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Bioactivities Of Milk Polar Lipids In Influencing Intestinal Barrier Integrity, Systemic Inflammation, And Lipid Metabolism, Albert Lihong Zhou May 2013

Bioactivities Of Milk Polar Lipids In Influencing Intestinal Barrier Integrity, Systemic Inflammation, And Lipid Metabolism, Albert Lihong Zhou

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of lactation is for nutrient provision and also importantly for protection from various environmental stressors. Milk polar lipids reduce cholesterol, protect against bacterial infection, reduce inflammation and help maintain gut integrity. Dynamic interactions within dietary fat, lipid metabolism, gut permeability and inflammatory cytokines remain unclear in the context of obesity and systemic inflammation. A rat model and three mouse models were developed to test the hypotheses that dietary milk polar lipids may affect lipid metabolism and intestinal integrity and may protect against systemic inflammation in the context of stressful diet, systemic inflammation, and obesity. The milk polar lipids ...


Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada May 2006

Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The research in this dissertation focused on determining antioxidant effects of various natural antioxidants in cooked meat systems. Milk mineral (MM), spices, and raisin paste were used in cooked meat systems to verify their potential antioxidant properties.

The MM study determined the antioxidant activity of 1.5% MM added to uncured cooked beef meatballs, and possible additive effects of MM in combination with 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrate in cooked beef sausages . There was no additive inhibition of lipid oxidation in samples containing 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrite plus 1.5% MM. Cooked meat yield was not different between control ...


Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood May 2006

Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different fiber types were incorporated in an extruded expanded high-protein snack food. Three dietary fibers (powdered cellulose, wheat fiber, and oat fiber) were selected based on ease of extrusion, percent total dietary fiber, visible expansion, and commercial availability. A high-fiber, high-protein snack food containing whey protein, normal cornstarch, and pregelatinized waxy cornstarch was extruded using the three selected fibers. The fibers replaced the normal cornstarch at 30, 60, and 80% yielding extrudates with three fiber levels (18, 36, and 48%). Each treatment or combination of fiber type and extrudate fiber level was extruded in triplicate. A control with no fiber ...


Influence Of Sodium Chloride, Calcium, Moisture, And Ph On The Structure And Functionality Of Nonfat Directly Acidified Mozzarella Cheese, Brian M. Paulson May 2004

Influence Of Sodium Chloride, Calcium, Moisture, And Ph On The Structure And Functionality Of Nonfat Directly Acidified Mozzarella Cheese, Brian M. Paulson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Experiment A explored the influence of sodium on direct acid, nonfat Mozzarella cheese. Cheeses with differing salt levels were obtained by varying dry salt applications (none, 0.5%, and 1.0% NaCl w/w) and hot brine stretching (0%, 5%, and 10% NaCl wt/v). Salt application and salt content influenced cheese moisture, meltability, expressible serum, micro- and ultra-structure, and color. Moisture was highest when cheese was salted before stretching (P = 0.03) . Melt was lowest in cheeses that were unsalted (P = 0.05). Cheeses stretched in salt brine had < 1% of the amount of expressible serum found in unsalted cheese (P < 0.0001). Unsalted cheeses had a more open structure with pockets of serum distributed throughout the protein matrix giving it an opaque, white appearance. Salted cheeses had a more homogeneous protein matrix lacking light scattering surfaces, resulting in a translucent cheese. Neither salt concentration nor method of salting affected the calcium content of the cheeses (P > 0.05).

Experiment B explored the influence of ...


Prevention Of Pigment Deterioration And Lipid Oxidation In Ground Beef And Pork, Preetha Jayasingh May 2004

Prevention Of Pigment Deterioration And Lipid Oxidation In Ground Beef And Pork, Preetha Jayasingh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fresh beef was modified-atmosphere packaged in carbon monoxide or oxygen to prolong red surface color. After comparison of several packaging method using carbon monoxide, steaks pretreated with 5% carbon monoxide for 24 hours and then vacuum packaged had the best combination of color and microbial stability (5 weeks), with the least potential for carbon monoxide inhalation.

In the evaluation of ground beef in high-oxygen, modified-atmosphere-packaging, thiobarbituric-acid numbers increased over time, and the flavor was disliked slightly after 6 or 10 days of storage at 2° Celsius.

