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Nicotine And Alcohol Interactions, Charles C. J. Frye Dec 2020

Nicotine And Alcohol Interactions, Charles C. J. Frye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Charles C.J. Frye, a graduate student in the Behavior Analysis program at Utah State University, completed this dissertation as part of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology.

Alcohol and Nicotine are the two most commonly abused drugs in the United States, often used at the same time. The goal of the dissertation was to more fully understand how exposure to one drug alters motivation for the other. In Chapter I, we investigated how exposure to nicotine affects relapse for alcohol in rats. Nicotine did not affect relapse for alcohol, possibly due to the method ...


Collaboration And Reflexivity In Wildland Fire Risk Governance In The Western United States, Brett Alan Miller Dec 2020

Collaboration And Reflexivity In Wildland Fire Risk Governance In The Western United States, Brett Alan Miller

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents both quantitative and qualitative analysis on different aspects of wildland fire risk management in the western United States. Each of these chapters is framed by and examines the sociological concept of reflexivity, which describes a process of individual and/or collective reflection. This reflexivity is needed to identify and enact alternative management strategies that contend with the expected increases in the number and severity of wildland fires in the future due to the combined effects of even-aged forest growth after years of timber extraction, a legacy of fire suppression, climate change, and increasing human development in the ...


Temporal Bisection Dynamics, Mahdi Shafiei Aug 2020

Temporal Bisection Dynamics, Mahdi Shafiei

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Temporal bisection is a behavioral task used to study how we perceive time. However, it is not fully clear how time perception should be interpreted in different variations of this task. Moreover, it is not understood why the results of this task are often different for human and animal subjects. Understanding parameters of this task and making a connection between human and animal experiments may help researchers to understand how time is perceived in the brain and consequently disorders involving time perception.

In this thesis, I propose a computational model that A) provides researchers with a framework to study the ...


Social Change Engagement And Leadership Development Among College Students, Andrew Harris Aug 2020

Social Change Engagement And Leadership Development Among College Students, Andrew Harris

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Young people are increasingly in the public view as agents of social change. As suggested in the Social Change Model of Leadership Development, those who develop the seven values of socially responsible leadership (consciousness of self, congruence, commitment, common purpose, collaboration, controversy with civility, and citizenship) are prepared to engage in the leadership process by creating positive social change. Findings from this study suggest that the socially responsible leadership value of citizenship was the value most consistently related to social change engagement. Additionally, social generativity, or the desire to leave a legacy for future generations, as well as participating in ...


Cross-Boundary Stewardship For Wetland Integrity And Resilience In The Greater Rocky Mountain National Park Ecosystem, Meghan K. Tait Aug 2020

Cross-Boundary Stewardship For Wetland Integrity And Resilience In The Greater Rocky Mountain National Park Ecosystem, Meghan K. Tait

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Approximately half of the wetlands in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) are degraded due to human disturbances that often occur beyond park boundaries. Like most protected areas, RMNP is part of a larger ecosystem with critical connections to surrounding lands. Therefore, more effective stewardship of wetlands within RMNP is likely to be achieved through cross-boundary cooperative efforts. Through interviews with wetland stewardship agencies and organizations and an analysis of their wetland plans and policies, barriers and opportunities for cross-boundary stewardship were identified, as well as common structures used to facilitate work across boundaries. Wetlands outside of RMNP are experiencing similar ...


Influence Of Forage Diversity And Condensed Tannins On Livestock Foraging Behavior, Production And Environmental Impact, Sebastian P. Lagrange Aug 2020

Influence Of Forage Diversity And Condensed Tannins On Livestock Foraging Behavior, Production And Environmental Impact, Sebastian P. Lagrange

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eating a combination of forages with different chemistries (i.e., nutrients, beneficial compounds such as tannins) may enhance ruminant nutrition and reduce environmental impacts relative to eating single forages. I explored the influence of offering sheep and cattle all possible combinations of tanniferous (i.e., plants with tannins; birdsfoot trefoil, sainfoin) and non-tanniferous legumes (i.e., plants without tannins; alfalfa) or their monocultures on animal performance, behavior, and methane and nitrogen (N) emissions. Offering choices among these legumes to penned sheep improved intake and diet digestibility relative to feeding monocultures. Mixtures selected by sheep were better digested than mixtures containing ...


