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Grain Size Effects On Viscoelastic Relaxation Of Sub-Micron Thickness Fcc Metallic Films, Jeffrey Smyth Aug 2018

Grain Size Effects On Viscoelastic Relaxation Of Sub-Micron Thickness Fcc Metallic Films, Jeffrey Smyth

Theses and Dissertations

Sub-micron thickness metallic thin films are known to exhibit mechanical size effects, where the thin film mechanical behavior can differ significantly from that of a bulk version of the same material. One such mechanical behavior, and the focus of this work, is the unique thin film viscoelastic deformation response to sub-yield, low-strain stimuli in near-ambient temperature environments. In engineering components using bulk materials, strains within the elastic regime are generally considered instantaneous. It is only at higher operating temperatures that temporal deformation processes, such as creep, are considered in bulk component design. However, in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), specifically Radio Frequency ...


Development Of Microdialysis Probes In Series Approach Toward Eliminating Microdialysis Sampling Calibration: Miniaturization Into A Pdms Microfluidic Device, Randy Espinal Cabrera May 2018

Development Of Microdialysis Probes In Series Approach Toward Eliminating Microdialysis Sampling Calibration: Miniaturization Into A Pdms Microfluidic Device, Randy Espinal Cabrera

Theses and Dissertations

A new microdialysis sampling method and microfluidic device were developed in vitro. The method consisted of using up to four microdialysis sampling probes connected in series to evaluate the relative recovery (RR) of different model solutes methyl orange, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran average mol. wt. 4,000 (FITC-4), FITC-10, FITC-20, and FITC-40. Different flow rates (0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 µL/min) were used to compare experimentally observed relative recoveries with theoretical estimations. With increasing the number of probes in series, the relative recovery increases and ~100% (99.7% ± 0.9%) relative recovery for methyl orange was obtained ...


Selective Resistive Sintering: A Novel Additive Manufacturing Process, Austin Bryan Van Horn Dec 2016

Selective Resistive Sintering: A Novel Additive Manufacturing Process, Austin Bryan Van Horn

Theses and Dissertations

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is one of the most popular 3D printing methods that uses a laser to pattern energy and selectively sinter powder particles to build 3D geometries. However, this printing method is plagued by slow printing speeds, high power consumption, difficulty to scale, and high overhead expense. In this research, a new 3D printing method is proposed to overcome these limitations of SLS. Instead of using a laser to pattern energy, this new method, termed selective resistive sintering (SRS), uses an array of microheaters to pattern heat for selectively sintering materials. Using microheaters offers significant power savings, significantly ...


Development Of A Multi-Electrode Array (Mea) Based On Active Recruiting Of Cells And Formation Of Mechanically Confined Neural Networks, Tianyi Zhou Jan 2016

Development Of A Multi-Electrode Array (Mea) Based On Active Recruiting Of Cells And Formation Of Mechanically Confined Neural Networks, Tianyi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Multi-Electrode Array (MEA) systems have been widely used, for decades, in neuroscience research, such as the detection of neuroactive compounds and the study of neuronal electrophysiology and communication. Accurate positioning of neurons on electrodes enables the recording from and stimulation of specified individual neurons on a MEA. Various cell patterning techniques, integrated with MEAs, have been developed to ensure neuron-electrode correspondence, which is the capability that most conventional MEAs lack, because of the random distribution of neurons with respect to electrodes.A novel multi-electrode array system has been designed and developed for active recruitment of neurons on electrodes and the ...


Design, Fabrication, And Testing Of A 3d Printer Based Microfluidic System, Carlton A. Mcmullen Dec 2015

Design, Fabrication, And Testing Of A 3d Printer Based Microfluidic System, Carlton A. Mcmullen

Theses and Dissertations

A pneumatically actuated PDMS based microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated by soft-lithography. Two types of molds were fabricated out of different material for this experiment. The first mold, (device 1), was fabricated from a sheet of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material, similar to Plexiglas. The device features were micro-engraved onto the face of the material. The second mold, (device 2), was fabricated from the use of fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. The pumping efficiency of the PDMS devices was analyzed through the characterization of the micro-pumps flowrate with respect to the pumps driving pressure and the actuation frequency. Tested ...