The antioxidant effect of milk-mineral was tested in raw and cooked ground pork stored ...


Hormone Mediated Transport Of Calcium And Phosphate In Polarized Epithelial Cells, Tremaine M. Sterling May 2004

Hormone Mediated Transport Of Calcium And Phosphate In Polarized Epithelial Cells, Tremaine M. Sterling

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, PTH and 25(OH)D3 on phosphate or calcium uptake were studied in cultured, adherent chick enterocytes over a period of 10 min after hormone addition. Time course studies of cells treated with 130 pM 1,25(OH)2D3 showed an increase in 32P uptake as early as 3 min. Similar studies with 65 pM bPTH(l1-34) resulted in an increase in 45Ca uptake only if the cells had been cultured in serum. (OH)D3, which is not firmly established as an active metabolite of ...


The Influence Of Fat And Water On The Melted Cheese Characteristics Of Mozzarella Cheese, Robert Lloyd Fife May 2003

The Influence Of Fat And Water On The Melted Cheese Characteristics Of Mozzarella Cheese, Robert Lloyd Fife

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect of reducing the fat content of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese from 19% to less than 5% on melted cheese properties, i.e., apparent viscosity, cheese melt, and cook color, was investigated. Functional properties of melt and stretch and cook color were evaluated at d 1, 7, 14, and 28. A rapid microwave oven method underestimated the moisture content of the low fat cheeses by approximately 10%. Low fat cheese did not melt as well as did the low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese although the moisture content of the low fat cheese (moisture content ranged from 62.5% to 63 ...


Influence Of Storage Duration, Temperature, And Oxygen On Quality Of Stored Dehydrated Foods, Omima Ali Darag May 2003

Influence Of Storage Duration, Temperature, And Oxygen On Quality Of Stored Dehydrated Foods, Omima Ali Darag

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of oxygen absorber packets (OAP) (AGELESS Z.300 E) in improving the shelf-life of selected dried food products, including dried potato pearls, dried sliced apple, dried carrot, white rice, nonfat dry milk, all purpose flour, rolled oats, and wheat. Items were stored at four different temperatures (-20, 10, 21, and 29.5°C) over a period of 24 months with observations at 6-month intervals. Hunter colorimeter, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) germination rate, gluten weight, and volume were parameters used as quality indicators of various dried foods.

Statistical analysis indicated a significant ...


Aromatic Amino Acid Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp.: Biochemistry And Contribution To Cheese Flavor Development, Sanjay Gummalla May 2002

Aromatic Amino Acid Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp.: Biochemistry And Contribution To Cheese Flavor Development, Sanjay Gummalla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids derived from the degradation of casein in cheese serve as precursors for the generation of desirable and undesirable flavor compounds. Microbial degradation of aromatic amino acids is associated with the formation of aroma compounds that impart putrid-fecal, barny-utensil, and floral off-flavors in cheese, but pathways for their production had not been established. This study investigated Tyr and Phe catabolism by Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus helveticus cheese flavor adjuncts under simulated Cheddar cheese-ripening conditions (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl, 15°C, no sugar). Enzyme assays of cell-free extracts and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of supernatants indicated that L. casei ...


Biochemistry And Application Of Exopolysaccharide Production In Mozzarella Cheese Starter Cultures, Brent Petersen May 2001

Biochemistry And Application Of Exopolysaccharide Production In Mozzarella Cheese Starter Cultures, Brent Petersen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to investigate the role of the C55 undecaprenol lipid carrier in the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS), the effect of exopolysaccharide producing (EPS+) starter cultures on the viscosity of Mozzarella cheese whey, and the possible protective characteristics of capsular EPS against freezing and freeze drying. Efforts to investigate the role of the lipid carrier in EPS production employed pAMbacA, a plasmid that encodes an enterococcallipid kinase that confers bacitracin resistance by increasing intracellular levels of undecaprenol phosphate lipid carrier. Unfortunately, this avenue of study was thwarted by the inability to demonstrate bacA expression in ...


