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Hybrid Monomers & Resins For High-Performance Thermosetting Polymers, Thermoplastics, & Additive Manufacturing, Alexander William Bassett Mar 2020

Hybrid Monomers & Resins For High-Performance Thermosetting Polymers, Thermoplastics, & Additive Manufacturing, Alexander William Bassett

Theses and Dissertations

Vinyl ester and epoxy resins are used to produce thermosetting polymeric materials for a variety of commercial and military applications due to their relatively high moduli (2-3 GPa at 25 deg C), glass transition temperatures (Tgs) (greater than or equal to 120 deg C), and adequate fracture toughness (G1C approx. 200-250 J m-2). Most commercially available vinyl ester and epoxy resins are typically cured via traditional manufacturing techniques such as resin transfer molding and thermal curing. However, additive manufacturing (AM) has gained significant traction as a favorable manufacturing technique over traditional methods due to the ability to create customizable parts ...


Mechanical Behavior And Characterization Of Sls Processed Pa-11 For Pa-11/Silica Nanocomposites, Gabrielle Esposito Jan 2020

Mechanical Behavior And Characterization Of Sls Processed Pa-11 For Pa-11/Silica Nanocomposites, Gabrielle Esposito

Theses and Dissertations

Selective laser sintering (SLS) continues to be a promising additive manufacturing process, in which three dimensional shapes are produced through laser sintering and resurfacing of a powder bed. The structural changes of a polyamide 11/carbon black (PA11/CB) powder during a UV-laser sintered printing process were analyzed to ultimately serve as a benchmark for a PA11/CB/SNP nanocomposite printed material. Samples printed with increasing laser area energy density were compared in terms of crystalinity, melt temperature, tensile behavior, essential work of fracture, density, molecular weight and amorphous chain rigidity. A molecular weight increase is found to occur in ...


Association Of Cholera Toxin With Vibrio Cholerae Outer Membrane Vesicles, Elnaz Rasti Boroujeni Jan 2020

Association Of Cholera Toxin With Vibrio Cholerae Outer Membrane Vesicles, Elnaz Rasti Boroujeni

Theses and Dissertations

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae is the causative organism responsible for cholera, an infectious disease characterized by acute watery diarrhea. Cholera toxin (CT), the primary virulence factor of V. cholerae, is a prototypical AB5 toxin secreted through the type II secretion pathway. Upon secretion, the toxin initiates endocytosis through the interaction of the CTB subunit with the GM1 ganglioside receptor on the small intestinal cells. In addition to the secretion of the toxin in the free, water-soluble form, V. cholerae secrete biologically active CT in association with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs are naturally released spherical buds of the outer membranes of ...


Inversion Of Sucrose By Invertase And The Separation Of Fructose And Glucose By Ion Exchange Chromatography, Jack Wade Mcdermott Jan 2020

Inversion Of Sucrose By Invertase And The Separation Of Fructose And Glucose By Ion Exchange Chromatography, Jack Wade Mcdermott

Theses and Dissertations

The primary goal of this thesis is to present a fundamental understanding of ion exchange chromatography and enzyme kinetics. Both techniques are explored through simple examples such as the inversion of sucrose by invertase as well as the separation of fructose and glucose by ion exchange chromatography. Enzymes are biocatalysts that allow biological systems to function, which can also be utilized for a variety of industrial reactions. Ion ex-change chromatography is widely implemented in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries as well as by environmental industry, or for water filtering by consumers in their homes.

The hydrolysis of sucrose is catalyzed ...


Functional Importance Of Lipin Phosphorylation, Stephanie Elizabeth Hood Dec 2019

Functional Importance Of Lipin Phosphorylation, Stephanie Elizabeth Hood

Theses and Dissertations

Highly conserved throughout evolution, lipins are dual functioning proteins found from yeast to humans. Functioning in the cytoplasm as phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes (PAP), lipins produce diacylglycerol that serves as a precursor for neutral fats and membrane phospholipids. Alternatively, nuclear lipins are responsible for the regulation of metabolic genes. Interestingly, both the mammalian lipin 1 paralog and the single Drosophila Lipin ortholog are highly phosphorylated proteins. Target of rapamycin (TOR) has previously been identified as one of the kinases that controls the subcellular localization of both lipin 1 and Drosophila Lipin. However, other serine and threonine kinases are predicted to be ...


Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo Dec 2019

Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo

Theses and Dissertations

Noble metal nanoparticles and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals offer unique optical and electronic properties that include strong exciton binding, spin-orbital coupling, and localized surface plasmon resonance. Controlling these properties at high spatiotemporal resolution can support emerging optoelectronic coupling and enhanced optical features. Excitation dynamics of these optical properties on physicochemically bonded mono- and few-layer TMD crystals with metal nanocrystals and two overlapping spherical metal nanocrystals were examined by concurrently (i) DDA simulations and (ii) far-field optical transmission UV-vis spectroscopic measurements. Initially, a novel and scalable method to unsettle van der Waals bonds in bulk TMDs to prepare ...


Theoretical Investigations Of The Electronic, Magnetic, And Thermoelectric Properties Of Transition-Metal Based Compounds, Haleoot Edaan Raad Dec 2019

Theoretical Investigations Of The Electronic, Magnetic, And Thermoelectric Properties Of Transition-Metal Based Compounds, Haleoot Edaan Raad

Theses and Dissertations

The electronic, magnetic, and thermoelectric properties of transition-metal based compounds were investigated by using the density functional theory and Boltzmann transport formalism. It was found that the Co-based Heusler compounds and InSe monochalcogenide are among the materials that may be used for future thermoelectric devices. Furthermore, the investigation showed that the quaternary Heusler compounds, such as, CoFeYGe, where Y is Ti or Cr, are half-metallic ferromagnetic materials with full electron spin polarization. The lattice thermal conductivity (κL) was found to decrease for these alloys as the temperature increases. The present investigation indicated that the phonon optical modes have a major ...


Influence Of Single And Multiple Histidine Residues And Their Ionization Properties On Transmembrane Helix Dynamics, Orientations And Fraying, Fahmida Afrose Dec 2019

Influence Of Single And Multiple Histidine Residues And Their Ionization Properties On Transmembrane Helix Dynamics, Orientations And Fraying, Fahmida Afrose

Theses and Dissertations

Since aromatic and charged residues are often present in various locations of transmembrane helices of integral membrane proteins, their impacts on the molecular properties of transmembrane proteins and their interactions with lipids are of particular interest in many studies. In this work, I used solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy in designed model peptide GWALP23 [GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA] with selective deuterium labels to addresses the pH dependence and influence of single and multiple “guest” histidine residues in the orientation and dynamic behaviors of transmembrane proteins. The mutations include Gly to His (G2/22 to H2/22), Trp to His (W5/19 to ...


Applications Of Ionic Liquids In Membrane Separation, Mohanad Kamaz Dec 2019

Applications Of Ionic Liquids In Membrane Separation, Mohanad Kamaz

Theses and Dissertations

Ionic liquids represent an emerging attractive material in membrane technology. The central theme of this doctoral dissertation is to develope novel membranes using ionic liquids. Two different approaches were used to prepare ionic liquid membranes including the immobilization of ionic liquid within the membrane pores or the use of pressure assembly method to deposit a selective ionic liquid layer on the top membrane surface.

In chapter 2, imidazolium ionic liquids with three different alkyl halides were successfully synthesized and used to prepare supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). SILMs preraper were tested for aqueous and nonaqueous applications. For nonaqueous applications, the ...


Discovery Of Materials Through Applied Machine Learning, Travis Williams Oct 2019

Discovery Of Materials Through Applied Machine Learning, Travis Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in artificial intelligence technology, specifically machine learning, have cre- ated opportunities in the material sciences to accelerate material discovery and gain fundamental understanding of the interaction between certain the constituent ele- ments of a material and the properties expressed by that material. Application of machine learning to experimental materials discovery is slow due to the monetary and temporal cost of experimental data, but parallel techniques such as continuous com- positional gradients or high-throughput characterization setups are capable of gener- ating larger amounts of data than the typical experimental process, and therefore are suitable for combination with machine learning. A ...


Molecular Modeling Of Tethered Polyelectrolytes For Novel Biomedical Applications, Merina Jahan Oct 2019

Molecular Modeling Of Tethered Polyelectrolytes For Novel Biomedical Applications, Merina Jahan

Theses and Dissertations

Current research trends throughout the world focus on designing intelligent materi- als and systems for diverse applications in all courses of life. Biomaterials research encompasses a major part in this revolution due to the increased effort in fulfilling unmet medical needs to treat complex physiological and neurodegenerative disorders. Polymers play inevitable roles in these research endeavors for their ubiquitous pres- ence in biological systems. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the polymeric molecules interact within diverse biological environments, to efficiently engineer them for various drug delivery and biosensing systems. The use of experimental design and selection of different polymers ...


