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Targeted Suppression Of Soybean Bag6‐Induced Cell Death In Yeast By Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors, Jianying Wang, Greg Yeckel, Pramod K. Kandoth, Lakmini Wasala, Richard S. Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jan 2020

Targeted Suppression Of Soybean Bag6‐Induced Cell Death In Yeast By Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors, Jianying Wang, Greg Yeckel, Pramod K. Kandoth, Lakmini Wasala, Richard S. Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

While numerous effectors that suppress plant immunity have been identified from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete pathogens, relatively little is known for nematode effectors. Several dozen effectors have been reported from the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Previous studies suggest that a hypersensitive response‐like programmed cell death is triggered at nematode feeding sites in soybean during an incompatible interaction. However, virulent SCN populations overcome this incompatibility using unknown mechanisms. A soybean BAG6 (Bcl‐2 associated anthanogene 6) gene previously reported by us to be highly up‐regulated in degenerating feeding sites induced by SCN in a resistant soybean line was attenuated ...


Screening Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors For Their Ability To Suppress Plant Immunity, Gennady Pogorelko, Jianying Wang, Parijat S. Juvale, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum Jan 2020

Screening Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors For Their Ability To Suppress Plant Immunity, Gennady Pogorelko, Jianying Wang, Parijat S. Juvale, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines , is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybeans. SCN is an obligate and sedentary parasite that transforms host plant root cells into an elaborate permanent feeding site, a syncytium. Formation and maintenance of a viable syncytium is an absolute requirement for nematode growth and reproduction. In turn, sensing pathogen attack, plants activate defence responses and may trigger programmed cell death at the sites of infection. For successful parasitism, H. glycines must suppress these host defence responses to establish and maintain viable syncytia. Similar to other pathogens, H. glycines engages in these molecular ...


Homeostasis In The Soybean Mirna396–Grf Network Is Essential For Productive Soybean Cyst Nematode Infections, Jason B. Noon, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J. Baum Jan 2019

Homeostasis In The Soybean Mirna396–Grf Network Is Essential For Productive Soybean Cyst Nematode Infections, Jason B. Noon, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, penetrates soybean roots and migrates to the vascular cylinder where it forms a feeding site called the syncytium. MiRNA396 (miR396) targets growth-regulating factor (GRF) genes, and the miR396–GRF1/3 module is a master regulator of syncytium development in model cyst nematode H. schachtii infection of Arabidopsis. Here, we investigated whether this regulatory system operates similarly in soybean roots and is likewise important for H. glycines infection. We found that a network involving nine MIR396 and 23 GRF genes is important for normal development of soybean roots and that GRF function is specified in ...


Sifting And Winnowing: Analysis Of Farmer Field Data For Soybean In The Us North-Central Region, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Patricio Grassini, Adam C. Roth, Shaun N. Casteel, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Hans J. Kandel, Peter M. Kyveryga, Mark A. Licht, Laura E. Lindsey, Daren S. Mueller, Emerson D. Nafziger, Seth L. Naeve, Jordan Stanley, Michael J. Staton, Shawn P. Conley May 2018

Sifting And Winnowing: Analysis Of Farmer Field Data For Soybean In The Us North-Central Region, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Patricio Grassini, Adam C. Roth, Shaun N. Casteel, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Hans J. Kandel, Peter M. Kyveryga, Mark A. Licht, Laura E. Lindsey, Daren S. Mueller, Emerson D. Nafziger, Seth L. Naeve, Jordan Stanley, Michael J. Staton, Shawn P. Conley

Agronomy Publications

Field trials are commonly used to estimate the effects of different factors on crop yields. In the present study, we followed an alternative approach to identify factors that explain field-to-field yield variation, which consisted of farmer survey data, a spatial framework, and multiple statistical procedures. This approach was used to identify management factors with strongest association with on-farm soybean yield variation in the US North Central (NC) region. Field survey data, including yield and management information, were collected over two crop growing seasons (2014 and 2015) from rainfed and irrigated soybean fields (total of 3568 field-year observations). Fields were grouped ...


Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh Sep 2017

Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh

Agronomy Publications

Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal genes. The aims of this study were to identify new sources of resistance to CR in a collection of 459 diverse plant introductions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Core Collection using field and ...


Advancing Our Understanding Of Charcoal Rot In Soybeans, Martha P. Romero Luna, Daren Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Asheesh K. Singh, Glen L. Hartman, Kiersten A. Wise Jan 2017

Advancing Our Understanding Of Charcoal Rot In Soybeans, Martha P. Romero Luna, Daren Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Asheesh K. Singh, Glen L. Hartman, Kiersten A. Wise

Agronomy Publications

Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the past 10 yr has improved our understanding of the environment conducive to disease development, host resistance, and improved disease diagnosis and management. This article summarizes the currently available research with an emphasis on disease management.


Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham Jun 2016

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200 to 300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to infect experimental plants, and wherever the virus invades, the target gene or genes will be silenced. VIGS is thus transient, and in the span of a few weeks, it is possible to design VIGS constructs and then generate loss-of-function phenotypes through RNA silencing of the target genes ...


Aboveground Feeding By Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Reproduction Belowground, Michael T. Mccarville, David H. Soh, Gregory L. Tylka, Matthew E. O'Neal Jan 2014

Aboveground Feeding By Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Reproduction Belowground, Michael T. Mccarville, David H. Soh, Gregory L. Tylka, Matthew E. O'Neal

Entomology Publications

Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect ofA. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H ...


Identification Of Candidate Genes Involved In Early Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Signaling In Soybean (Glycine Max) Roots And Leaves, Adrienne N. Moran-Lauter, Gregory Allan Peiffer, Tengfei Yin, Steven A. Whitham, Dianne Cook, Randy Shoemaker, Michelle Graham Jan 2014

Identification Of Candidate Genes Involved In Early Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Signaling In Soybean (Glycine Max) Roots And Leaves, Adrienne N. Moran-Lauter, Gregory Allan Peiffer, Tengfei Yin, Steven A. Whitham, Dianne Cook, Randy Shoemaker, Michelle Graham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Background

Iron is an essential micronutrient for all living things, required in plants for photosynthesis, respiration and metabolism. A lack of bioavailable iron in soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), causing a reduction in photosynthesis and interveinal yellowing of leaves. Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in high pH soils often suffer from IDC, resulting in substantial yield losses. Iron efficient soybean cultivars maintain photosynthesis and have higher yields under IDC-promoting conditions than inefficient cultivars.

Results

To capture signaling between roots and leaves and identify genes acting early in the iron efficient cultivar Clark, we conducted a RNA-Seq study ...


Effects Of Rag1 On The Preference And Performance Of Soybean Defoliators, Robert F. Bruner, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann Dec 2013

Effects Of Rag1 On The Preference And Performance Of Soybean Defoliators, Robert F. Bruner, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Entomology Publications

The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphidsusceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata ...


Transcriptome Analyses And Virus Induced Gene Silencing Identify Genes In The Rpp4 -Mediated Asian Soybean Rust Resistance Pathway, Aguida A.M.P. Morales, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Martijn Van De Mortel, Katherine T. Scheider, Timothy J. Bancroft, Aluizio Borem, Rex T. Nelson, Daniel S. Nettleton, Thomas J. Baum, Randy C. Shoemaker, Reid D. Frederick, Ricardo V. Abdelnoor, Kerry F. Pedley, Steven A. Whitham, Michelle Graham Jan 2013

