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Cover Crop Effects On Maize Productivity: Insights From Statistical And Process-Based Models, Guillermo Marcillo Jan 2018

Cover Crop Effects On Maize Productivity: Insights From Statistical And Process-Based Models, Guillermo Marcillo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Winter cover crops can be an effective strategy to buffer soil and water impairing effects from intensively managed agriculture. While cover crops have shown potential to sequester off-season nitrate, control weeds, or promote nutrient cycling, knowledge gaps persist in regard to maize impacts driven by cover crop decision making. In this context, statistical and process-based models can be valuable tools for predicting changes in maize systems that include a winter cover crop. In a meta-analysis combining peer-reviewed research from several regions in the US, grain yields were found to change between 0 and 21% when maize (Zea mays L.) followed ...


Environments-By-Design: Developing New Tools To Bring “Field Conditions” To The Laboratory, Kara Lind Jan 2018

Environments-By-Design: Developing New Tools To Bring “Field Conditions” To The Laboratory, Kara Lind

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maximizing agricultural yields is an urgent priority for our society as the world population will increase to 9 billion by 2050. Additionally, climate change could have detrimental effects on food supply and biomass production. Addressing these problems means considering the relationship the environment has on a plant’s development. The reality is though that there are few tools to plant scientists that can properly control and monitor the growing environment for plant. We believe that as engineers we can provide plant scientists with new tools which we call “environments by design”. These tools can control the environmental stimuli either abiotic ...


The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish Jan 2018

The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Citizen science has been shown to be an effective tool for increasing data collection, as well as a great benefit to those who participate in the research project. The rising costs and limited funding for conducting large-scale research projects make citizen science projects valuable assets for researchers. Understanding the impact of citizen science projects on the volunteers must be done to better engage with and retain the volunteers. The Growing Together project, a partnership between the ISU Extension and Outreach Master Gardener program and the Human Sciences Extension, was created to increase food security in Iowa. The two major components ...


Phenotypic And Genomic Selection For Multi-Trait Improvement In Soybean Line And Variety Development, Andreomar Kurek Jan 2018

Phenotypic And Genomic Selection For Multi-Trait Improvement In Soybean Line And Variety Development, Andreomar Kurek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Marker technologies have allowed soybean breeding to exploit genotypic information for traits of various genetic architectures. However, the incorporation of technologies have had qualitative impacts on resources used in variety development projects. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of integrating Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for single gene and oligo-genic traits and Genomic Selection (GS) for yield in soybean variety development projects through use of simulations, decision classifier metrics, and cost analysis. The breeding goals of the project are to maximize yield of soybean varieties adapted to maturity zones (MZs) II, III and IV, while assuring that ...


Winter Cereal Rye And Selected Brassica Cover Crops For Forage Prior To Soybeans, Timothy James Sklenar Jan 2018

Winter Cereal Rye And Selected Brassica Cover Crops For Forage Prior To Soybeans, Timothy James Sklenar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite myriad benefits to incorporating winter cover crops into conventionally managed row crop systems farmer adoption remains low in Iowa. Commonly cited apprehensions include the costs associated with managing cover crops without any short term economic benefits and the complexities associated with management of cover crops. The management of cover crops as a forage could potentially help address both of these issues while at the same time enhancing the environmental sustainability of conventionally managed systems. The work provided in this thesis is an attempt to evaluate the potential for four selected species to be managed as dual-purpose winter cover crops ...


Genetic Dissection Of Photosynthetic Traits In Sorghum Under Cold And Drought Stress, Diego Ortiz Jan 2018

Genetic Dissection Of Photosynthetic Traits In Sorghum Under Cold And Drought Stress, Diego Ortiz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated in arid and semiarid regions for food, feed and biofuel production. Cold and drought stresses reduce photosynthesis in sorghum, limiting biomass production and yield. It is necessary to understand the genetic mechanisms controlling stress response to develop cultivars with increased cold and drought tolerance. We performed genome wide association studies (GWAS) for gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence traits in sorghum. The main objective was to discover genes/genomic regions that control the photosynthetic capacity under optimal, low temperature and drought stress conditions. Two experiments were conducted ...


