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Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson Jul 2018

Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson

Biology Faculty Publications

For organisms with complex life cycles, conditions experienced during early life stages may constrain later growth and survival. Conversely, compensatory mechanisms may attenuate negative effects from early life stages. We used the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, to test how aquatic larval density and terrestrial moisture influence juvenile growth, food intake, evaporative water loss and water reuptake rates, and corticosterone levels. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment to manipulate larval density and transferred metamorphosed salamanders into low and high terrestrial moisture treatments in laboratory terrariums. After the larval stage, high-density salamanders were significantly smaller and had higher corticosterone release rates than ...


Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson Jul 2018

Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson

Biology Faculty Publications

Traits that promote the maintenance of body temperatures within an optimal range provide advantages to ectothermic species. Pigmentation plasticity is found in many insects and enhances thermoregulatory potential as increased melanization can result in greater heat retention. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts that species with developmental plasticity will have darker pigmentation in colder environments, which can be an important adaptation for temperate species experiencing seasonal variation in climate. The harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, Hahn 1834) is a widespread invasive crop pest with variable patterning where developmental plasticity in melanization could affect performance. To investigate the impact of temperature ...


Cattle As Technological Interventions: The Gender Effects Of Water Demand In Dairy Production In Uganda, Elizabeth Ransom, Carmen Bain, Harleen Bal, Natasha Shannon Sep 2017

Cattle As Technological Interventions: The Gender Effects Of Water Demand In Dairy Production In Uganda, Elizabeth Ransom, Carmen Bain, Harleen Bal, Natasha Shannon

Sociology and Anthropology Faculty Publications

Smallholder dairy production dominates the country of Uganda, with over 90% of the national herd owned by smallholders. To reduce hunger, malnutrition, and raise families out of poverty agricultural development, interventions in Uganda have focused on increasing milk production through the introduction of improved dairy cow breeds. Development actors, such as the East Africa Dairy Development (EADD) program in Uganda, see crossbreed dairy cows as a key technological intervention for improving production. Drawing on a multi-method study (spatial analysis, surveys, and qualitative interviews) of dairy smallholders, our paper examines the gendered effects of the introduction of crossbreed dairy cows. To ...


Legal Precedent And The Opportunity For Educational Equity: Where To Now, Colorado?, Molly A. Hunter, Kathleen J. Gebhardt Mar 2016

Legal Precedent And The Opportunity For Educational Equity: Where To Now, Colorado?, Molly A. Hunter, Kathleen J. Gebhardt

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Housing Resource Bundles: Distributive Justice And Federal Low-Income Housing Policy, John J. Infranca May 2015

Housing Resource Bundles: Distributive Justice And Federal Low-Income Housing Policy, John J. Infranca

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Taxation, Craig D. Bell Nov 2014

Taxation, Craig D. Bell

University of Richmond Law Review

This article reviews significant recent developments in the laws affecting Virginia taxation. Each section covers legislative changes, judicial decisions, and selected opinions or pronouncements from the Virginia Department of Taxation (the "Tax Department") and the Virginia Attorney General over the past year.


The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá Jun 2014

The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Annual fishes are found in both Africa and South America occupying ephemeral ponds that dried seasonally. Neotropical annual fishes are members of the family Rivulidae that consist of both annual and non-annual fishes. Annual species are characterized by a prolonged embryonic development and a relatively short adult life.

Males and females show striking sexual dimorphisms, complex courtship, and mating behaviors. The prolonged embryonic stage has several traits including embryos that are resistant to desiccation and undergo up to three reversible developmental arrests until hatching. These unique developmental adaptations are closely related to the annual fish life cycle and are the ...


Hydropower, Mary Finley-Brook Jan 2014

Hydropower, Mary Finley-Brook

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

Hydropower dates back to the use of waterwheels to grind grain in Greece over two thousand years ago. Modern hydropower is a mature industry that has been used to generate electricity since the 1880s by capturing flowing water with a dam or other diversion structure and channeling it through a waterwheel or turbine. According to a 2012 report by the International Energy Agency, internationally dams are responsible for the largest amount of power generation from a renewable source; yet they have come under scrutiny as a result of environmental and social impacts perceived to be unsustainable (McCully 2001). Specific impacts ...


Predictability And Nonobviousness In Patent Law After Ksr, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2014

Predictability And Nonobviousness In Patent Law After Ksr, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

In KSR International Co. v. Teleflex, Inc., the Supreme Court addressed the doctrine of nonobviousness, the ultimate question of patentability, for the first time in thirty years. In mandating a flexible approach to deciding nonobviousness, the KSR opinion introduced two predictability standards for determining nonobviousness. The Court described predictability of use (hereinafter termed "Type I predictability" )-whether the inventor used the prior art in a predictable manner to create the invention-and predictability of the result (hereinafter termed "Type II predictability")-whether the invention produced a predictable result-both as a means for proving obviousness. Although Type I predictability is easily explained ...


Community Development Authorities, Andrew A. Painter Nov 2010

Community Development Authorities, Andrew A. Painter

University of Richmond Law Review

Today, CDAs of varying sizes and purposes have been authorized by at least fourteen Virginia localities, and approximately twenty have issued bonds." Despite progress, CDAs occupy anarea of Virginia law largely in its infancy. Case law directly related to their use remains limited, and many localities remain uncertain about their use since the unique marriage of private development and public power inherent in the CDA process has, at times, fostered controversy and apprehension. While this article does not directly address the public policy implications of using CDAs to finance infrastructure, the author hopes this review will generate further ideas for ...


Ethnoracial Land Restitution: Finding Indians And Fugitive Slave Descendants In The Brazilian Northeast, Jan Hoffman French Jan 2009

Ethnoracial Land Restitution: Finding Indians And Fugitive Slave Descendants In The Brazilian Northeast, Jan Hoffman French

Sociology and Anthropology Faculty Publications

This chapter considers how a desire for land and development can lead to a refashioning of ethnoracial identities and identifications. Debates in development studies have centered on culture as an impediment to development. I turn that debate on its head and argue that new assertions of cultural particularity have in certain settings advanced the equity goals of development. The chapter explores the contrasting responses of two neighbouring communities of related African descended, mixed race rural workers who over a 25-year period (1975- 2000), under new laws, were recognized and given land by the Brazilian government. One was identified as an ...


The Exploration Of Novel Symbiotic Bacteria That May Have Influential Roles In Sponge Life History, Brittany E. West Jan 2008

The Exploration Of Novel Symbiotic Bacteria That May Have Influential Roles In Sponge Life History, Brittany E. West

Honors Theses

Sponges produce an impressive variety of secondary metabolites that perform a variety of ecological functions. Many marine sponges even harbor diverse carotenoid compounds, an unusual class of secondary metabolites that animals are incapable of producing. Furthermore, sponges serve as hosts to an astonishingly diverse microbial community that can occupy up to sixty percent of a sponge's biomass. Our research ultimately hopes to link microbial species to the production of secondary compounds, like carotenoids, and to assess the ecological role of such compounds and their effect on sponge life history strategy. This study describes the ecological distribution of two species ...


Intricacies Of Development : The Impact Of Maternal Experience And Isolation On The Social Development Of Juvenile Male Rats, Lillian Maria Christon Aug 2007

Intricacies Of Development : The Impact Of Maternal Experience And Isolation On The Social Development Of Juvenile Male Rats, Lillian Maria Christon

Master's Theses

Reproductive experience induces changes in females. Parity-related differences in maternal treatment of offspring can induce enduring changes in offspring. The relationships between maternal experience, early social isolation, and development were explored in rodents in this experiment. Male rats were weaned from multiparous (MP) and primiparous (PP) mothers and placed into isolation or social housing for four weeks. They were then observed in a social-interaction test. Social behavior and neural oxytocin and vasopressin were assessed post-testing, while corticosterone levels were measured across the four weeks. Weaning was extremely stressful for all offspring. PP- and MP-raised pups exhibited differences in social behavior ...


Figuring The Refugee, Genevieve Goulding Apr 2007

Figuring The Refugee, Genevieve Goulding

Honors Theses

''Figuring the Refugee" explores humanitarian relief for refugees as a discourse; a system of communication and identity-making which creates a subhuman refugee and perpetuates the problems of assistance. Through an auto-ethnographic narrative of my experience in the camp, I consider how the space itself creates exploitative binaries between aid workers and refugees. In an analysis of the United Nations 2006 film appeal, I argue that the discourse is normalized by images of the dehumanized refugee. The rhetoric of the film appeal limits the response of the western viewer to an uncritical sympathy, and allows for ineffective models of refugee assistance ...


Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 2006

Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychology, in a general sense, is age-old, extending back across all cultures to the beginnings of recorded time. The healing arts of ancient doctors and the conceptual musings of ancient sages often pointed toward factors that would be considered psychological today. Nevertheless, psychology in its specifically modern sense dates from the second half of the nineteenth century, when a self-consciously scientific, academic, professional discipline took shape in Europe and North America. This multiplex discipline grew and flourished in particular in the United States, where more than forty experimental laboratories, associated programs of research and study, and institutionalized means of communication ...


Mediation And The Transformation Of American Labor Unions, Ann C. Hodges Apr 2004

Mediation And The Transformation Of American Labor Unions, Ann C. Hodges

Law Faculty Publications

First, the Article analyzes in more detail the changes in the workplace that have led to various proposals for reform. Then the Article looks at the potential for mediation of claims that do not arise out of the collective bargaining agreement, analyzing the possible benefits from the point of view of employers, employees and unions. Next, some of the issues and obstacles to mediation are reviewed. Ultimately the Article concludes that the benefits of mediation outweigh the disadvantages and that in most collective bargaining relationships the obstacles should not prevent either negotiation of such provisions or their successful use for ...


Modifications Of Nitric Oxide And Sexual Behavior In Prenatally Stressed Male Rats, Stephen D. Miller Aug 1999

Modifications Of Nitric Oxide And Sexual Behavior In Prenatally Stressed Male Rats, Stephen D. Miller

Master's Theses

Normal male sexual differentiation is the culmination of perfectly timed, prenatal gonadal hormone release. Prenatal stress (PS) has a detrimental effect upon this process, obstructing the natural development of brain structures and sexual behavior. Prenatally-stressed male rats exhibit many physiological and neuroendocrinological differences when compared to control males. PS has a particularly harmful effect upon male sexual behavior, to which the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be intimately involved. The present experiment examined whether PS reduces nNOS, the rate limiting enzyme of NO, in the medial preoptic area (rnPOA) of male rats, and whether administration of the ...


The Effect Of Thyroid Hormone On The Expression Of A7 Myosin Heavy Chain Mrna In Xenopus Laevis, Bradley Thomas Butkovich Aug 1996

The Effect Of Thyroid Hormone On The Expression Of A7 Myosin Heavy Chain Mrna In Xenopus Laevis, Bradley Thomas Butkovich

Master's Theses

It has long been known that thyroid hormone (TH) is responsible for metamorphosis in tadpoles. It is also known that A7 MHC, an adult muscle isoform, is expressed in adult Xenopus laevis frogs, but not in larvae. Furthermore, the appearance of A7 corresponds with the onset of metamorphosis. The present study investigated the relationship between TH and the expression of A7 MHC mRNA in Xenopus laevis. Isolated tails in culture and 6-n-propyl 2-thiouracil (PTU) treated tails were treated with TH and the presence of A7 mRNA analyzed with in-situ hybridization, and RT-PCR. It was found that TH caused substantial regression ...


The Effects Of Thyroid Hormone On Myosin Heavy Chain A-7 Production In Xenopus Laevis Tail And Leg Muscles, Andrew R. Noble Jan 1996

The Effects Of Thyroid Hormone On Myosin Heavy Chain A-7 Production In Xenopus Laevis Tail And Leg Muscles, Andrew R. Noble

Honors Theses

The present research examines the expression of myosin heavy chain genes in muscle fibers in Xenopus laevis. Characteristically different muscle fibers are expressed before and after metamorphosis. The embryonic myosin proteins that are synthesized during the tadpole stages are replaced with adult myosin heavy chains at metamorphosis. At least one of the adult myosin genes, called A-7, is expressed only in the adult animals, not in tadpoles. The controlling factor or trigger for the expression of this adult gene still remains unknown. There are a number of possible explanations for the A-7 regulation at metamorphosis, including changes in particular hormone ...


A Century Of Psychology As Science, Sigmund Koch, David E. Leary Jan 1992

A Century Of Psychology As Science, Sigmund Koch, David E. Leary

Bookshelf

This reissued edition (originally published by McGraw-Hill in 1985) of A Century of Psychology as Science comprehensively assesses the accomplishments, status, and prospects of psychology at the end of its first century as a science, while offering a new postscript. The forty-three contributors are among psychology's foremost authorities. Among the fields addressed are sensory processes and perception, learning, motivation, emotion, cognition, development, personality, and social psychology.


A Tale Of Two Families: Change In North Yemen 1977-1989, Sheila Carapico, Cynthia Myntti Jan 1991

A Tale Of Two Families: Change In North Yemen 1977-1989, Sheila Carapico, Cynthia Myntti

Political Science Faculty Publications

Virtually every aspect of life in North Yemen has changed dramatically since 1977, including those aspects of Yemeni society which represent continuity with the past: tribalism, rural life, and use of qat.1 The driving force for change has been economic. By 1975, Yemen was caught up in the dramatic developments that affected all Arab countries. Rising international oil prices generated enormous surpluses in the producing countries, enabling them to initiate ambitious development plans and forcing them to import workers.

The Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) was in a good position to provide those workers. In the late 1970s, one of ...


A Profile Of Research In Expert Systems, Mohammed H. Omar, Jack S. Goodwin Jan 1989

A Profile Of Research In Expert Systems, Mohammed H. Omar, Jack S. Goodwin

Robins School of Business White Paper Series, 1980-2011

If the field of Expert Systems (ES) is viewed in terms of a life cycle, the past decade represents the growth phase of its development. Sophistication of ES has increased rapidly, and the use of ES to solve more complex problems has maintained a similar pace. Numerous forces have driven this development including the rapid changes in computer technology. As the field has matured, the body of published research in ES has grown substantially.

Through the use of published ES research, this article provides useful answers to these questions. The scope of our study is limited to the description and ...


Brazil's Profit Remittance Law: Reconciling Goals In Foreign Investments, Jan Hoffman French Jan 1982

Brazil's Profit Remittance Law: Reconciling Goals In Foreign Investments, Jan Hoffman French

Sociology and Anthropology Faculty Publications

Promoting foreign investment is a goal of many developing nations. Along with the benefits of that investment, however, foreign participation in development creates problems such as balance of payments deficits caused by the repatriation of profits earned by the foreign investor. Brazil's profit remittance law is one effort to reconcile these problems. By providing for the registration of foreign investment and using a system of reinvestment incentives, the Profit Remittance Law seeks to promote foreign investment while avoiding the loss of capital which results when profits are remitted abroad. The author of this article describes and explains the Profit ...


Immanuel Kant And The Development Of Modern Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 1982

Immanuel Kant And The Development Of Modern Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Few thinkers in the history of Western civilization have had as broad and lasting an impact as Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). This "Sage of Konigsberg" spent his entire life within the confines of East Prussia, but his thoughts traveled freely across Europe and, in time, to America, where their effects are still apparent. An untold number of analyses and commentaries have established Kant as a preeminent epistemologist, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, aesthetician, and metaphysician. He is even recognized as a natural historian and cosmologist: the author of the so-called Kant-Laplace hypothesis regarding the origin of the universe. He is less ...


Some Factors Involved In Growth And Sporulation Of Pilobolus Crystallinus Tode And Pilobolus Umbonatus Buller, Kenneth L. Poff Jun 1964

Some Factors Involved In Growth And Sporulation Of Pilobolus Crystallinus Tode And Pilobolus Umbonatus Buller, Kenneth L. Poff

Master's Theses

Pilobolus umbonatus Buller and P. crystallinus Tode grew normally in a nitrogen atmosphere but their sporagnia were non-pigmented. When palced in anaerobic jars along with obligately anaerobic and obligately aerobic bacteria, the fungi grew in the range of oxygen concentrations too low for growth of the aerobic bacterium, but high enough to prevent growth of the anaerobe. The fungi did not grow when the oxygen was depleted to the point that allowed growth of the anaerobic bacterium. Catalase was not produced by the hyphae and trophocysts which normally grow beneath the surface of the medium, but was present in the ...