Tryptophan Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp. : Biochemistry And Implications On Flavor Development In Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese, Sanjay Gummalla May 1998

Tryptophan Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp. : Biochemistry And Implications On Flavor Development In Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese, Sanjay Gummalla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids derived from the degradation of casein in cheese serve as precursors for the generation of key flavor compounds. Microbial degradation of tryptophan (Trp) is thought to promote formation of aromatic compounds that impart putrid fecal or unclean flavors in cheese, but pathways for their production have not been established. This study investigated tryptophan catabolism by Lactobacillus casei LC301 and LC202 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and LH212 cheese flavor adjuncts in carbohydrate starvation (pH 6.5, 30 or 37°C, no sugar) and cheese-like conditions (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl, 15°C, no sugar). Enzyme assays of cell-free extracts ...


Establishing Threshold Levels Of Nitrite Causing Pinking Of Cooked Meat, Kevin M. Heaton May 1998

Establishing Threshold Levels Of Nitrite Causing Pinking Of Cooked Meat, Kevin M. Heaton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sporadic problems with pink color defect, or pinking, has occurred in cooked meat products for decades. Pink color can be due to the presence of undenatured myoglobin, denatured globin hemochromes, or nitrosylhemochrome. This research documented the level of added nitrite that produced nitrosylhemochrome in processed meat rolls from fabricated beef round, pork shoulder, turkey breast, and chicken breast. For each meat type, preliminary studies were conducted to narrow the range at which added nitrite caused pinking. Subsequently, the nitrite levels were increased incrementally by 1-ppm, and pink color was measured by trained panelists and by a Hunter color meter. Nitrosylhemochrome ...


Effect Of Ph, Fat Level, And Various Browning Agents On Composition, Color, Texture, And Sensory Characteristics Of Dark-Cutting Beef Patties, Igor V. Moiseev May 1997

Effect Of Ph, Fat Level, And Various Browning Agents On Composition, Color, Texture, And Sensory Characteristics Of Dark-Cutting Beef Patties, Igor V. Moiseev

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extra lean (3.3% fat) and lean (20.0% fat) hamburgers in three pH groups (≤ 6.0; 6.01-6.49; 6.50-6.92) were evaluated for cooking-temperature profile, total process lethality, and physical properties after cooking to 71°C by double-side frying on an electric grill. Neither cooking-temperature profile nor cooking time was affected by hamburger fat content or pH. Double-side frying to 71.1°C internal temperature was adequate for more than 6-log destruction of viable E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella at the geometrical center of extra lean and lean hamburgers. The coldest spot was on the circumferential ...


Evaluation Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analyses And Iron Content Of Raw, Cooked, And Cured Meats, Eldred Merlyn Clark May 1997

Evaluation Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analyses And Iron Content Of Raw, Cooked, And Cured Meats, Eldred Merlyn Clark

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research project was divided into three parts. In the first part, heme, nonheme, and total iron methodologies for meats were evaluated. The accuracy, precision, and specificity of each method were determined by spike recoveries of heme and nonheme iron, and by analysis of National Institute of Science and Technology standard reference materials. The most reliable and practical methods were then used to determine the total, nonheme, and heme iron contents of various meats before and after cooking. The meats analyzed were beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and turkey. The wet-ashing technique was a novel procedure in which nitric acid was ...


Effects Of Iron Fortification On Microbiological, Physical, Chemical, And Organoleptic Properties Of Yogurt, Sharareh Hekmat May 1995

Effects Of Iron Fortification On Microbiological, Physical, Chemical, And Organoleptic Properties Of Yogurt, Sharareh Hekmat

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It has been shown that iron binds strongly to the proteins in milk, and our aim was to determine whether or not this binding was affected by lowering pH in the manufacture of yogurt. Iron-protein complexing was studied using two different techniques. 1) Skim milk was fortified with 10 mg iron/100 ml and the pH of the milk was adjusted to 6.7, 6.2, 5.8, 5.3, 4.5, and 4.0. The milk was fractionated by ultracentrifugation at 52,000 x g for 60 minutes. The pellets and serum were then analyzed for iron, calcium, and ...


