associated With Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis In Beef Calves , Annette O'Connor, Joann Kinyon, Allison Whipple Jan 2006

Evaluating Several Media For The Recovery Of Organisms Associated With Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis In Beef Calves , Annette O'Connor, Joann Kinyon, Allison Whipple

Animal Industry Report

The use of a Moraxella bovis selective agar, preferentially over sheeps blood agar, may be a valuable method to increase laboratory culture recovery of M. bovis and M. ovis from IBK cases where those organisms are suspected. There was no difference in recovery rates from SBA plates incubated at 5 or 10% CO2. It remains to be determined if increased recovery is clinically significant and associated with disease occurrence.


Dairy Free Stall Preference Field Study, Dale Thoreson, Leo L. Timms, Don Lay Jan 2006

Dairy Free Stall Preference Field Study, Dale Thoreson, Leo L. Timms, Don Lay

Animal Industry Report

The current field study was conducted to evaluate six different free stall surface options and their impact on stall usage and comfort, bedding usage, animal cleanliness and health, and economics. Results showed significantly different stall usages with different stall surfaces and a significant stall surface by week or season interaction. Sand stalls showed significantly higher usage in summer, followed by sand stall with sand traps, Pasture and Agromatic mattresses, and Dynamat rubber mats, respectively. Sand with Sand Traps and both Pasture Mats showed significantly higher stall usage during the fall and winter weeks (no differences between them) and Dynamat rubber ...


Non-Basin Technologies For Open Feedlot Runoff: Demonstration, Implementation And Modeling, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, John D. Lawrence, Matthew J. Helmers, Carl H. Pederson, Ishadeep Khanijo Jan 2006

Non-Basin Technologies For Open Feedlot Runoff: Demonstration, Implementation And Modeling, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, John D. Lawrence, Matthew J. Helmers, Carl H. Pederson, Ishadeep Khanijo

Animal Industry Report

Rules released by EPA in 2003 require beef feedlots defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) to control rainfall runoff from their feedlots. The rules included verbiage that allowed for the design and use of “Alternative Technologies” and require that any “Alternative Technology” be modeled to show they are at the least as effective as traditional storage systems. Currently, in Iowa, many feedlots do not have waste handling systems capable of sufficiently controlling discharges. The traditional system being accepted for permit in Iowa is an ELG storage basin. The two technologies in this study are Vegetated Treatment Areas (VTAs) and ...


Effects Of Stocking Rate And Corn Gluten Feed Supplementation On Performance Of Two-Year Cows Grazing Stockpiled Forage During Winter, James R. Russell, Ronda Driskill, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Stephen K. Barnhart, John D. Lawrence Jan 2006

Effects Of Stocking Rate And Corn Gluten Feed Supplementation On Performance Of Two-Year Cows Grazing Stockpiled Forage During Winter, James R. Russell, Ronda Driskill, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Stephen K. Barnhart, John D. Lawrence

Animal Industry Report

For two years, four 6.25 and 8.75-acre pastures containing endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover pastures were stocked with pregnant two-year old cows at rates of .34 (low) or .48 (high) cows/acre to strip-graze from October to March. Eight similar cows were allotted to two dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay. Corn gluten feed was supplemented to cows in two pastures at each stocking rate and in the dry lots to maintain a condition score of 5 on a 9-point scale. Cows in the remaining pastures were supplemented with corn gluten feed when snow and ice limited ...


Case Study Of Prevention And Therapy Strategies For A High Somatic Cell Count Herd , Lorilee Schultz, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Case Study Of Prevention And Therapy Strategies For A High Somatic Cell Count Herd , Lorilee Schultz, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Objectives of this field investigation were to examine the etiology and mastitis infection dynamics in a 60 cow herd in danger of market loss, prioritize and implement prevention strategies, and evaluate the efficacy of recommended and extended therapy (S. aureus only) with pirlimycin hydrochloride (Pirsue, Pfizer Animal Health) for gram positive intramammary infections (IMI) . Initial percentages (October) of cows (quarters) uninfected or infected with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, alpha hemolytic strep., and Strep. uberis, were 42(65); 33(15%); 20(9); 3(1); and 2(0.4), respectively. Overall streptococci cure rates were 91% and 89% of cows and quarters ...