Quantifying And Elucidating The Effect Of Co2 On The Thermodynamics, Kinetics And Charge Transport Of Aemfcs, Yiwei Zheng Oct 2019

Quantifying And Elucidating The Effect Of Co2 On The Thermodynamics, Kinetics And Charge Transport Of Aemfcs, Yiwei Zheng

Theses and Dissertations

Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have shown significant promise to provide clean, sustainable energy for grid and transportation applications – and at a lower theoretical cost than more established proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Adding to the excitement around AEMFCs is the extremely high peak power that can now be obtained (> 3 W cm-2) and continuously improving durability (1000+ h), which has made the future deployment of AEMFCs in real-world applications a serious consideration. For some applications (e.g. automotive), the most critical remaining practical issue with AEMFCs is understanding and mitigating the effects of atmospheric CO2 (in the ...


A Molecular View Of Self-Assembly And Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation Of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Gregory Legrand Dignon Sep 2019

A Molecular View Of Self-Assembly And Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation Of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Gregory Legrand Dignon

Theses and Dissertations

Intracellular compartmentalization of biomolecules into non-membrane-bound compartments, commonly referred to as membraneless organelles (MLOs), has been observed for over a century. The past decade has seen a massive surge of research interest on this topic due to evidence that a liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) process is responsible for the assembly of biomolecules into liquid-like compartments constituting MLOs. Since the initial discovery, dozens of cellular systems have been explored with this in mind, and have also been shown to have liquid-like properties, owing several unique functions to their liquid-like nature. MLOs such as stress granules may spontaneously form in response to ...


Amps Based Rheology Modifier For Personal Care Industry, Lincy Chandanasseril Gurusamy Aug 2019

Amps Based Rheology Modifier For Personal Care Industry, Lincy Chandanasseril Gurusamy

Theses and Dissertations

Rheology modifiers play an important role in formulating personal care products by providing rheology to the components it is added to. Most skin care formulations are oil in water systems which require rheology modifiers that are hydrophilic in nature such as polymeric rheology modifiers. Some of the polymeric rheology modifiers provide rheology through associations whereas others impart thickening efficiency through hydrodynamic volume increase. There is a potential in developing polymeric rheology modifiers through combination of different chemistries such as Polyacrylate based comonomers copolymerized with modified sulfonic acid chemistry. In this case study, gels prepared from three polyacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanosulfonic acid ...


Learning About Sequence-Dependent Dna/Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrids, Yoona Yang Aug 2019

Learning About Sequence-Dependent Dna/Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrids, Yoona Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Since the single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were discovered in 1993, they have attracted significant interest with their extraordinary electrical and optical properties in addition to their remarkable mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. Single-stranded DNA conjugated SWCNT have shown outstanding functionality in terms of dispersibility and biocompatibility. In addition, some special DNA sequences have presented an ability to recognize specific SWCNT species, called recognition sequences. Ion-exchange chromatography and aqueous two-phase (ATP) separation technique have been widely used for SWCNT separation. However, little is known about the use of ATP as an analytical technique. Furthermore, for bio-applications, DNA/SWCNT hybrids have attracted ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Liquid Phase Modeling In Heterogeneous Catalysis, Mohammad Shamsus Saleheen Jul 2019

Liquid Phase Modeling In Heterogeneous Catalysis, Mohammad Shamsus Saleheen

Theses and Dissertations

Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into transportation fuels or commodity and specialty chemicals will be an important and fast-growing industry within the United States over the coming decades. Its growth will be driven by a variety of factors, including increased energy demands, environmental considerations, national security, and government mandates. To achieve the desired energy efficiency and economic impact, the emerging biorefining industries need novel heterogeneous catalysts with exceptional activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalytic materials developed in the petrochemical industries are generally not suitable for processing highly functionalized feedstocks typical of the biorefinery landscape. Due to the characteristics of this biomass feedstock ...


Flame Spray Pyrolysis Of Ce-Mn Solid Solutions For Catalytic Applications, Nicole Cordonnier Jul 2019

Flame Spray Pyrolysis Of Ce-Mn Solid Solutions For Catalytic Applications, Nicole Cordonnier

Theses and Dissertations

Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) is a method of quickly synthesizing active particles in a flame. Precursors are dissolved in a flammable organic solvent before being sprayed into the flame environment where they rapidly burn. Particle formation occurs on the order of 10 milliseconds. FSP has been shown to be a viable method of producing materials on an industrial scale, capable of producing grams of particles per minute. Metastable structures which exist in the liquid phase, but are difficult to synthesize using traditional impregnation methods can be formed with FSP due to fast quenching times. For example, solid solutions of Ce-Zr ...