Genetic And Environmental Control Of Lignin Biosynthesis And C Emission From Crop Stover, Sarah Hill-Skinner Jan 2018

Genetic And Environmental Control Of Lignin Biosynthesis And C Emission From Crop Stover, Sarah Hill-Skinner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer in the world and provides structural strength to plants. The maize brown midrib (bm) mutants accumulate less and altered lignin relative to non-mutants. Maize bm4-encoded folylpolyglutamate synthase functions to generate the preferred substrate of folate-dependent enzymes, such as bm2-encoded methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Consistent with bm4’s predicted function upstream of bm2, both mutants display a 7-10% reduction in lignin content and a 16-40% increase in S/G lignin ratio relative to wild-type. This interplay between lignin biosynthesis and various metabolic processes is also seen between lignin and stover carbon emission. As climate change ...


The Influence Of Multiple Herbicide Resistance On Growth And Development Of Amaranthus Tuberculatus And The Efficacy Of The Very Long Chain Fatty Acid-Inhibiting Herbicides On Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Amaranthus Tuberculatus; Investigating A Putative 4-Hydroxylphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase-Inhibiti, Eric Alexander Lyle Jones Jan 2018

The Influence Of Multiple Herbicide Resistance On Growth And Development Of Amaranthus Tuberculatus And The Efficacy Of The Very Long Chain Fatty Acid-Inhibiting Herbicides On Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Amaranthus Tuberculatus; Investigating A Putative 4-Hydroxylphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase-Inhibiti, Eric Alexander Lyle Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Iowa farmers rely mainly on herbicides for weed management. Inconsistent and unsatisfactory weed control is being realized as the spread of herbicide-resistant weed populations has increased. Populations of waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J.D. Sauer) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) have evolved resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides commonly used in crop fields. This research focuses on the growth and development of multiple herbicide-resistant waterhemp and assessing the evolution of new herbicide-resistant waterhemp and giant ragweed populations.

Significant differences in growth, flowering, accumulated biomass, and seed production were detected when the multiple herbicide-resistant waterhemp populations were compared to a ...


Biological Roles Of Small Rnas Expressed During Infection Of Barley By The Obligate Fungal Biotroph, Blumeria Graminis F. Sp. Hordei, Matthew Robert Hunt Jan 2018

Biological Roles Of Small Rnas Expressed During Infection Of Barley By The Obligate Fungal Biotroph, Blumeria Graminis F. Sp. Hordei, Matthew Robert Hunt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants and their pathogens have constantly co-evolving mechanisms that determine infection success. Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 18-30 nucleotides can have a large effect regulating plant defense responses as well as fungal virulence factors. The goal of this project was to understand how sRNAs regulate gene expression both for species of origin, as well as trans-kingdom sRNA communication between barley and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), the causal agent of barley powdery mildew. To accomplish this goal we examined Bgh sRNA expression over a time course representing the key stages of Bgh infection of barley (appressorium formation, penetration of epidermal ...


Effects Of Overstory Tree Species And Seed Trap Design On Seed Rain In A Tropical Rainforest, Bridgette Kirk Jan 2018

Effects Of Overstory Tree Species And Seed Trap Design On Seed Rain In A Tropical Rainforest, Bridgette Kirk

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tropical rainforests maintain a high diversity of plant species, but the community assembly mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. We hypothesized that individual overstory tree species could filter seed rain differentially, owing to differences in species-specific traits that affect forest physiognomy and resources for animals, which in turn influence likelihood of arrival of wind- and animal-dispersed seeds. Quantifying the effects of an individual tree species on seed rain in a highly diverse natural forest is challenging, and thus understudied. Seed rain of very small seeds (<1 mm long) is also relatively uncharacterized because seed trap mesh size is usually ≥1 mm. In a unique experimental setting containing replicated, monodominant, 26-yr-old plantations of four native tree species at La Selva Biological Station (Costa Rica), we studied the effects of four native tree species on seed rain. We collected seed rain of woody species for 14 months in 15 50-×-50-m plots from 75 traps. In each plot three traps were lined with Terylene® fabric of 1-µm (fine) mesh and two with 1-mm (regular) mesh.