Finite Element Analysis Simulations Of Micro And Nano-Electromechanical Sensors For Design Optimization, Nicholas Frank Deroller Dec 2014

Finite Element Analysis Simulations Of Micro And Nano-Electromechanical Sensors For Design Optimization, Nicholas Frank Deroller

Theses and Dissertations

Micro and Nano-electromechanical sensors (MEMS and NEMS) provide a means of actively sensing minute changes in the surrounding environment. Small changes in temperature, momentum, and strain may be sensed in passive modes while greater sensing possibilities exist in active modes. Theoretical femto-gram resolution mass detection and heated element sensing methods may be used while volatile organic compound (VOC) sensing may be achieved when combined with a functionalization layer or device heating. These devices offer a great reduction in cost and offer increased mobility by allowing a "lab-on-chip" solution for the prospective user while also greatly reducing the amount of energy ...


Piezotransistive Iii-V Nitride Microcantilever Based Mems/Nems Sensor For Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Of Chemicals, Abdul Hafiz Ibne Talukdar Dec 2014

Piezotransistive Iii-V Nitride Microcantilever Based Mems/Nems Sensor For Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Of Chemicals, Abdul Hafiz Ibne Talukdar

Theses and Dissertations

Microcantilevers are highly attractive as transducers for detecting chemicals, explosives, and biological molecules due to their high sensitivity, micro-scale dimensions, and low power consumption. Though optical transduction of the mechanical movement of the microcantilevers into an electrical signal is widely practiced, there is a continuous thrust to develop alternative transduction methods that are more conducive to the development of compact miniaturized sensors. Piezoelectric and piezoresistive transduction methods are two of the most popular ones that have been utilized to develop miniaturized sensor systems. Piezoelectric cantilevers, which are commonly made of PZT film, have demonstrated very high sensitivity; however, they suffer ...


Microfabrication Processes And Advancements In Planar Electrode Ion Traps As Mass Spectrometers, Brett Jacob Hansen Mar 2013

Microfabrication Processes And Advancements In Planar Electrode Ion Traps As Mass Spectrometers, Brett Jacob Hansen

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents advances in the development of planar electrode ion traps. An ion trap is a device that can be used in mass analysis applications. Electrode surfaces create an electric field profile that trap ionized molecules of an analyte. The electric fields can then be manipulated to mass-selectively eject ions out of the trap into a detector. The resulting data can be used to analyze molecular structure and composition of an unknown compound. Conventional ion traps require machined electrode surfaces to form the electric trapping field. This class of electrode presents significant obstacles when attempting to miniaturize ion traps ...


Toward Sophisticated Controls Of Two-Phase Transport At Micro/Nano-Scale, Fanghao Yang Jan 2013

Toward Sophisticated Controls Of Two-Phase Transport At Micro/Nano-Scale, Fanghao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Through the use of latent heat evaporating, flow boiling in microchannels offers new opportunities to enable high efficient heat and mass transport for a wide range of emerging applications such as high power electric/electronic/optical cooling, compact heat exchangers and reactors. However, flow boiling in microchannels is hampered by several severe constraints such as bubble confinement (e.g., slug flow), viscosity and surface tension force-dominated flows, which result in unpredictable flow pattern transitions and tend to induce severe flow boiling instabilities (i.e. low-frequency and large magnitude flows) and suppress evaporation and convection.

In this dissertation, three novel micro ...