Fabrication Of Enhanced Carbon Based Biocompatible And Biodegradable Microelectronic Materials Derived From Lignocellulosic Biomass, Harrison Thomas Hawkins May 2019

Fabrication Of Enhanced Carbon Based Biocompatible And Biodegradable Microelectronic Materials Derived From Lignocellulosic Biomass, Harrison Thomas Hawkins

Theses and Dissertations

The development of materials capable of harmlessly being broken down and removed from the body is a crucial step towards the development of short-term application electronic biomedical implants. Once developed, these implants, known as bioresorbable electronics, will open a wide array of temporary applications in the field of biomedical implantable devices. Necessary to the operation of bioresorbable electronics within the body is a power source that is similarly biocompatible and biodegradable. To this end, enhanced carbon-based materials and a bio-ionic liquid were developed for the fabrication of a preliminary implantable and bioresorbable battery and tested for functional properties. Electrodes were ...


Study Of Robustness Of Model Predictive Control Of Rapid Pressure Swing Adsorption System To Disturbances And Uncertain Parameters Using Scenario-Based Simulations, Jianan Zheng May 2019

Study Of Robustness Of Model Predictive Control Of Rapid Pressure Swing Adsorption System To Disturbances And Uncertain Parameters Using Scenario-Based Simulations, Jianan Zheng

Theses and Dissertations

Medical oxygen concentrators (MOCs) are widely used to produce high purity oxygen for

patients suered from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and most

commercial MOCs use rapid pressure swing adsorption (RPSA) technology. Previous

studies proposed a multi-variable model predictive control (MPC) strategy applied to

the RPSA system which has been proved to have a better performance than control

using only single manipulated variable. In practice, the RPSA system will experienced

unknown disturbances and parameter uncertainties. This paper performs scenarios of

disturbance and parametric uncertainty simulation case studies to assess and explain the

current controller robustness and eectiveness. The results ...


Electrode Development And Electrocatalysts Design For Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, Xiong Peng Apr 2019

Electrode Development And Electrocatalysts Design For Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, Xiong Peng

Theses and Dissertations

Because of environmental issues and national conflicts caused by overuse of fossil fuels, there is a need to seek renewable ways to utilize energy. In the transportation sector, hydrogen-based polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, including proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), have been considered as a promising alternative to conventional combustion engines. However, the widespread commercialization of both PEMFCs and AEMFCs has been hindered by several factors, including cost and performance. In this thesis, a series of topics including electrode fabrication, electrocatalyst development for both PEMFCs and AEMFCs, as well as the water ...


The Use Of Multi-Targeting Natural Products For The Treatment Of Cancer, Wesley Taylor Apr 2019

The Use Of Multi-Targeting Natural Products For The Treatment Of Cancer, Wesley Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

The paradigm shift in cancer treatments from traditional chemotherapeutics to targeted therapies has rapidly improved prognoses for patients for whom cancer was once a death sentence. This is especially true in the case of targeted immune therapies which activate the body’s own natural defense system to fight cancer. Despite these advances, however, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. The promise of targeted therapeutics has faced significant hurdles in providing effective cancer treatments, namely the limited percentage of susceptible cancers for each treatment, high cost burden, high toxicities, and significant risk of treatment induced ...


Heterogeneous Catalysis For The Upgrading Of Biomass Derived Chemicals Via Hydrodeoxygenation, Elizabeth Barrow Apr 2019

Heterogeneous Catalysis For The Upgrading Of Biomass Derived Chemicals Via Hydrodeoxygenation, Elizabeth Barrow

Theses and Dissertations

An important step in the upgrading of biomass derived chemicals is the removal of excess oxygen. The works reported here are focused on studying the heterogeneous catalysts that can be utilized for that upgrading through hydrodeoxygenation. This work begins with a discussion of the alkylation of short chain platform chemicals for chain growth and also demonstrates the proof of concept of combining alkylation and hydrodeoxygenation in a single step. Then, because of the promising nature of ReOx- Pd/CeO2 for selective hydrodeoxygenation, a detailed study of ReOx/CeO2 is presented. Finally, a new surface structure interpretation is presented for P ...


Scaling Film Cooling Adiabatic Effectiveness With Mass Transfer And Thermal Experimental Techniques, Luke J. Mcnamara Mar 2019

Scaling Film Cooling Adiabatic Effectiveness With Mass Transfer And Thermal Experimental Techniques, Luke J. Mcnamara

Theses and Dissertations

With increasing engine temperatures, it is becoming more important to design effective film cooling schemes. Low temperature, large scale tests are often implemented in the design process to reduce cost and complexity. A nondimensional adiabatic effectiveness can be used as an indication of the performance of a film cooling scheme. However, the coolant flow rate must be properly scaled between the low temperature tests and engine temperatures to accurately predict film cooling effectiveness. This process is complicated by gas property variation with temperature. Tests are commonly conducted using thermal measurement techniques with infrared thermography (IR), but the use of pressure ...