The Power Of Mercy: An Examination Of Presidential Pardon Patterns, Stewart Ulrich Aug 2020

The Power Of Mercy: An Examination Of Presidential Pardon Patterns, Stewart Ulrich

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Constitution gives the president the power of clemency, the ability to forgive crimes and release individuals from prison. There are no checks on this power, giving the president unilateral power. Are there any factors that constrain this power or affect it? I claim that the electoral manner in which a president comes into office helps determine how they will use the power. Presidents coming into power with enthusiasm and confidence of the people will issue more clemency, while those who come into power with less will have decreased levels of clemency. Additionally, with more media outlets to scrutinize their ...


An Economic Comparison Of Two Leading Aquaponic Technologies Using Cost Benefit Analysis: The Coupled And Decoupled Systems, Grace M. Gibbons Aug 2020

An Economic Comparison Of Two Leading Aquaponic Technologies Using Cost Benefit Analysis: The Coupled And Decoupled Systems, Grace M. Gibbons

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aquaponics is an agricultural production practice which combines aquaculture, the raising of fish, and hydroponics, a soil-less crop production method, to create a system that symbiotically produces both. Compared to conventional open-field agriculture, this practice is highly resource efficient in terms of water and land usage, but has yet to be widely adopted due to a lack of research regarding its economic feasibility. This study compares the two most economically promising aquaponic system designs to determine which would be more profitable at the intermediate-commercial scale. The first of these is the coupled system which continuously circulates water in a closed ...


Extending Ethos In Digital Rhetorics, Andrew J. Hillen Aug 2020

Extending Ethos In Digital Rhetorics, Andrew J. Hillen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation researched the concept of ethos, or appeal to authority or trust, on the social media platform, Twitter. Looking at collections of tweets, I found that the characteristics of the Twitter platform, as well as the general qualities of writing online, pushed users to use short cuts to trust, such as focusing in on specific buzz words, or through referencing well known organizations and individuals. Users also used internet culture as its own source of authority. They demonstrated that they were up to date on the latest trends and memes, and so were trustworthy accounts to follow. Users appealed ...


A Translational Examination Of Alternative-Response Discrimination Training And Resurgence, Kaitlyn O. Browning Aug 2020

A Translational Examination Of Alternative-Response Discrimination Training And Resurgence, Kaitlyn O. Browning

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders often engage in severe forms of problem behavior. Reward-based behavioral interventions are highly effective at reducing levels of problem behavior and teaching more appropriate and adaptive alternative behaviors. Despite successful reduction in problem behavior during treatment, problem behaviors are susceptible to reoccurrence or relapse. Resurgence is a type of behavioral relapse that is particularly relevant to the treatment of problem behavior and may occur following the worsening of conditions of a more recently learned alternative behavior. That is, if the rewards that were used to teach the alternative behavior are removed ...


Anti-State Criminal Violence As Civil Defense, Tyler S. Thomas Aug 2020

Anti-State Criminal Violence As Civil Defense, Tyler S. Thomas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Anti-state criminal violence is a puzzle. Criminal organizations should avoid violent interactions with the state, yet in several countries like Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia there has been widespread anti-state violence orchestrated by organized criminal groups for the past 25 years. Why?

Building on existing literature, I develop a theory with which to explain anti-state criminal violence. I argue that organized crime is more likely to commit anti-state violence when state enforcement agents commit a serious grievance against the local population with whom the criminals share a social identity. I develop this theory using the case of the Michoacán Family, later ...


A Translational Investigation Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability: Implications For Promoting Behavioral Variability In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ann Galizio Aug 2020

A Translational Investigation Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability: Implications For Promoting Behavioral Variability In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ann Galizio

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Behavioral variability is sometimes adaptive and can be maintained by the delivery of reinforcement. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often show restricted and repetitive behaviors. Therefore, interventions to promote behavioral variability in individuals with ASD are needed. The present line of research was designed to inform such interventions by investigating reinforced behavioral variability from basic, applied, and translational perspectives. Each of these laboratory studies involved participants making sequences of well-defined responses, which were compared to previous responses. Responses that meet a variability contingency (i.e., were sufficiently different from previous responses) produced rewards. Studies 1 and 2 were basic ...


Cultural And Contextual Influences On Mental Health, Stigma, And Substance Use Among Mena U.S. College Students, Molly Mechammil Aug 2020

Cultural And Contextual Influences On Mental Health, Stigma, And Substance Use Among Mena U.S. College Students, Molly Mechammil

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation was to investigate whether certain cultural and contextual factors influence Middle Eastern/North African (MENA) college students’ mental health, alcohol/marijuana use, and experiences with mental health stigma and help seeking. Research with MENA college students is very limited, which leaves mental health providers with limited information on how to best support MENAs. MENAs report high rates of discrimination, and other research shows that many they may use religion as a way to cope with stressors such as discrimination. I examined whether religious coping might buffer the effects of discrimination on mental health outcomes. I ...


