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Taxation, Craig D. Bell Nov 2014

Taxation, Craig D. Bell

University of Richmond Law Review

This article reviews significant recent developments in the laws affecting Virginia taxation. Each section covers legislative changes, judicial decisions, and selected opinions or pronouncements from the Virginia Department of Taxation (the "Tax Department") and the Virginia Attorney General over the past year.


The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá Jun 2014

The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Annual fishes are found in both Africa and South America occupying ephemeral ponds that dried seasonally. Neotropical annual fishes are members of the family Rivulidae that consist of both annual and non-annual fishes. Annual species are characterized by a prolonged embryonic development and a relatively short adult life.

Males and females show striking sexual dimorphisms, complex courtship, and mating behaviors. The prolonged embryonic stage has several traits including embryos that are resistant to desiccation and undergo up to three reversible developmental arrests until hatching. These unique developmental adaptations are closely related to the annual fish life cycle and are the ...


Predictability And Nonobviousness In Patent Law After Ksr, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2014

Predictability And Nonobviousness In Patent Law After Ksr, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

In KSR International Co. v. Teleflex, Inc., the Supreme Court addressed the doctrine of nonobviousness, the ultimate question of patentability, for the first time in thirty years. In mandating a flexible approach to deciding nonobviousness, the KSR opinion introduced two predictability standards for determining nonobviousness. The Court described predictability of use (hereinafter termed "Type I predictability" )-whether the inventor used the prior art in a predictable manner to create the invention-and predictability of the result (hereinafter termed "Type II predictability")-whether the invention produced a predictable result-both as a means for proving obviousness. Although Type I predictability is easily explained ...


Hydropower, Mary Finley-Brook Jan 2014

Hydropower, Mary Finley-Brook

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

Hydropower dates back to the use of waterwheels to grind grain in Greece over two thousand years ago. Modern hydropower is a mature industry that has been used to generate electricity since the 1880s by capturing flowing water with a dam or other diversion structure and channeling it through a waterwheel or turbine. According to a 2012 report by the International Energy Agency, internationally dams are responsible for the largest amount of power generation from a renewable source; yet they have come under scrutiny as a result of environmental and social impacts perceived to be unsustainable (McCully 2001). Specific impacts ...