Phosphorus Excretion Of Feedlot Cattle Fed Diets Containing Corn Or Distillers Coproducts , Nathan Meyer, David Pingel, Cheryl Dikeman, Allen H. Trenkle Jan 2006

Phosphorus Excretion Of Feedlot Cattle Fed Diets Containing Corn Or Distillers Coproducts , Nathan Meyer, David Pingel, Cheryl Dikeman, Allen H. Trenkle

Animal Industry Report

Samples were analyzed from three metabolism trials to evaluate the effects of dietary phosphorus (P) intake on P excretion in beef steers fed corn-based finishing diets. In Experiment I, ten steers were fed ten diets that involved two processing methods, whole and dry rolled corn and five corn sources, commodity, white, high oil, high protein, and highoil-high-protein corn. In Experiment II, six steers were fed three diets that included three variations of protein supplementation to meet 70, 80, and 100% of the degradable intake protein requirements for growing steers. In Experiment III, ten steers were fed five diets including control ...


Iowa’S 2.8% Coalition (Dairy), Chris Mondak Jan 2006

Iowa’S 2.8% Coalition (Dairy), Chris Mondak

Animal Industry Report

If you’ve been keeping an ear to the ground about things going on in the Iowa dairy industry, you’ve probably heard the phrase “2.8% Coalition” a time or two. Just what is this coalition? Why was it formed? Who is involved? What is its purpose?


Addressing An Acute Milk Quality Problem Through A Strategic Targeted Management Team Approach , Chris Mondak, Leo L. Timms Jan 2006

Addressing An Acute Milk Quality Problem Through A Strategic Targeted Management Team Approach , Chris Mondak, Leo L. Timms

Animal Industry Report

Objectives of this field investigation were to assemble a management team to develop, implement, and monitor targeted strategies (both prevention and therapeutic) to address an acute milk quality issue resulting from cows mistakenly being teat dipped for 3 milkings with a formaldehyde foot bath solution (SCC /SPC counts > 2 million ; majority of teat ends with tissue damage). The team assembled included farm owner/manager and personnel, veterinarian, milk plant field personnel, nutritionist, and ISU extension (both field and campus). Initial strategies focused on enhancing tissue healing and trying to minimize new intramammary infections (IMI). After 2 months (successful prevention and ...


Comparison Of Mattresses Or Sand Stall Surfaces On Postural Changes And Leg Health In A Tie Stall Barn, Craig Achen, Leo L. Timms, Don Lay Jan 2006

Comparison Of Mattresses Or Sand Stall Surfaces On Postural Changes And Leg Health In A Tie Stall Barn, Craig Achen, Leo L. Timms, Don Lay

Animal Industry Report

Objectives of this study were to compare cow comfort and animal behavior (postural changes) as well as leg health and determine behavioral alterations in cows housed on sand or mattresses, and then switched to the alternate surface in a tie stall barn. During experiment 1 (new mattresses), there were significant differences in posture with cows on mattresses lying more than sand stalls. Two years later (Experiment 2), using a switchback design (animals were evaluated on one surface, then switched to the other), there were no differences in posture scores between mattresses and sand, and more variation was seen across weeks ...


Combining Crated Farrowing With Bedded Group Lactation, Mark S. Honeyman, Randy Breach Jan 2006

Combining Crated Farrowing With Bedded Group Lactation, Mark S. Honeyman, Randy Breach

Animal Industry Report

The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate combining crated farrowing with bedded group lactation, in an effort to reduce pre-wean mortality. The demonstration was conducted at the ISU Armstrong Research Farm, Lewis, IA, during 2004 and 2005.

Each group farrowing occurred in portable crates. After farrowing was completed, the pigs were taken out of the pens and placed in a common creep area with heat lamps. Group lactation ensued. Weaning occurred at 32 to 36 days of age.

The average number of pigs born alive was 11.7 pigs per litter with an average birth weight of 3.3 ...


Iowa’S Changing Swine Industry, Mark S. Honeyman, Michael D. Duffy Jan 2006

Iowa’S Changing Swine Industry, Mark S. Honeyman, Michael D. Duffy

Animal Industry Report

Iowa has led the U.S. in swine production and pig inventory since the 1880s. Pig production has been a reliable value-added enterprise on many Iowa farms for generations. In spite of this 120-year national leadership, Iowa’s swine industry has been changing profoundly within the state.