Kudos And K.O.M.’S: The Effect Of Strava Use On Evaluations Of Social And Managerial Conditions, Perceptions Of Ecological Impacts, And Mountain Bike Spatial Behavior, Noah E. Creany Aug 2020

Kudos And K.O.M.’S: The Effect Of Strava Use On Evaluations Of Social And Managerial Conditions, Perceptions Of Ecological Impacts, And Mountain Bike Spatial Behavior, Noah E. Creany

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Smartphone based self-tracking fitness applications (apps) like Strava are increasingly becoming a part of recreation experiences in parks and protected areas (PPAs). Recreation research has employed smartphone GPS tracking (SGT) and volunteered geographic information (VGI) to study visitor behavior in PPAs, but little is understood about how smartphones or fitness apps affect visitor perceptions and behavior during their experience.

The first chapter of this thesis is a literature review of recreation survey and behavior research, social-psychology and technology use theory, gamification, and mountain bike social science and recreation-ecology research. The second chapter is formatted for submission to the Journal of ...


A Brief Online Acceptance And Commitment Training For Enhancing Outcomes Of A Cultural Competence Intervention, Elizabeth Tish Hicks Aug 2020

A Brief Online Acceptance And Commitment Training For Enhancing Outcomes Of A Cultural Competence Intervention, Elizabeth Tish Hicks

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In an increasingly diverse and multicultural society, there is a pressing and practical need for interventions to help professionals improve their cultural competence. Cultural competence trainings that target psychological flexibility in addition to knowledge, awareness, and skills may produce more efficacious results. The current study will examined the utility of targeting psychological flexibility (the ability to maintain contact the present moment and current internal experiences and to choose contextually appropriate, values-consistent behaviors, regardless of what one’s internal experiences are) as a process to enhance the impact of a cultural competence intervention with an Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT)-enhanced ...


Psychosocial Effects Of Shared Book Reading, Amy Halling Aug 2020

Psychosocial Effects Of Shared Book Reading, Amy Halling

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many studies have examined the academic benefits of parents reading with their children, but few studies have looked at the psychological and social benefits, and even fewer have related the quality of shared book reading to psycho-social benefits. This study looked at whether positive and negative reading interactions during shared book reading predicted parent-child relationships, child social skills and child academic skills. Twenty-five parents of 4-year-olds read a story with their child and completed parent relationship and child social skills questionnaires. The reading interactions were then coded into two separate composite scores: positive and negative. Positive interactions did not significantly ...


Gratitude In Adolescents: Examining The Role Of Attachment, Parental Gratitude, And Discounting, Savannah C. Rupp Aug 2020

Gratitude In Adolescents: Examining The Role Of Attachment, Parental Gratitude, And Discounting, Savannah C. Rupp

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

From early childhood, parents often teach their children to use their manners by saying “Thank you”; however, are there any benefits from experiencing gratitude during youth? Understanding the relationship between gratitude and other areas, such as happiness and decision-making, can potentially help researchers in planning interventions for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between gratitude and decision-making in youth, as well as the role of maternal gratitude and the mother-child attachment in determining gratitude in youth. Two hundred four participants (102 mothers, 102 adolescents) completed an online survey. Mothers and adolescents completed two gratitude questionnaires ...


Making A Decision On Ethical Decision-Making Models, Melanie K. Johnson Aug 2020

Making A Decision On Ethical Decision-Making Models, Melanie K. Johnson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Those in the helping professions, like psychology, counseling, and social work, have numerous ethical guidelines and codes to dictate ethical behavior. These codes, while extensive, do not encompass all situations. When professionals find themselves in an ambiguous situation, it is called an ethical dilemma. Many of the professional organizations that create ethical codes also recommend the use of ethical decision-making models. Ethical decision-making models provide steps, or instructions, on how to make an ethical decision when presented with an ethical dilemma.

Little research has been done on ethical decision-making models, so it cannot be concluded that these models actually help ...


Perpetuating Peace: Context Versus Contents Of The Power-Sharing Agreements Between The Kdp And Puk Of The Kurdistan Region Of Iraq In 1992 And 1998, Brigitte E. Hugh Aug 2020

Perpetuating Peace: Context Versus Contents Of The Power-Sharing Agreements Between The Kdp And Puk Of The Kurdistan Region Of Iraq In 1992 And 1998, Brigitte E. Hugh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the mid-1990s the two Kurdish parties in Iraq—the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)—signed two power-sharing agreements, which had dramatically different results. The 1992 50-50 Agreement ended in conflict while the 1998 Washington Agreement ended in long-lasting peace.