Development Of Mems-Based Corrosion Sensor, Feng Pan Dec 2012

Development Of Mems-Based Corrosion Sensor, Feng Pan

Theses and Dissertations

This research is to develop a MEMS-based corrosion sensor, which is used for monitoring uniform, galvanic corrosion occurring in infrastructures such as buildings, bridges. The corrosion sensor is made up of the composite of micro/nano metal particles with elastomers. The mechanism of corrosion sensor is based on the mass transport of corrosive species through the sensor matrix. When the metal particles in the matrix corrode, the electrical resistivity of the material increases due to increasing particle resistances or reduction of conducting pathways. The corrosion rate can be monitored by detecting the resistivity change in sensing elements. The life span ...


Design And Testing Of A Biological Microelectromechanical System For The Injection Of Thousands Of Cells Simultaneously, Gregory Herlin Teichert Jul 2012

Design And Testing Of A Biological Microelectromechanical System For The Injection Of Thousands Of Cells Simultaneously, Gregory Herlin Teichert

Theses and Dissertations

The ability to inject DNA and other foreign particles into cells, both germ cells (e.g. to produce transgenic animals) and somatic cells (e.g. for gene therapy), is a powerful tool in genetic research. Nanoinjection is a method of DNA delivery that combines mechanical and electrical methods. It has proven to have higher cell viability than traditional microinjection, resulting in higher integration per injected embryo. The nanoinjection process can be performed on thousands of cells simultaneously using an array of microneedles that is inserted into a monolayer of cells. This thesis describes the needle array design requirements and the ...


Mechanical Properties And Mems Applications Of Carbon-Infiltrated Carbon Nanotube Forests, Walter C. Fazio May 2012

Mechanical Properties And Mems Applications Of Carbon-Infiltrated Carbon Nanotube Forests, Walter C. Fazio

Theses and Dissertations

This work explores the use of carbon-infiltrated carbon nanotube (CI-CNT) forests as a material for fabricating compliant MEMS devices. The impacts of iron catalyst layer thickness and carbon infiltration time are examined. An iron layer of 7nm or 10nm with an infiltration time of 30 minutes produces CI-CNT best suited for compliant applications. Average maximum strains of 2% and 2.48% were observed for these parameters. The corresponding elastic moduli were 5.4 GPa and 4.1 GPa, respectively. A direct comparison of similar geometry suggested CI-CNT is 80% more flexible than single-crystal silicon. A torsional testing procedure provided an ...


Microelectromechanical Actuator And Sensor System For Measuring The Mechanical Compliance Of Biological Cells, Markus Hans Gnerlich Jan 2012

Microelectromechanical Actuator And Sensor System For Measuring The Mechanical Compliance Of Biological Cells, Markus Hans Gnerlich

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Devices And Methods For Electro-Physical Transport Of Dna Across Cell Membranes, Quentin Theodore Aten Jun 2011

Devices And Methods For Electro-Physical Transport Of Dna Across Cell Membranes, Quentin Theodore Aten

Theses and Dissertations

A novel method for charged macromolecule delivery, called nanoinjection, has been developed at Brigham Young University. Nanoinjection combines micro-fabrication technology, mechanism design, and nano-scale electrical phenomenon to transport exogenous DNA across cell membranes on a nano-featured lance. DNA is electrically accumulated on the lance, precision movements of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) physically insert the lance into cell, and DNA is electrically released from the lance into the cell. Penetration into the cell is achieved through a two-phase, self-reconfiguring metamorphic mechanism. The surface-micromachined, metamorphic nanoinjector mechanism elevates the lance above the fabrication substrate, then translates in-plane at a constant height as the ...


Modeling, Design, And Testing Of An Underwater Microactuation System Using A Standard Mems Foundry Process, Gregory L. Holst Apr 2011

Modeling, Design, And Testing Of An Underwater Microactuation System Using A Standard Mems Foundry Process, Gregory L. Holst

Theses and Dissertations

This work presents the modeling, design, and testing of an underwater microactuation system. It is composed of several thermomechanical in-plane microactuators (TIM) integrated with a ratchet system to provide long displacements and high forces to underwater microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). It is capable of actuating a 200µN load 110µm. It is a two-layer silicon MEMS device fabricated with a MEMS fabrication process, PolyMUMPS. This work also shows the development of an elliptic integral model to analyze the compliant fixed-guided beams in the TIM and gives new insight into the buckling behavior, reaction forces, and displacement of the beams. The derivation, verification ...


Modeling And Testing Of Dna Motion For Nanoinjection, Regis Agenor David Dec 2010

Modeling And Testing Of Dna Motion For Nanoinjection, Regis Agenor David

Theses and Dissertations

A new technique, called nanoinjection, is being developed to insert foreign DNA into a living cell. Such DNA transfection is commonly used to create transgenic organisms vital to the study of genetics, immunology, and many other biological sciences. In nanoinjection, DNA, which has a net negative charge, is electrically attracted to a micromachined lance. The lance then pierces the cell membranes, and the voltage on the lance is reversed, repelling the DNA into the cell. It is shown that DNA motion is strongly correlated to ion transport through a process called electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is used to move DNA using ...


Piezoresistive Models For Polysilicon With Bending Or Torsional Loads, Gerrit T. Larsen Aug 2009

Piezoresistive Models For Polysilicon With Bending Or Torsional Loads, Gerrit T. Larsen

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents new models for determining piezoresistive response in long, thin polysilicon beams with either axial and bending moment inducing loads or torsional loads. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) test devices and calibration methods for finding the piezoresistive coefficients are also presented for both loading conditions. For axial and bending moment inducing loads, if the piezoresistive coefficients are known, the Improved Piezoresistive Flexure Model (IPFM) is used to find the new resistance of a beam under stress. The IPFM first discretizes the beam into small volumes represented by resistors. The stress that each of these volumes experiences is calculated, and the stress ...


Design And Testing Of A Pumpless Microelectromechanical System Nanoinjector, Quentin Theodore Aten Nov 2008

Design And Testing Of A Pumpless Microelectromechanical System Nanoinjector, Quentin Theodore Aten

Theses and Dissertations

A deeper understanding of human development and disease is made possible partly through the study of genetically modified model organisms, such as the common mouse (Mus musculus). By genetically modifying such model organisms, scientists can activate, deactivate, or highlight particular characteristics. A genetically modified animal is generated by adding exogenous (foreign) genetic material to one or more embryonic cells at their earliest stages of development. Frequently, this exogenous genetic material consists of specially engineered DNA, which is introduced into a fertilized egg cell (zygote). When successfully introduced into the zygote, the exogenous DNA will be incorporated into the cell's ...


Multi-Physics Modeling And Calibration For Self-Sensing Of Thermomechanical In-Plane Microactuators, Kendall B. Teichert Jul 2008

Multi-Physics Modeling And Calibration For Self-Sensing Of Thermomechanical In-Plane Microactuators, Kendall B. Teichert

Theses and Dissertations

As technology advances and engineering capabilities improve, more research has focused on microscopic possibilities. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is one area that has received much attention recently. Within MEMS much research has focused on sensing and actuation. This thesis presents work on a particular actuator of interest, the thermomechanical in-plane microactuator (TIM). Recent work has shown the possibility of a novel approach of sensing mechanical outputs of the TIM without ancillary sensors. This sensing approach exploits the piezoresistive property of silicon. However, to implement this approach a full model of the TIM would need to be obtained to describe the physics ...


Characterizing The Three-Dimensional Behavior Of Bistable Micromechanisms, Brian B. Cherry Feb 2008

Characterizing The Three-Dimensional Behavior Of Bistable Micromechanisms, Brian B. Cherry

Theses and Dissertations

Compliant bistable micromechanisms have been proposed for use in applications such as switches, relays, shutters, and sensing arrays. Unpublished laboratory testing suggests that off-axis forces may affect the bistable nature of fully compliant bistable micromechanisms (FCBMs). The actuation forces required to snap the FCBM from one stable equilibrium position to another can be altered if the off-axis forces are applied to the mechanism during transition between stable positions. Understanding the three-dimensional characteristics of these mechanisms and the effect of eccentric loading conditions would be helpful in design and analysis of FCBMs. Two 3-D FEA models were developed for analysis and ...