Across all traps, the total annual seed rain was 133,355 seeds from 121 ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Daily Light Integral Or Photoperiod On Maize Tassel Morphology Across Developmental Stages, Elizabeth Ann Trecker Jan 2018

Quantifying The Effects Of Daily Light Integral Or Photoperiod On Maize Tassel Morphology Across Developmental Stages, Elizabeth Ann Trecker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important agronomic crop throughout the world. Maize seed production and trait introgression is performed in both field and greenhouse settings (which allow for continual production seasons). The winter months within the greenhouses produce maize tassels with increased barren tassel branches (suppressed anther production) and the hypothesis is that the most limiting factor is daily light integral (DLI). Growing maize year-round in temperate regions, such as the northern part of the United States, requires the use-of greenhouse production. The low light intensities of these regions in the winter months creates a need for supplemental ...


Investigations Into The Function Of Common Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) In The Agricultural Landscape, Sydney Lizotte-Hall Jan 2018

Investigations Into The Function Of Common Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) In The Agricultural Landscape, Sydney Lizotte-Hall

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The monarch butterfly’s (Danaus plexippus Linnaeus) vibrant orange color with contrasting black veins and white spots make it recognizable to many. Unfortunately, the remarkable migration made by the eastern monarch population is at risk due to the recent decline in this cohort of the species. Many factors are said to have caused the decline, including overwintering habitat destruction, increased dependence on herbicide-tolerant crops, extreme climatic events, predation, loss of breeding habitat, etc.

Two studies were conducted to: 1) determine the impact of sub-lethal herbicides on growth of common milkweed and utilization by monarchs and 2) investigate simple methods for ...


The Under-Appreciated Roles Of Viruses In Agroecosystem Management, Kacy Wentzell Jan 2018

The Under-Appreciated Roles Of Viruses In Agroecosystem Management, Kacy Wentzell

Creative Components

Increasing food demand and diminishing resources require food production practices to become more productive with fewer external inputs. Agroecology uses ecological principles to inform agroecosystem management that results in ecosystem services replacing external inputs to the system and an economically and environmentally sustainable system. Viruses have historically been ignored in ecological studies. Understanding the ecological role of viruses in agroecosystems is key to managing crop production systems that utilize ecosystem services rather than rely on external inputs. The role of viruses in microorganism communities, where most research has been conducted, provides insight into the ecological role of viruses in other ...


Identification And Management Of Goss's Bacterial Wilt And Leaf Blight In Maize, Darcy M. Kroemer Jan 2018

Identification And Management Of Goss's Bacterial Wilt And Leaf Blight In Maize, Darcy M. Kroemer

Creative Components

This project reviews the history of Goss’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight and serves as an educational piece for identifying and managing the disease. The goal of this project was to develop a learning module that would provide specifics on Goss’s wilt disease signs and symptoms for easier identification via in field images. The historic spread and reemergence of the disease is looked at in this project to validate the significance and potential of the disease to be problematic across various regions.


Molecular Mechanisms Governing Plant Parasitic Nematode Signaling And Host Parasitism, Stacey Nicola Barnes Jan 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Governing Plant Parasitic Nematode Signaling And Host Parasitism, Stacey Nicola Barnes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pathogen infection of crops causes large-scale annual yield losses for farmers worldwide and hinders global efforts to provide adequate amounts of nutrition for the ever-growing human population. Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are among some of the most devastating pathogens due to their ability to parasitize an expansive variety of agriculturally important crops. In order to identify ways to attenuate PPN infection and limit yield losses it is vital that we increase our understanding of host-PPN interactions. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms that are occurring both within PPN and at the interface between PPN and their host plants.