I examine both the agreements and their surrounding context to identify what explains the success or failure of these two agreements in establishing long-lasting and cooperative peace. I find that the presence or absence of peace is due to both the language of the agreements and the context in which they were created. I ...


Impacts Of Racial Microaggressions On White American And Ethnic Minority Students In The College Classroom, Lesther A. Papa Aug 2020

Impacts Of Racial Microaggressions On White American And Ethnic Minority Students In The College Classroom, Lesther A. Papa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The racial and ethnic makeup of college is becoming more diverse as the general trend heads towards more bachelor’s degrees being conferred to ethnic minority students. However, ethnic minority students often experience racial and ethnic microaggressions (REMAs) on campus either in the classroom or in the dorms. REMAs are subtle, chronic, and negative verbal and nonverbal exchanges that communicate hostility, degradation, or dismissiveness towards a member of an ethnic minority group. From the literature, REMAs have been found to impact both White and ethnic minority students and both White and ethnic minority professors commit microaggressions towards student of color ...


Examining The Effects Of Aspects Of Resiliency And Vulnerability On The Relationship Between Experiencing Microaggressions And Mental Health Among Persons Of Color, Amanda K. Blume Aug 2020

Examining The Effects Of Aspects Of Resiliency And Vulnerability On The Relationship Between Experiencing Microaggressions And Mental Health Among Persons Of Color, Amanda K. Blume

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ethnic minorities experience discrimination frequently, especially a subtle form of discrimination called microaggressions—which are linked with poorer mental health. This study examined protective factors against microaggressions. In this study, responding to microaggressions actively (as opposed to ignoring the situation) was linked with better mental health. When use of active coping strategies was low, microaggressions were associated with lower self-esteem and higher depression and anxiety. Alternatively, when use of active coping styles was high, microaggressions were associated with higher self-esteem and less depression, anxiety, and drug use. Responding to microaggressions is a disengaged way (such as attempting to ignore or ...


Rumination And Quality Of Life Among Northern Plains Indians, Devon S. Isaacs Aug 2020

Rumination And Quality Of Life Among Northern Plains Indians, Devon S. Isaacs

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Native Americans (NAs) share unique risk factors for poor mental health. In response, mental health providers must address barriers to treatment while making the most of low resource situations. One way to increase usefulness of treatment is to address the mechanisms underlying multiple mental health disorders. Rumination is a style of thinking marked by repeated thoughts about distress and is well-recognized as a diagnostic factor for underlying disorders in the general population. Secondary data from the Mood Disorder Assessment Validation with Northern Plains Indians (NPI) pilot study was used to examine the relationship between rumination and anxiety, depression, and substance ...


College Prescription Opioid Misuse: An Exploration Of Social Learning, Social Control, And Strain Theories, Julie Murray Aug 2020

College Prescription Opioid Misuse: An Exploration Of Social Learning, Social Control, And Strain Theories, Julie Murray

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prescription opioids, when used as medically intended, can be effective in pain management. However, the consequences and costs of widespread misuse of prescription opioids in the United States are cause for concern. Prescription opioids are related to increased risk of death and injury. Young adults, between the ages of 18 and 25, have the highest rates of misuse nationally and within this age group, college students may be particularly at risk. In order to effectively curb the growing misuse of prescription opioids within college populations, we must have a better understanding of the factors that potentially lead to misuse.

This ...


Development Of A High-Resolution Land Cover Dataset To Support Integrated Water Resources Planning And Management In Northern Utah, Ellie Irene Leydsman Mcginty Aug 2020

Development Of A High-Resolution Land Cover Dataset To Support Integrated Water Resources Planning And Management In Northern Utah, Ellie Irene Leydsman Mcginty

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Integrated planning and management approaches, including bioregional planning and integrated water resources planning, are comprehensive strategies that strive to balance the sustainability of natural resources and the integrity of ecosystem processes with human development and activities. Implementation of integrated plans and programs remains complicated. However, geospatial technologies, such as geographic information systems and remote sensing, can significantly enhance planning and management processes.

Through a United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Wetland Program Development Grant, a high-resolution land cover dataset, with a primary emphasis on mapping and quantifying impervious surfaces, was developed for three watershed sub-basins in northern Utah – Lower ...