Integrated Piezoresistive Sensing For Feedback Control Of Compliant Mems, Robert K. Messenger Oct 2007

Integrated Piezoresistive Sensing For Feedback Control Of Compliant Mems, Robert K. Messenger

Theses and Dissertations

Feedback control of MEMS devices has the potential to significantly improve device performance and reliability. One of the main obstacles to its broader use is the small number of on-chip sensing options available to MEMS designers. A method of using integrated piezoresistive sensing is proposed and demonstrated as another option. Integrated piezoresistive sensing utilizes the inherent piezoresistive property of polycrystalline silicon from which many MEMS devices are fabricated. As compliant MEMS structures flex to perform their functions, their resistance changes. That resistance change can be used to transduce the structures' deflection into an electrical signal. This dissertation addresses three topics ...


The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns Dec 2006

The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to present a new model for predicting the piezoresistive effect in microflexures experiencing bending stresses. A linear model describing piezoresistivity exists for members in pure tension and compression. Extensions of this model to more complex loading conditions do not match experimental results. An accurate model of piezoresistivity in complex loading conditions would expand the design possibilities of piezoresistive devices. A new model to predict piezoresistive effects in tension, compression, and more complex loading conditions is proposed. The focus of this research is to verify a unidirectional form of this proposed model for microflexures in ...


Design Of Piezoresistive Mems Force And Displacement Sensors, Tyler Lane Waterfall Sep 2006

Design Of Piezoresistive Mems Force And Displacement Sensors, Tyler Lane Waterfall

Theses and Dissertations

MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) sensors are used in acceleration, flow, pressure and force sensing applications on the micro and macro levels. Much research has focused on improving sensor precision, range, reliability, and ease of manufacture and operation. One exciting possibility for improving the capability of micro sensors lies in exploiting the piezoresistive properties of silicon, the material of choice in many MEMS fabrication processes. Piezoresistivity—the change of electrical resistance due to an applied strain—is a valuable material property of silicon due to its potential for high signal output and on-chip and feedback-control possibilities. However, successful design of piezoresistive micro ...


Piezoresistive Sensing Of Bistable Micro Mechansim State, Jeffrey K. Anderson Nov 2005

Piezoresistive Sensing Of Bistable Micro Mechansim State, Jeffrey K. Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-chip sensing of bistable mechanism state using the piezoresistive properties of polysilicon, thus eliminating the need for electrical contacts. Changes in position are detected by observing changes in resistance across the mechanism. Sensing the state of bistable mechanisms is critical in their various applications. The research in this thesis advances the modeling techniques of MEMS devices which use piezoresistivity for position sensing. A fully compliant bistable micro mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensing technique. Testing results from two fabrication processes, Fairchild's ...


Ortho-Planar Mechanisms For Microelectromechanical Systems, Craig P. Lusk Jul 2005

Ortho-Planar Mechanisms For Microelectromechanical Systems, Craig P. Lusk

Theses and Dissertations

A method for representing the design space of ortho-planar mechanisms has been developed. The method is based on the Theorem of Equality of Orientation Set Measures (TEOSM) which allows mechanisms to be represented by points in an abstract space. The method is first developed for single loop planar folded mechanisms with revolute joints, and later extended to mechanisms with prismatic joints and to spherical folded mechanisms. Functions which assign a value to each point in design space can be used to describe classes of mechanisms and evaluate their utility for MEMS design. Additionally, this work introduces the use of spherical ...