Research into PPN-derived ...


Evaluating The Impacts Of Midwestern Cropping Systems On Soil Health And Subsurface Drainage Water Quality, Brian Dougherty Jan 2018

Evaluating The Impacts Of Midwestern Cropping Systems On Soil Health And Subsurface Drainage Water Quality, Brian Dougherty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Agricultural nutrient management practices are an important component of the effort to improve water quality in the Mississippi River Basin. In particular, there is concern about nutrient export to the Gulf of Mexico via loss from subsurface drainage systems. Optimizing the use of fertilizers and animal manures in combination with other management practices has the potential to minimize negative impacts on water quality. Farmers are increasingly challenged to maximize crop production while utilizing fertilizers and animal manures in an efficient and environmentally friendly manner. An increasing awareness of the potential to address these issues by improving soil health has also ...


A Tale Of Regulation: Analysis Of The Role Of Snrk1 And Glutathione In Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos Jan 2018

A Tale Of Regulation: Analysis Of The Role Of Snrk1 And Glutathione In Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during development. Upon activation of autophagy, a double membrane vesicle called the autophagosome forms around the cargo and delivers it to the vacuole/lysosome for degradation. In mammals, regulation of autophagy has been extensively studied. In plants, key regulators of autophagy have been identified, but their upstream components are poorly understood. This dissertation summarizes my efforts in studying the regulation of autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

AMPK in animals, and its yeast homolog Snf1, are positive regulators of autophagy. The ...


Genomic Analysis Of Quantitative Disease Resistance During Maize-Hemibiotrophic Leaf Blight Pathogen Interaction, Mercy Kasuzi Kabahuma Jan 2018

Genomic Analysis Of Quantitative Disease Resistance During Maize-Hemibiotrophic Leaf Blight Pathogen Interaction, Mercy Kasuzi Kabahuma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plant diseases account for more than 40% of crop losses. Breeding for disease resistance is the most effective means of crop protection against these losses. Disease resistance in plants is categorized into qualitative and quantitative resistance. Qualitative disease resistance is controlled by single major genes that confer complete or near complete resistance against disease pathogens. However, the absence or instability of qualitative resistance in many crop-pathogen interaction systems has necessitated a shift in research toward quantitative disease resistance (QDR). QDR is conditioned by several genes of minor effects resulting in reduced levels of disease. The multigenic nature of QDR overcomes ...


Using Genomic And Gene Expression Methods To Understand The Phenotypic Response Of Soybean To Sudden Death Syndrome Caused By Fusarium Virguliforme, Alexander Stephen Luckew Jan 2018

Using Genomic And Gene Expression Methods To Understand The Phenotypic Response Of Soybean To Sudden Death Syndrome Caused By Fusarium Virguliforme, Alexander Stephen Luckew

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most important soybean diseases in the Midwestern United States, leading to average losses of $396 million per year from 1996 to 2015. The causal agent of SDS, soilborne fungus Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), causes root rot symptoms and releases phytotoxins taken up by the plant to produce chlorosis and necrosis in the leaves. The main management practice used to reduce the impact of SDS is planting resistant soybean cultivars. Resistance to SDS is known to be quantitative with 88 known quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on Soybase.org. Many of these QTL ...