Transcriptome Analyses And Virus Induced Gene Silencing Identify Genes In The Rpp4 -Mediated Asian Soybean Rust Resistance Pathway, Aguida A.M.P. Morales, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Martijn Van De Mortel, Katherine T. Scheider, Timothy J. Bancroft, Aluizio Borem, Rex T. Nelson, Daniel S. Nettleton, Thomas J. Baum, Randy C. Shoemaker, Reid D. Frederick, Ricardo V. Abdelnoor, Kerry F. Pedley, Steven A. Whitham, Michelle Graham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Rpp4 (Resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi 4) confers resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR). By combining expression profiling and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), we are developing a genetic framework for Rpp4-mediated resistance. We measured gene expression in mock-inoculated and P. pachyrhizi-infected leaves of resistant soybean accession PI459025B (Rpp4) and the susceptible cultivar (Williams 82) across a 12-day time course. Unexpectedly, two biphasic responses were identified. In the incompatible reaction, genes induced at 12 h after infection (hai) were not differentially expressed at 24 hai, but were induced at 72 hai. In contrast, genes ...


A Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Method To Study Soybean Cyst Nematode Parasitism In Glycine Max, Pramod K. Kandoth, Robert Heinz, Gregory Yeckel, Nathan W. Gross, Parijat S. Juvale, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jan 2013

A Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Method To Study Soybean Cyst Nematode Parasitism In Glycine Max, Pramod K. Kandoth, Robert Heinz, Gregory Yeckel, Nathan W. Gross, Parijat S. Juvale, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Background

Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors have been developed and used in soybean for the functional analysis of genes involved in disease resistance to foliar pathogens. However, BPMV-VIGS protocols for studying genes involved in disease resistance or symbiotic associations with root microbes have not been developed.

Findings

Here we describe a BPMV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetic studies in soybean roots. We use this method for analyzing soybean genes involved in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). A detailed SCN screening pipeline is described.

Conclusions

The VIGS method described here provides a new tool ...


Nozzle And Carrier Application Effects On Control Of Soybean Leaf Spot Diseases, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf Jan 2009

Nozzle And Carrier Application Effects On Control Of Soybean Leaf Spot Diseases, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased soybean foliar disease potential has heightened grower interest in fungicide application techniques. Application field trials comparing application rate [187 vs. 112 L/ha (20 vs. 12 gal/acre)], nozzle style (twin-orifice; single-orifice) and spray quality (fine vs. medium and coarse spray quality), and application technique (with and without air-assist) along with an unsprayed check were done at two locations over two years. Fungicide deposition (coverage and droplet size) and disease severity in the bottom, middle, and top parts of the plant canopy, and soybean yield were measured.


Nozzle And Carrier Application Effects On Control Of Soybean Leaf Spot Diseases, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf Jan 2007

Nozzle And Carrier Application Effects On Control Of Soybean Leaf Spot Diseases, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

A two-site, two-year field application experiment investigated fungicide coverage in a fully-developed soybean canopy. Application treatments included “high-rate” (187 l/ha; 20 gal/acre) and “low-rate” (112 l/ha;12 gal/acre) with fine-droplet two-orifice tips, medium-droplet two-orifice tip at 187 l/ha (20 gal/acre), a coarse-droplet single-orifice “herbicide-style” tip at 168 l/ha (18 gal/ac), and an air-assisted spray treatment. Droplet coverage and size, and foliar disease severity in the lower, middle, and top parts of the plant canopy, and crop yield were measured.

Droplet size generally followed expected manufacturer specifications. Percentage area covered and drops/cm ...


Effects Of Nozzle Type And Carrier Application On The Control Of Leaf Spot Diseases Of Soybean, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf Jan 2006

Effects Of Nozzle Type And Carrier Application On The Control Of Leaf Spot Diseases Of Soybean, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Midwestern soybean growers seek information on effective application of foliar fungicides that do not translocate throughout the plant. Field application treatments included using a two-orifice nozzle tip producing fine droplets at 187 l/ha (20 gal/ac) and 112 l/ha (12 gal/ac) and a single-orifice nozzle tip producing a coarse droplet size more typical of herbicide applications at 168 l/ha (18 gal/ac). In addition an air-assisted sprayer was used at one of the two sites of the trials. Measurements included droplet size, droplet coverage, and foliar disease severity in the top, middle, and lower parts of ...