Effects Of Whey Protein Concentrate, Phosphate, And Sodium Hydroxide On Texture And Acceptability Of Turkey And Beef Rolls, Igor V. Moiseev May 1994

Effects Of Whey Protein Concentrate, Phosphate, And Sodium Hydroxide On Texture And Acceptability Of Turkey And Beef Rolls, Igor V. Moiseev

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Processed turkey rolls were prepared with 1 or 3% whey protein concentrates WPC-50 (pH=5.80), WPC-60 (pH=4.53) and WPC-75 (pH=6.85} containing 50, 60 and 75% protein along with controls (phosphate and no phosphate). Control rolls made with 0.5% phosphate had the highest bind strength, and sensory evaluation scores. Only WPC-75 (1%) was acceptable as a binding agent and flavor enhancer. WPC-60 reduced pink discoloration of rolls, but flavor, bind and cohesiveness scores were unacceptably low. WPC-50 was not an effective binding agent. In general, rolls made with 3% WPC had lower scores for intensity ...


Anaerobic Treatment Of Whey Permeate Using Upflow Sludge Blanket Bioreactors, Seokhwan Hwang May 1993

Anaerobic Treatment Of Whey Permeate Using Upflow Sludge Blanket Bioreactors, Seokhwan Hwang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Whey permeate was anaerobically digested in laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Nine hydraulic retention times between 5 and 0.2 days were examined with a fixed influent concentration of 10.6 ± 0.2 g COD/L.

Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency ranged from 99.0 to 18.9% and maximum production rate of methane gas was 2.67 L/L/day at a hydraulic loading rate of 12.97 kg COD/m3/day. About 70% of the chemical oxygen demand removed was converted to methane.

Both the nonlinear least square method with 95% confidence interval and linear ...


Effects Of Potassium Lactate, Encapsulated Citric Acid And Storage Temperature On Microbial Growth And Shelf Life Of Pork Sticks, Yen-Kan Su May 1992

Effects Of Potassium Lactate, Encapsulated Citric Acid And Storage Temperature On Microbial Growth And Shelf Life Of Pork Sticks, Yen-Kan Su

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A new product, pork sticks, was developed. Optimum shelf life and safety were major concerns associated with this product. Potassium lactate (3%) or citric acid (0.5%, 0.56%, 0.60% or 0.66%) was added to pork sticks to determine their effects on microbial growth, sensory evaluation, and shelf life when stored frozen (-20°C), refrigerated (2°C), or at room temperature (22°C). Two raw materials, pork blade meat (shoulder meat; 91% lean, 9% fat) and regular 80:20 pork trim (80% lean, 20% fat) were used. The consumer panel preferred lean pork sticks made from blade meat ...


Cottage Cheese From Ultrafiltered Skimmilk By Direct Acidification, Jorge Ricardo Ocampo-Garcia May 1987

Cottage Cheese From Ultrafiltered Skimmilk By Direct Acidification, Jorge Ricardo Ocampo-Garcia

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pasteurized skimmilk at 4°C was acidified to pH 5.8 with 85.5% phosphoric acid (136g H3Po4;100 kg skimmilk), then warmed to 54°C and ultrafiltered to a protein concentration 9.1 ± 0.2%. The retentate was heated to 76.5°C for 16 s then cooled to 2°C. Phosphoric acid (85.5%) was added at a rate of 3.41g per kg retentate. The acidified retentate was slowly warmed to 29.5 °C (3°C/5 min) when the pH was checked. The pH at this point was no lower than 5.4. Heating was continued ...


Effects Of Micrococci On Improving Sensory Acceptability Of Mutton Summer Sausage, Hoon Jung May 1986

Effects Of Micrococci On Improving Sensory Acceptability Of Mutton Summer Sausage, Hoon Jung

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of micrococci on sensory characteristics of different batches of summer sausages were determined. Sixty four salt-tolerant indigenous isolates were selected from beef or mutton treated with 1.5 or 3.0% sodium chloride and 120 ppm sodium nitrite, and held at 5 or 10 C for 5 days. These isolates (61/64) were identified as staphylococci and micrococci. Summer sausages were made from several lamb, ewe, and ram carcasses which were hand deboned and blended after grinding to contain 22% fat. Six summer sausage treatments were prepared using two different sources of commercial starter cultures including Micrococcus species ...