Tactical Missile Performance For Single And Multi-Wire Embedded Propellant Configurations With Discontinuities, Paul B. Wilson Mar 2019

Tactical Missile Performance For Single And Multi-Wire Embedded Propellant Configurations With Discontinuities, Paul B. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

This research analyzes the performance of a nominal air-to-air tactical missile with varying configurations of wire-embedded end-burning solid propellant grains. Single and multi-wire models are developed to determine if total impulse and range is improved. Discontinuities in the wires are simulated to determine if gaps in the wire will affect overall performance. Five wire materials, seven wire diameters, and nine different break locations are tested. This research demonstrates wire discontinuities have negligible impact on performance and carbon nanotube fibers can theoretically improve total impulse by up to 25% compared to radially burning boost-phase grains while providing similar thrust outputs.


Bio-Based Thiol-Ene Polymer Electrolytes, Elyse Antonia Baroncini Mar 2019

Bio-Based Thiol-Ene Polymer Electrolytes, Elyse Antonia Baroncini

Theses and Dissertations

Industrial and consumer demand for smaller and safer technologies motivates a global research effort to improve electrolytic polymer separators in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To incorporate the aromatic structural advantages of lignin, an abundant and renewable resource, into polymer electrolytes, molecules that can be derived from lignin are functionalized and UV-polymerized with multifunctional thiol monomers. Monomer aromaticity, thiol molecular weight, and total functionality are varied, allowing for analysis of the relationships between polymer structure and electrochemical properties.

The synthesized polymers display conductivities on the order of 10^-5 S/cm for gel polymer electrolytes and 10^-4 S/cm for solid ...


Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack Mar 2019

Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack

Theses and Dissertations

The Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) promises to greatly reduce the size of a gas turbine engine’s combustor by altering the manner in which fuel is burnt. Differing from the common axial flow combustor, the UCC utilizes a rotating flow, coaxial to the engine’s primary axis, in an outboard circumferential cavity as the primary combustion zone. The present study investigates two key UCC facets required to further this combustor design. The first area of investigation is cooling of the Hybrid Guide Vane (HGV). This UCC specific hardware acts as a combustor center body that alters the exit flow angle ...


Carbon Capture And Synergistic Energy Storage: Performance And Uncertainty Quantification, Christopher Stephen Russell Feb 2019

Carbon Capture And Synergistic Energy Storage: Performance And Uncertainty Quantification, Christopher Stephen Russell

Theses and Dissertations

Energy use around the world will rise in the coming decades. Renewable energy sources will help meet this demand, but renewable sources suffer from intermittency, uncontrollable power supply, geographic limitations, and other issues. Many of these issues can be mitigated by introducing energy storage technologies. These technologies facilitate load following and can effectively time-shift power. This analysis compares dedicated and synergistic energy storage technologies using energy efficiency as the primary metric.
Energy storage will help renewable sources come to the grid, but fossil fuels still dominate energy sources for decades to come in nearly all projections. Carbon capture technologies can ...


Modeling Electrospun Fibrous Materials, Sina Hassanpouryousefi Jan 2019

Modeling Electrospun Fibrous Materials, Sina Hassanpouryousefi

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning has been the focus of countless studies for the past decades for applications, including but not limited to, filtration, tissue engineering, and catalysis. Electrospinning is a one-step process for producing nano- and/or micro-fibrous materials with diameters ranging typically from 50 to 5000 nm. The simulation algorithm presented here is based on a novel mass-spring-damper (MSD) approach devised to incorporate the mechanical properties of the fibers in predicting the formation and morphology of the electrospun fibers as they travel from the needle toward the collector, and as they deposit on the substrate. This work is the first to develop ...


Single Enzyme Synthesis And Bio-Imitation Of Functional Nanocrystals, Abdolhamid Sadeghnejad Jan 2019

Single Enzyme Synthesis And Bio-Imitation Of Functional Nanocrystals, Abdolhamid Sadeghnejad

Theses and Dissertations

Green synthesis methods of inorganic materials have gained lots of attention due to lower pollution and toxic precursors during the synthesis. One of the modern green methods of synthesis is biosynthesis in which a DNA, small peptide molecule, or amino acids plays the main role of synthesis. Biomineralization, the biosynthesis process happens in the nature by elements, has been considered as a green, low cost, and scalable method of synthesis. In comparison with conventional synthesis methods, biomineralization happens under ambient conditions in aqueous phase that can be applied for synthesis of inorganic nanostructure metal sulfide semiconductors gained interest due to ...