Identification And Qtl Mapping Of Physiological Drivers Of Soybean Yield Under Contrasting Management Systems Using High-Throughput Phenotyping, Race Heith Higgins Jan 2018

Identification And Qtl Mapping Of Physiological Drivers Of Soybean Yield Under Contrasting Management Systems Using High-Throughput Phenotyping, Race Heith Higgins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rapid characterization of physiological traits driving yield are becoming desirable aides to breeding programs to increase the rate of genetic gain. Each chapter in this dissertation investigates areas related to high-throughput phenotyping and physiological traits driving soybean yield. Chapter two seeks to understand the response of diverse soybean germplasm to seeding rate. An evaluation of final plot seed yield, seed protein percentage, seed oil percentage, seed weight, height, maturity, and plant lodging revealed a significant genotype x seeding rate interaction only for lodging, suggesting current soybean germplasm and soybean of wide genetic ancestry respond similarly to seeding rate. Our second ...


Foliar Fertilization Of Corn In Northeast Iowa, Jay Matthews Jan 2018

Foliar Fertilization Of Corn In Northeast Iowa, Jay Matthews

Creative Components

Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most widely grown crops in the world and is the largest crop grown in Iowa. In contrast to research on foliar fertilization of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), research on foliar fertilization for corn with macronutrients and secondary nutrients has been scarce in Iowa and the upper Midwest region. As corn yields have continued to increase growers have questioned the capacity of the soil to provide all the nutrients needed to maximize corn yield. One solution that has been offered is the application of a foliar fertilizer. As new foliar fertilizer products ...


Nutritional Quality And Performance Evaluation Of Hybrid And Open-Pollinated Maize, Zachary Paige Jan 2018

Nutritional Quality And Performance Evaluation Of Hybrid And Open-Pollinated Maize, Zachary Paige

Creative Components

The value of organically produced maize (Zea mays L.) is increased as traits such as nutrient content are improved (Berzonsky, 2000). For example, maize with high methionine and lysine concentrations, both critical to egg, meat and general bird health, may have the potential to reduce at least some fraction of synthetic additives (Moore et al., 2008; Adeyemo, 2012). In most grain crops, the protein component is lower than what is needed to meet dietary requirements of humans and most other non-ruminants (Peterson, 2000). Modern maize breeding and selection for large starchy kernels may have contributed to reduced concentration of essential ...


Evaluation Of Soybean Grain Yield As Influenced By Soybean Seeding Rate And Fomesafen Herbicide, Paul Parcher Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Soybean Grain Yield As Influenced By Soybean Seeding Rate And Fomesafen Herbicide, Paul Parcher

Creative Components

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) herbicide has been extensively used on several herbicide tolerant crops in the United States since the introduction of the first commercially available genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed in 1996. The launch of commercially available glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) seed in 1998 provided farmers in Iowa and other states, where corn and soybean are primarily grown, the ability to apply glyphosate to every acre of these crops annually.


A Look At The Impact Of A Controlled Traffic Farming System On Crop Yields And Soil Physical Properties On A Newdale Clay-Loam And Beresford Silty-Clay Soil Located In South-Western Manitoba, Adam Gurr Jan 2018

A Look At The Impact Of A Controlled Traffic Farming System On Crop Yields And Soil Physical Properties On A Newdale Clay-Loam And Beresford Silty-Clay Soil Located In South-Western Manitoba, Adam Gurr

Creative Components

Soil compaction can be defined as a reduction in porosity or an increase in bulk density resulting from external or internally applied forces (Alakukku, Laura, 2012). It is regarded with soil erosion, as the costliest and most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture (FAO, 2003). Globally it is estimated that about 4% of agricultural lands or 64 million hectares are affected by compaction, with the majority of this associated with vehicular traffic (Flowers and Lal, 1998). The negative effects of soil compaction have been reported on nearly every continent in the world (Hamza and Anderson, 2005) and these effects ...