Reduction Of Sodium Nitrite And Sodium Chloride In A Cured Meat Product By Using Acid Development To Inhibit Botulinal Toxin Formation, Angsana Assamongkorn May 1985

Reduction Of Sodium Nitrite And Sodium Chloride In A Cured Meat Product By Using Acid Development To Inhibit Botulinal Toxin Formation, Angsana Assamongkorn

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pediococcus acidilactici as a lactic acid producer, and sucrose were added to breakfast strip products in order to reduce added levels of sodium nitrite and sodium chloride and yet limit the growth of Clostridium botulinum and inhibit toxin production. Sucrose at 0.4 or 0.9% with P. acidilactici at 1.0 x 10 cells/g were added during preparation of breakfast strip products prepared with combinations of 40 or 80 ppm sodium nitrite and 1.0 or 2.0% sodium chloride. Other ingredients were added at levels normally used in cured meat products. C. botulinum types A and B ...


Enzymic Milk Coagulation: Casein Micelle Aggregation And Curd Formation, Donald J. Mcmahon May 1983

Enzymic Milk Coagulation: Casein Micelle Aggregation And Curd Formation, Donald J. Mcmahon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Enzymic milk coagulation was monitored by measuring changes in curd firmness and apparent absorbance of undiluted milk. Detection of coagulation, visually or rheologically, occurred after the milk changes from a system of aggregating particles to an extended space network. This change was observed as a shoulder in apparent absorbance plots and coagulation time was defined as the critical point in the aggregation process analogously to non-linear condensation polymerization reactions. It corresponds to the inflexion point during the period when apparent absorbance was rapidly increasing and can be calculated by fitting curd firmness data to an exponential equation.

Addition of calcium ...


Quantitation Of Formaldehyde Resulting From Oxidative Deterioration Of Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Stanley J. Andrews May 1978

Quantitation Of Formaldehyde Resulting From Oxidative Deterioration Of Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Stanley J. Andrews

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Derivatives of 3-methyl-1-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone were formed from the oxidation products of three oxidized unsaturated fatty acids. Aeration with oxygen and heat (65C) was used as a means of accelerating deterioration of lipid samples. Formaldehyde was recovered from oxidized pure standards of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters , and identified using gas chromatography. Formaldehyde was also recovered from oxidized lipid extracts of mechanic ally deboned turkey meat and turkey cluster fat. Gas chromatography was used to measure concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids during the oxidation of extracted lipids. Linoleic and linolenic fatty acids significantly decreased (p < .005) in oxidized lipid extracts from turkey cluster fat stored frozen for six months.

Measurement of the amounts ...


Biochemical Investigations Of Black Gram (Phaseolus Mungo L.) And Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Proteins And Their Improved Nutritional Functionality In The Fermented Product- Idli, Vinodkumar W. Padhye May 1978

Biochemical Investigations Of Black Gram (Phaseolus Mungo L.) And Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Proteins And Their Improved Nutritional Functionality In The Fermented Product- Idli, Vinodkumar W. Padhye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this investigation have been to characterize black gram (Phaseolus Mongo L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) proteins and to study changes in their nutritional value due to fermentation. black gram, the legume chosen for this work, is one of the most important legume crops throughout a large part of the tropics.

The protein content of 60 mesh, dehydrated, defatted black gram meal was 28.5 percent. Sodium carbonate (0.5- 1.0 percent), tetra-sodium pyrophosphate (0.5 percent), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (0.5-5 percent) proved to be the potential protein solubilizers as they extracted more ...


Quantitation Of Aliphatic Aldehydes In Rancid Turkey Meat Using A Substituted Hydrazone, Stanley J. Andrews May 1976

Quantitation Of Aliphatic Aldehydes In Rancid Turkey Meat Using A Substituted Hydrazone, Stanley J. Andrews

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many objective chemical tests have attempted to correlate with organoleptic evaluation of oxidative rancidity. Major chemical tests used to detect oxidative rancidity of lipids measure nonvolatile high molecular weight carbonylic substances which make no considerable contribution to rancid flavors. High molecular weight carbonyls are present at much greater concentrations than volatile low molecular weight carbonyls. Peroxides and other unknown substances also react in these chemical tests to give at best an empirical evaluation. A 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone chemical test is proposed which corrected some deficiencies of earlier procedures, and was correlated with organoleptic evaluation of rancid turkey samples. The proposed test ...