Framing Climate Change In Local Context: Newspaper Coverage Of Climate Change In Three Mountain Towns In The Intermountain West Compared To National Coverage, Tyler J. Spradlin Aug 2020

Framing Climate Change In Local Context: Newspaper Coverage Of Climate Change In Three Mountain Towns In The Intermountain West Compared To National Coverage, Tyler J. Spradlin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Past research has focused on how journalists cover and frame the issue of climate change or global warming in mainly nationally circulated newspapers. This study compares and contrasts the framing of climate change between two nationally circulated newspapers, The New York Times and The Washington Post, and three intermountain west community newspapers, Jackson Hole News & Guide in Jackson Hole, WY, Summit Daily in Summit County, CO, and Park Record in Park City, UT. This research incorporates the five generic frames, responsibility, conflict, human-interest, economic consequences, and morality frames defined by Semetko and Valkenburg (2000) when analyzing the newspapers. In addition ...


Harmonic Delay Reduction, Jay E. Hinnenkamp Aug 2020

Harmonic Delay Reduction, Jay E. Hinnenkamp

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stimuli which, during the life of an organism, acquire the ability to increase the probability of behavior that they follow are called conditioned reinforcers. The concurrent-chains procedure has been used to study conditioned reinforcement for over 60 years. During this time several different models have been developed to explain how stimuli become conditioned reinforcers. The three experiments of this dissertation introduced a new quantitative model of conditioned reinforcement (DRTH) and tested its predictions against four existing models. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that DRTH improves upon the accuracy of its predecessor, delay reduction theory (Fantino, 1969), when ...


Evaluation Of Best Practices For Urban Water Conservation And Water-Smart Growth Implementation In Utah, J. Ivy Harvey Thomson Aug 2020

Evaluation Of Best Practices For Urban Water Conservation And Water-Smart Growth Implementation In Utah, J. Ivy Harvey Thomson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Policies and programs have been utilized throughout the United States (U.S.) to reduce water use as a strategy to ensure sufficient water supplies for future demand. As governmental leaders and policy makers face increasing freshwater scarcity and supply unpredictability, along with rising costs and decreased federal funding, Best Practices (BPs) in water conservation are increasingly important to facilitate decision-making in choosing which strategies to employ. This project uses policy analysis to review and summarize various BPs, referencing both academic and professional literature. National fixture efficiency standards enacted in 1992 are credited as among the leading factors reducing indoor water ...


A Temporal Information-Theoretic Model Of Suboptimal Choice, Paul J. Cunningham May 2020

A Temporal Information-Theoretic Model Of Suboptimal Choice, Paul J. Cunningham

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Humans and animals often make decisions not in their long-term best interest. In one example, called suboptimal choice, pigeons sacrifice food for food-predictive stimuli. The study of suboptimal choice can reveal insights into the role of reward-predictive stimuli in maladaptive decision-making that characterizes numerous behavioral disorders. However, there is currently little evidence that rats engage in suboptimal choice, thereby raising questions about the species-generality of suboptimal choice. According to the temporal information-theoretic model, developed in Chapter 2, suboptimal choice emerges when pigeons pay more attention to the bits of temporal information conveyed by food-predictive stimuli than the rate of food ...


Debitage Attributes, Obsidian Source Analysis, And Prehistoric Mobility In Southeastern Idaho, Ben Joaquin Zumkeller May 2020

Debitage Attributes, Obsidian Source Analysis, And Prehistoric Mobility In Southeastern Idaho, Ben Joaquin Zumkeller

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to complement existing knowledge on prehistoric mobility in eastern and southern Idaho. I add specific detail regarding the use of Skull Canyon and its well-known Birch Creek rockshelters during hunter-gatherers’ logistical foraging rounds.

In addition, my research is a case study in combining debitage attribute analysis and intensive toolstone sourcing to read prehistoric mobility. Prior research has looked to obsidian toolstone sourcing to understand prehistoric eastern and southern Idaho mobility. However, no prior research has involved sourcing an entire, stratified assemblage of prehistoric debitage.

I collected flake attribute data from all 2,846 pieces ...


Relationship Quality Before, During And After Stepfamily Education: A Latent Trajectory Analysis, Bryan K. Spuhler May 2020

Relationship Quality Before, During And After Stepfamily Education: A Latent Trajectory Analysis, Bryan K. Spuhler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the trajectories of relationship quality for a sample of 777 adult participants attending the Smart Steps: Embrace the Journey stepfamily relationship education course. Rather than assume that all program participants had similar relationship quality trajectories by averaging their scores together in a growth curve analysis, growth mixture modeling was used to allow for a variety of sub-groups (classes), each with a unique trajectory. A prevention science approach was then taken to address possible predictors of each trajectory class in order to identify the risk and protective factors that influence participants’ trajectories.

It ...