Studies On Seed Colouring In Soybean And Tomato, Vilas A. Tonapi, P. Harinath Babu, S. Varanavasiappan, Ch Ravinder Reddy, Shrishail S. Navi, N. Seetharama Jan 2006

Studies On Seed Colouring In Soybean And Tomato, Vilas A. Tonapi, P. Harinath Babu, S. Varanavasiappan, Ch Ravinder Reddy, Shrishail S. Navi, N. Seetharama

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The effects of seed colouring using 25 dyes (i.e. 20 chemical and 5 natural dyes) on the quality of soyabean (cv. JS 335) and tomato (cv. Pusa Ruby) seeds were studied in the laboratory. Data were recorded for seed germination percentage, root and shoot length, whole seedling length, dry weight of seedling, vigour index, speed of germination and electrical conductivity. Rhodamine-B, Fast green and Malachite green for soyabean and Rhodamine-B and Fast green for tomato were the best dyes for seed colouring.


Expression Of An Arabidopsis Phosphoglycerate Mutase Homologue Is Localized To Apical Meristems, Regulated By Hormones, And Induced By Sedentary Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, Mitra Mazarei, Kristen A. Lennon, David P. Puthoff, Steven R. Rodermel, Thomas J. Baum Nov 2003

Expression Of An Arabidopsis Phosphoglycerate Mutase Homologue Is Localized To Apical Meristems, Regulated By Hormones, And Induced By Sedentary Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, Mitra Mazarei, Kristen A. Lennon, David P. Puthoff, Steven R. Rodermel, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

We previously isolated a partial soybean cDNA clone whose transcript abundance is increased upon infection by the sedentary, endoparasitic soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. We now isolated the corresponding full-length cDNA and determined that the predicted gene product was similar to the group of cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase enzymes (PGM/bPGM; EC 5.4.2.1/5.4.2.4). We designated the corresponding soybean gene GmPGM. PGM and bPGM are key catalysts of glycolysis that have been well characterized in animals but not plants. Using the GmPGM cDNA sequence, we identified a homologous Arabidopsis thaliana gene, which we ...


Influence Of Herbicide Application To Soybeans On Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatching, Brian C. Levene, Michael D. K. Owen, Gregory L. Tylka Sep 1998

Influence Of Herbicide Application To Soybeans On Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatching, Brian C. Levene, Michael D. K. Owen, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The hatching of Heterodera glycines eggs in soybean root exudates collected after postemergence application of three herbicides, and the hatching potential of H. glycines eggs from females feeding on herbicide-treated plants, were measured in vitro. Hatching in all root exudate solutions (RES) was greater than in deionized water but less than in 0.003 M ZnSO[sub4] solution. Filtering RES with a 0.22-[mu]m-filter increased H. glycines hatching in RES. Application of acifluorfen, bentazon, and lactofen to foliage of soybean plants inhibited hatching of H. glycines eggs from the same plants. Hatching in RES from the different herbicide-treated ...


Responses Of Heterodera Glycines Populations To A Postemergence Herbicide Mixture And Simulated Insect Defoliation, J. A. Browde, G. L. Tylka, L. P. Pedigo, M. D. K. Owen Dec 1994

Responses Of Heterodera Glycines Populations To A Postemergence Herbicide Mixture And Simulated Insect Defoliation, J. A. Browde, G. L. Tylka, L. P. Pedigo, M. D. K. Owen

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Effects of a mixture of the postemergence herbicides acifluorfen and bentazon, and simulated defoliation expected from green cloverworm on population densities of Heterodera glycines were determined in field plots in Iowa. The herbicide mixture and defoliation each suppressed soybean growth. Population densities of H. glycines were generally lower in herbicide-treated than untreated plots. Population densities of the nematode were unaffected by defoliation in 1988 and 1990-91, but were increased by the treatment in 1989. Key words: acifluorfen, bentazon, defoliation, Glycine max, green cloverworm, herbicide, Heterodera glycines, nematode, Plathypena scabra, postemergence herbicides, soybean, soybean cyst nematode.