Electrothermomechanical Modeling Of A Surface-Micromachined Linear Displacement Microactuator, Christian D. Lott Mar 2005

Electrothermomechanical Modeling Of A Surface-Micromachined Linear Displacement Microactuator, Christian D. Lott

Theses and Dissertations

The electrothermomechanical characteristics of an electrically-heated polycrystallinesilicon microactuator are explored. Using finite-difference techniques, an electrothermal model based on the balance of heat dissipation and heat losses is developed. For accurate simulation, the relevant temperature dependent properties from the microactuator material are included in the model. The electrothermal model accurately predicts the steady-state power required to hold position, and the energy consumed during the thermal transient. Thermomechanical models use the predictions of temperature from the electrothermal solution to calculate displacement and force from pseudo-rigid-body approximations and commercial finite-element code. The models are verified by comparing experimental data to simulation results of ...


Dual-Stage Thermally Actuated Surface-Micromachined Nanopositioners, Neal B. Hubbard Mar 2005

Dual-Stage Thermally Actuated Surface-Micromachined Nanopositioners, Neal B. Hubbard

Theses and Dissertations

Nanopositioners have been developed with electrostatic, piezoelectric, magnetic, thermal, and electrochemical actuators. They move with as many as six degrees of freedom; some are composed of multiple stages that stack together. Both macro-scale and micro-scale nanopositioners have been fabricated. A summary of recent research in micropositioning and nanopositioning is presented to set the background for this work. This research project demonstrates that a dual-stage nanopositioner can be created with microelectromechanical systems technology such that the two stages are integrated on a single silicon chip. A nanopositioner is presented that has two stages, one for coarse motion and one for fine ...


Simulation-Based Design Under Uncertainty For Compliant Microelectromechanical Systems, Jonathan W. Wittwer Mar 2005

Simulation-Based Design Under Uncertainty For Compliant Microelectromechanical Systems, Jonathan W. Wittwer

Theses and Dissertations

The high cost of experimentation and product development in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has led to a greater emphasis on simulation-based design for increasing first-pass design success and reliability. The use of compliant or flexible mechanisms can help eliminate friction, wear, and backlash, but compliant MEMS are sensitive to variations in material properties and geometry. This dissertation proposes approaches for design stage uncertainty analysis, model validation, and robust optimization of nonlinear compliant MEMS to account for critical process uncertainties including residual stress, layer thicknesses, edge bias, and material stiffness. Methods for simulating and mitigating the effects of non-idealities ...


Fully Compliant Tensural Bistable Mechanisms (Ftbm) With On-Chip Thermal Actuation, Daniel L. Wilcox Jul 2004

Fully Compliant Tensural Bistable Mechanisms (Ftbm) With On-Chip Thermal Actuation, Daniel L. Wilcox

Theses and Dissertations

The Fully compliant Tensural Bistable Mechanism (FTBM) class is introduced. The class consists of fully compliant linear bistable mechanisms that achieve much of their displacement and bistable behavior through tension loading of compliant segments. Multiple topologies of designs arising from the FTBM class were designed using a finite element analysis (FEA) model with optimization. In a coupled design approach, thermal actuators were optimized to the force and displacement requirements of the bistable mech-anisms, and selected FTBM devices were combined in switching systems with the result-ing Thermomechanical In-plane Microactuators (TIMs) and Amplified Thermomechanical In-plane Microactuators (ATIMs). Successful on-chip actuation was demonstrated ...


Modeling And Control Of Surface Micromachined Thermal Actuators, Robert K. Messenger May 2004

Modeling And Control Of Surface Micromachined Thermal Actuators, Robert K. Messenger

Theses and Dissertations

A model that accurately describes the transient and steady-state response of thermal microactuators is desirable to provide guidance for design and operation. However, modeling the full response of thermal actuators is challenging due to the temperature-dependent material properties and nonlinear deformations that must be included to obtain accurate results. To meet these challenges a three-dimensional multi-physics nonlinear finite-element model was developed using commercial code. The Thermomechanical Inplane Microactuator (TIM) was chosen as a candidate application to validate the model. TIMs were fabricated using the SUMMiT V™ process and their response was measured using a high-speed camera. The TIMs were modeled ...