A Five-Year Follow-Up Study: Relationship Of The High Pufa Diet Used In Original Study Of Middle-Aged Adults To Present Dietary Choices, Rate Of Erythrocyte Hemolysis And Serum Cholesterol And Triglyceride Values, Jeanette Parsons Egan May 1975

A Five-Year Follow-Up Study: Relationship Of The High Pufa Diet Used In Original Study Of Middle-Aged Adults To Present Dietary Choices, Rate Of Erythrocyte Hemolysis And Serum Cholesterol And Triglyceride Values, Jeanette Parsons Egan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was a follow-up of the Christiansen study which was completed in 1967. Dr. Christiansen's 26 subjects ranged in age from 33 to 60 years. Ten were designated as controls and the other 16 were placed on a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet for a period of 26 weeks .

The purpose of doing a follow-up was to determine what effect the study had on present dietary patterns, serum lipid levels and rate of erythrocyte hemolysis.

Eighteen of the original subjects participated in this study. Of these 18, nine were from the control group and nine were from ...


Effect Of Added Calcium Ions On Relative Milk-Clotting Activities Of Commercial Milk Clotting Enzymes, Nuchanart Pavenayotin May 1974

Effect Of Added Calcium Ions On Relative Milk-Clotting Activities Of Commercial Milk Clotting Enzymes, Nuchanart Pavenayotin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Effect of added calcium ions on the relative milk clotting activities of porcine pepsin, Mucor miehei protease, Endothia parasitica protease, and Mucor pusillus protease was compared with that of rennin. Skimmilk, maintained at pH 6. 3 with 0.000% to 0.030% added calcium chloride, was used as a substrate. The coagulation activity of Mucor pusillus protease appeared to be most sensitive to calcium ions, followed by Mucor rniehei protease, porcine pepsin, rennin, and Endothia parasitica protease. The clotting activities of Mucor pusillus protease were also more sensitive than rennin to added calcium ions in milk samples maintained at pH ...


Influence Of Pre-Fermentation Inoculations With Leuconostoc Mesenteroides And Lactobacillus Plantarum On Physico-Chemical Properties Of Fresh And Dehydrated Sauerkraut, William T. Nabors May 1968

Influence Of Pre-Fermentation Inoculations With Leuconostoc Mesenteroides And Lactobacillus Plantarum On Physico-Chemical Properties Of Fresh And Dehydrated Sauerkraut, William T. Nabors

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum has on the physical and chemical properties of fresh and dehydrated sauerkraut was tested. Sauerkraut inoculated with L . plantarum was slower in fermenting and significantly lower in acidity and higher in pH. Dehydration of sauerkraut by freeze-conventional hot-air and micro-wave processes produced a significant loss in volatile components, ascorbic acid , lactic acid and an increase in pH. Each of the dehydration processes caused browning of the sauerkraut . These changes were less with freeze-drying and increased with conventional hot-air drying and microwave drying. Gas-liquid chromatography confirms the loss of volatile components and the production ...


Adaptive Changes Of Some Enzyme Activities In Rats And Humans To Dietary Protein, Jung Ja Kim May 1968

Adaptive Changes Of Some Enzyme Activities In Rats And Humans To Dietary Protein, Jung Ja Kim

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A study of the adaptive changes of some enzyme activities to the dietary protein intake was made in the liver, kidney, and pancreas of rats and serum of humans.

The rats fed the 40 per cent casein diet had a higher rate of weight gain and the weights of the liver and kidney were higher than in the rats fed the 10 per cent casein diet.

Three enzymes involved in the elimination of excess nitrogen from the body were found to show a similar response to increased dietary protein intake. These enzymes were: D-amino acid oxidase in the kidneys, arginase ...


Effects Of Ripening Processes On Chemistry Of Tomato Volatiles, Bharat Manu Shah May 1968

Effects Of Ripening Processes On Chemistry Of Tomato Volatiles, Bharat Manu Shah

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Investigations were carried out to isolate, identify, and to characterize, major volatile components of tomato fruit. Simultaneously, the confirmation was extended to the reported tomato volatiles. The volatile extracts from field- and artificially - ripe fruits were compared qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The changes which occurred in the volatile components of the fruit at the onset of senescence also were delineated.

A typical chromatogram from field-ripe tomatoes contained 60 peaks. The functional group properties of individual peaks were derived by chemical analysis. The short-chain (C3-C6) alcohols represented 10 per cent, aldehydes and ketones 32 per cent, and ...