Conferring Downy Mildew (Pseudoperonspora Humuli) Resistance In Hop (Humulus Lupulus), Franciscus Zwemmer Jan 2018

Conferring Downy Mildew (Pseudoperonspora Humuli) Resistance In Hop (Humulus Lupulus), Franciscus Zwemmer

Creative Components

Hops are thought to be native to Asia. The three known hop species are Humulus lupulus, H. japonicus, and H. yunnanensis. H. lupulus is the only widely cultivated crop species of the three, although H. japonicus can be used ornamentally. Several subspecies exist within H. lupulus, which include a European, Japanese, common hop subspecies var. lupulus, and three native North American subspecies. The North American subspecies include var. neomexicanus, var. pubescens, and var. lupuloides; these represent Western North America, Midwestern USA, and Central and eastern North America (Small, 1980).


Understanding The Effects Plant Density Has On Seed Yield In Hybrid Rice Seed Production, Cody Brandl Jan 2018

Understanding The Effects Plant Density Has On Seed Yield In Hybrid Rice Seed Production, Cody Brandl

Creative Components

Since the first Hybrid Rice Variety was released in the United States nearly twenty years ago, hybrids have become a favorite among rice producers in the South. Hybrid rice varieties offer increased yield potential, better disease resistance and herbicide traits that serve as solutions to weed and resistance issues for farmers and agronomists. As the popularity and demand for Hybrid rice has grown, so has the need for seed production, which often times has struggled to keep up with demand. This is due to multiple factors, including foundation seed avalibility, sterility issues and difficulty with cross-pollinating in field environments. In ...


The Effects Of Manure Application On Phosphorus Loss, Jenna Falor Jan 2018

The Effects Of Manure Application On Phosphorus Loss, Jenna Falor

Creative Components

Nutrient management from manure is important for multiple reasons. • To avoid water contamination • Take advantage of available nutrients on farm • Reduce off farm costs Each farm needs to tailor their manure plan to their farm. Currently Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans (CNMPs) are much more complex than many farms need. The time commitment and cost can discourage many farmers from participating in this unless they are required to by the government either due to size or wanting to partake in a program. This doesn’t mean that there cannot be a plan in place to prevent excessive nutrient loss from incorrect ...


Effects Of Fungicide Spray Program On Inbred Seed Corn Yield And Seed Quality, Eric Pierce Jan 2018

Effects Of Fungicide Spray Program On Inbred Seed Corn Yield And Seed Quality, Eric Pierce

Creative Components

was raised on a family farm near Ogden, Iowa, a small town 20 miles west of Iowa State University. The farm is a row crop operation, raising corn and soybeans. I attended Iowa State University and received a B.S. Degree in Agricultural Business in May of 2010. I spent my college summers working for a seed company, assisting other employees with the field part of the seed production process, and working on the family farm during the school years.


Evolution Of Soybean Weed Management In The United States, Aaron Rowe Jan 2018

Evolution Of Soybean Weed Management In The United States, Aaron Rowe

Creative Components

Weeds have been an unwanted nuisance since the beginning of agriculture. The processes and technologies utilized to manage this yield limiting problem have evolved over time. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in the United States has experienced all of the major agriculture revolutions. This has included horse-drawn field implements, tractor power implementation, chemical era, and the most recent era of biotechnology. There has been a continuous gain in efficiencies with the discovery and introduction of new technologies to manage weeds in soybeans. A period of rapid discovery and introduction of new and novel herbicide sites of action (SOA) with ...


Evaluation Of Cover Crop Mixtures For Weed Management And Soil Fertility Improvement In Organic Agriculture, Christos Vasilikiotis Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Cover Crop Mixtures For Weed Management And Soil Fertility Improvement In Organic Agriculture, Christos Vasilikiotis

Creative Components

Cover crops are promoted as a tool to preserve agrobiodiversity, to enhance soil chemical and physical properties, and to help suppress weeds. This study was conducted at two sites in northern Greece with similar climates, but different soil types, over two growing seasons in 2014-15 and 2017-18. Two multi-species cover crop mixtures with seven and eight types of legumes and grasses, respectively, were monitored to determine their weedsuppressing and soil fertility enhancement attributes compared to a vetch/oat (Vicia sativa L./Avena sativa L.) mixture, and single-species crops of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum ...