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Iowa State University

Soybean

Botany Publication and Papers

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Floral Nectary Fine Structure And Development In Glycine Max L. (Fabaceae), Harry T. Horner, Rosaria A. Healy, Teresa Cervantes-Martinez, Reid G. Palmer Sep 2003

Floral Nectary Fine Structure And Development In Glycine Max L. (Fabaceae), Harry T. Horner, Rosaria A. Healy, Teresa Cervantes-Martinez, Reid G. Palmer

Botany Publication and Papers

Floral nectaries of annual cultivated Glycine max develop between the bases of the central gynoecium and lateral stamen ring. Each discoid nectary forms immediately before flower opening and degenerates within 24 h. Three stages of nectary development are identified: preactive, active, and postactive. Preactive and active nectaries are composed of a single-layered epidermis that contains many open stomata, with guard cells having thickened walls, starch-engorged plastids, and other organelles. The major portion of each nectary consists of thin-walled special parenchyma cells, each having dense cytoplasm with a nucleus, Golgi bodies and vesicles, mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, many ribosomes, and one ...


Microscopy Of A Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Soybean From An Interspecific Cross Between Glycine Max And G. Soja (Leguminosae), Marianne B. Smith, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner Mar 2002

Microscopy Of A Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Soybean From An Interspecific Cross Between Glycine Max And G. Soja (Leguminosae), Marianne B. Smith, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Cytoplasmic male sterility has been found independently in soybean three times since 1995, but no microscopic investigation has been published. The purpose of this microscopic study was to establish the developmental sequence leading to sterility in a cytoplasmic male-sterile soybean line that has been found to be stable under all environmental conditions tested and to demarcate the temporal and spatial parameters that result in degeneration of the microspores and pollen grains. Light microscopy showed an abnormal development and/or premature degeneration of the tapetum after meiosis II, but some pollen grains persisted until after microspore mitosis. The pollen grains never ...


Calcium Oxalate Crystals In Developing Seeds Of Soybean, H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner Jan 2001

Calcium Oxalate Crystals In Developing Seeds Of Soybean, H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Young developing soybean seeds contain relatively large amounts of calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate crystals. A test for Ca and CaOx indicated that Ca deposits and crystals initially occurred in the funiculus, where a single vascular bundle enters the seed. Crystals formed in the integuments until the embryo enlarged enough to crush the inner portion of the inner integument. Crystals then appeared in the developing cotyledon tissues and embryo axis. All crystals formed in cell vacuoles. Dense bodies and membrane complexes were evident in the funiculus. In the inner integument, cell vacuoles assumed the shape of the future crystals. This presumed ...


Oxalate Content Of Soybean Seeds (Glycine Max:  Leguminosae), Soyfoods, And Other Edible Legumes, Linda K. Massey, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner Jan 2001

Oxalate Content Of Soybean Seeds (Glycine Max:  Leguminosae), Soyfoods, And Other Edible Legumes, Linda K. Massey, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Consumption of soybeans and food products made from them is increasing because of their desirable nutritional value. However, the oxalate content of seeds from 11 cultivars of soybean showed relatively high levels of total oxalate from 0.67 to 3.5 g/100 g of dry weight. Oxalate primarily was found as calcium oxalate crystals. Thirteen tested commercial soyfoods contained between 16 and 638 mg of total oxalate per serving. These values compare to those of three other legume foods, peanut butter, refried beans, and lentils, which contained 197, 193, and 100 mg of total oxalate per serving, respectively. After ...


Quantitative Determination Of Calcium Oxalate And Oxalate In Developing Seeds Of Soybean (Leguminosae), H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, J. Imsande, Harry T. Horner Aug 1997

Quantitative Determination Of Calcium Oxalate And Oxalate In Developing Seeds Of Soybean (Leguminosae), H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, J. Imsande, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Developing soybean seeds accumulate very large amounts of both soluble oxalate and insoluble crystalline calcium (Ca) oxalate. Use of two methods of detection for the determination of total, soluble, and insoluble oxalate revealed that at +16 d postfertilization, the seeds were 24% dry mass of oxalate, and three-fourths of this oxalate (18%) was bound Ca oxalate. During later seed development, the dry mass of oxalate decreased. Crystals were isolated from the seeds, and X-ray diffraction and polarizing microscopy identified them as Ca oxalate monohydrate. These crystals were a mixture of kinked and straight prismatics. Even though certain plant tissues are ...


Cloning, Mapping, And Analyses Of Expression Of The Em-Like Gene Family In Soybean [Glycine Max (L). Merr.], E. S. Calvo, E. S. Wurtele, R. C. Shoemaker Jun 1997

Cloning, Mapping, And Analyses Of Expression Of The Em-Like Gene Family In Soybean [Glycine Max (L). Merr.], E. S. Calvo, E. S. Wurtele, R. C. Shoemaker

Botany Publication and Papers

The entire Em-like Group-1 late embryogenesis abundant (Lea) gene family from soybean was cloned and characterized. The five Group-1 Lea genes (Sle1-5) were divided into two classes based on sequence identity. Sle1-4 were genetically mapped to four different linkage groups. Nucleotide sequencing indicated that Sle1, Sle2, Sle3, and Sle5 encode polypeptides differing primarily by the presence of a repeated 20-amino acid motif. Sle1 and Sle5 were shown by Northern analysis to be expressed in developing embryos weeks earlier than Sle2 and Sle3. Sle4 was shown ...


Genetics And Cytology Of A New Genic Male-Sterile Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Wei Jin, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer Feb 1997

Genetics And Cytology Of A New Genic Male-Sterile Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Wei Jin, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer

Botany Publication and Papers

Genetic and cytological studies were conducted with a new male-sterile, female-fertile soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] mutant. This mutant was completely male sterile and was inherited as a single-recessive gene. No differences in female or male gamete transmission of the recessive allele were observed between reciprocal cross-pollinations in the F1 or F2 generations. This mutant was not allelic to any previously identified soybean genic male-sterile mutants: ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, or ms6. No linkage was detected between sterility and flower color (W1 locus), or between sterility and pubescence color (T1 locus). Light microscopic and cytological observations of microsporogenesis in ...