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Menthol Acts As A Positive Allosteric Modulator On Nematode Levamisole Sensitive Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Shivani Choudhary, Djordje S. Marjianović, Colin R. Wong, Xiaoyu Zhang, Melanie Abongwa, Joel R. Coats, Saša M. Trailović, Richard J. Martin, Alan P. Robertson Dec 2018

Menthol Acts As A Positive Allosteric Modulator On Nematode Levamisole Sensitive Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Shivani Choudhary, Djordje S. Marjianović, Colin R. Wong, Xiaoyu Zhang, Melanie Abongwa, Joel R. Coats, Saša M. Trailović, Richard J. Martin, Alan P. Robertson

Entomology Publications

The ongoing and widespread emergence of resistance to the existing anti-nematodal pharmacopeia has made it imperative to develop new anthelminthic agents. Historically, plants have been important sources of therapeutic compounds and offer an alternative to synthetic drugs. Monoterpenoids are phytochemicals that have been shown to produce acute toxic effects in insects and nematodes. Previous studies have shown nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to be possible targets for naturally occurring plant metabolites such as carvacrol and carveol. In this study we examined the effects of monoterpenoid compounds on a levamisole sensitive nAChR from Oesophagostomum dentatum and a nicotine sensitive nAChR from Ascaris ...


Physicochemical Organic Matter Stabilization Across A Restored Grassland Chronosequence, Shane M. Bugeja, Michael J. Castellano Dec 2018

Physicochemical Organic Matter Stabilization Across A Restored Grassland Chronosequence, Shane M. Bugeja, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

In reconstructed grasslands, soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest CO2 and reactive N sink but SOM gains after reconstruction rarely achieve precultivation levels. Through a chronosequence of reconstructed grasslands 1 to 21 yr after establishment, we explored which physicochemical mechanisms protect accumulated soil organic C (SOC) and N from mineralization. After 21 yr, total SOC and soil N concentrations increased by 32 and 23%. The SOC concentration was within 5% of a new equilibrium but was 64% of a never‐cultivated remnant. Chemically stabilized C and N pools on free silt and clay surfaces increased with time. Coarse particulate ...


Agricultural Practices For Growing Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) In Iowa: I. Morphology, Stem, And Fiber Yield, Marie Bourguignon, Kenneth J. Moore, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brian S. Baldwin Dec 2018

Agricultural Practices For Growing Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) In Iowa: I. Morphology, Stem, And Fiber Yield, Marie Bourguignon, Kenneth J. Moore, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brian S. Baldwin

Agronomy Publications

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a promising biorenewable resource for producing natural fibers but few studies have investigated the crop when grown in cooler climates, such as the American Midwest. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine the agricultural practices (row spacing, seed, and N rates) leading to optimal kenaf dry matter (DM) stem and fiber yield in ‘Tainung 2’ and ‘Whitten’; 2) evaluate stem height, basal diameter, and leaf area index (LAI) over the growing season; and 3) assess the influence of management practices on fiber (bast and core lignocellulose) composition, and carbon (C), N, and total ...


Should You Use A Fungicidal Seed Treatment On Low-Quality Soybean Seed?, Ethan Stoetzer, Daren S. Mueller Dec 2018

Should You Use A Fungicidal Seed Treatment On Low-Quality Soybean Seed?, Ethan Stoetzer, Daren S. Mueller

Integrated Crop Management News

With this year’s harvest of soybeans delayed beyond what is considered an ideal window of time, the opportunity for diseases to infect seed pods and in some instances, to the seed itself, was greatly increased. Across the state and the north central region, seed suppliers have reported that this year’s crops of seed soybean are frequently testing positive for the Diaporthe fungus (Phomopsis seed decay), which is resulting in lower than normal germination rates of seed. Seed decay is characterized by cracked, shriveled seed with white chalk-colored mold on the seed surface.


Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Various environmental stresses or artificial reagents can trigger unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to the folding capacity of the ER being exceeded. This is termed ER stress, and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). Assays for activation of the UPR in plants include Tunicamycin (Tm)- or dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated root growth inhibition, analysis of splicing of the UPR-responsive transcription factor bZIP60 (basic Leucine Zipper Domain 60), and upregulation of relevant UPR genes. We provide here a quick and robust method to detect UPR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. This assay can also be applied to other ...


Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications. Here, we ...


Avicta And Clariva Affect The Biology Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Jared P. Jensen, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2018

Avicta And Clariva Affect The Biology Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Jared P. Jensen, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Nematicidal seed treatments are a relatively new strategy for managing plant-parasitic nematodes in row crops. Two such seed treatments, Avicta (abamectin) and Clariva (Pasteuria nishizawae), are marketed by Syngenta for use against Heterodera glycines in soybean production in the upper Midwest. The specific effects of these seed treatments on the biology of the nematode have not been previously reported. The effects of Avicta and Clariva on H. glycines hatching, movement, attraction, penetration, development, and reproduction were determined in controlled-environment experiments. Avicta inhibited juvenile movement and penetration at the seed depth and 3 cm below the seed. Clariva inhibited juvenile movement ...


Development And Application Of The Heat Pulse Method For Soil Physical Measurements, Hailong He, Miles F. Dyck, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren, Keith L. Bristow, Jialong Lv, Bingcheng Si Dec 2018

Development And Application Of The Heat Pulse Method For Soil Physical Measurements, Hailong He, Miles F. Dyck, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren, Keith L. Bristow, Jialong Lv, Bingcheng Si

Agronomy Publications

Accurate and continuous measurements of soil thermal and hydraulic properties are required for environmental, Earth and planetary science, and engineering applications, but they are not practically obtained by steady‐state methods. The heat pulse (HP) method is a transient method for determination of soil thermal properties and a wide range of other physical properties in laboratory and field conditions. The HP method is based on the line‐heat source solution of the radial heat flow equation. This literature review begins with a discussion of the evolution of the HP method and related applications, followed by the principal theories, data interpretation ...


Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza Dec 2018

Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza

Agronomy Publications

The anticipated world population growth emphasizes a need to produce more food on less land. Cutting-edge technologies, including genetic engineering, can help to develop improved crop varieties and protect natural resources. In spite of the potential for genetically-modified (GM) crops to make crop production more efficient, they remain a polarizing issue due to safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the risk assessment process. The safety of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins is used as an example for how risk assessment is applied to GM crops. Risks associated with GM crops have proven to be low to non-existent. Developing countries ...


Increasing Carbon Footprint Of Grain Crop Production In The Us Western Corn Belt, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu, Hanqin Tian, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Yuyu Zhou, Tom Sauer, Raymond Arritt Nov 2018

Increasing Carbon Footprint Of Grain Crop Production In The Us Western Corn Belt, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu, Hanqin Tian, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Yuyu Zhou, Tom Sauer, Raymond Arritt

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Global agriculture is challenged to increase soil carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas emissions while providing products for an increasing population. Growing crop production could be achieved through higher yield per hectare (i.e. intensive farming) or more hectares (extensive farming), which however, have different ecological and environmental consequences. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that expanding cropland for additional production may lead to loss of vegetation and soil carbon, and threaten the survival of wildlife. New concerns about the impacts of extensive farming have been raised for the US Corn Belt, one of the world's most productive regions, as ...


A Malvaceae Mystery: A Mallow Maelstrom Of Genome Multiplications And Maybe Misleading Methods?, Justin L. Conover, Nisa Karimi, Noah Stenz, Cécile Ané, Corrinne E. Grover, C. Skema, Jennifer A. Tate, Kirsten Wolff, Samuel A. Logan, Jonathan F. Wendel, David A. Baum Nov 2018

A Malvaceae Mystery: A Mallow Maelstrom Of Genome Multiplications And Maybe Misleading Methods?, Justin L. Conover, Nisa Karimi, Noah Stenz, Cécile Ané, Corrinne E. Grover, C. Skema, Jennifer A. Tate, Kirsten Wolff, Samuel A. Logan, Jonathan F. Wendel, David A. Baum

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Previous research suggests that Gossypium has undergone a 5- to 6-fold multiplication following its divergence from Theobroma. However, the number of events, or where they occurred in the Malvaceae phylogeny remains unknown. We analyzed transcriptomic and genomic data from representatives of eight of the nine Malvaceae subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear data placed Dombeya (Dombeyoideae) as sister to the rest of Malvadendrina clade, but the plastid DNA tree strongly supported Durio (Helicteroideae) in this position. Intraspecific Ks plots indicated that all sampled taxa, except Theobroma (Byttnerioideae), Corchorus (Grewioideae), and Dombeya (Dombeyoideae), have experienced whole genome multiplications (WGMs). Quartet analysis suggested ...


Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel Nov 2018

Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

We employed phylogenomic methods to study molecular evolutionary processes and phylogeny in the geographically widely dispersed New World diploid cottons (Gossypium, subg. Houzingenia). Whole genome resequencing data (average of 33X genomic coverage) were generated to reassess the phylogenetic history of the subgenus and provide a temporal framework for its diversification. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the subgenus likely originated following trans-oceanic dispersal from Africa about 6.6 mya, but that nearly all of the biodiversity evolved following rapid diversification in the mid-Pleistocene (0.5-2.0 mya), with multiple long-distance dispersals required to account for range expansion to Arizona, the Galapagos Islands ...


Assessing Variation In Maize Grain Nitrogen Concentration And Its Implications For Estimating Nitrogen Balance In The Us North Central Region, Fatima A. M. Tenorio, Alison J. Eagle, Eileen L. Mclellan, Kenneth G. Cassman, Reka Howard, Fred E. Below, David E. Clay, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Allen B. Geyer, Darin K. Joos, Joseph G. Lauer, Mark A. Licht, Alexander J. Lindsey, Bijesh Maharjan, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Peter R. Thomison, Charles S. Wortmann, Victor O. Sadras, Patricio Grassini Nov 2018

Assessing Variation In Maize Grain Nitrogen Concentration And Its Implications For Estimating Nitrogen Balance In The Us North Central Region, Fatima A. M. Tenorio, Alison J. Eagle, Eileen L. Mclellan, Kenneth G. Cassman, Reka Howard, Fred E. Below, David E. Clay, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Allen B. Geyer, Darin K. Joos, Joseph G. Lauer, Mark A. Licht, Alexander J. Lindsey, Bijesh Maharjan, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Peter R. Thomison, Charles S. Wortmann, Victor O. Sadras, Patricio Grassini

Agronomy Publications

Accurate estimation of nitrogen (N) balance (a measure of potential N losses) in producer fields requires information on grain N concentration (GNC) to estimate grain-N removal, which is rarely measured by producers. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine the degree to which variation in GNC can affect estimation of grain-N removal, (ii) identify major factors influencing GNC, and (iii) develop a predictive model to estimate GNC, analyzing the uncertainty in predicted grain-N removal at field and regional levels. We compiled GNC data from published literature and unpublished databases using explicit criteria to only include experiments that portray ...


Moving Forward With Dicamba, Bob Hartzler Nov 2018

Moving Forward With Dicamba, Bob Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

On October 31, 2018, the EPA made the long-awaited announcement regarding dicamba registration for use on dicamba-resistant soybean. I suspect opinions regarding the EPA actions are as varied as people’s views of the technology.


Time To Assess And Take Stock Of Your Soil Health, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Nov 2018

Time To Assess And Take Stock Of Your Soil Health, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

As the season approaches its conclusion and harvest conditions are most challenging, there are few things worth remembering to protect and sustain soil health. At this time, soil is susceptible to compaction due to rain and saturated soil conditions. Soils remain saturated longer at this time of the year since water use by crops is negligible and there is low water evaporation due to cool temperatures. Conventional tilled soil remain saturated longer than fields under conservation tillage since intense tillage destroys soil aggregates, resulting in reduction in water movement through the soil profile. A no-till system provides better, stronger and ...


Re-Evaluation Of Seed Transmission Of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Nebraskensis In Zea Mays, Charles C. Block, Lisa M. Shepherd, Gladys C. Mbofung-Curtis, Jeff M. Sernett, Alison E. Robertson Nov 2018

Re-Evaluation Of Seed Transmission Of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Nebraskensis In Zea Mays, Charles C. Block, Lisa M. Shepherd, Gladys C. Mbofung-Curtis, Jeff M. Sernett, Alison E. Robertson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The spread of Goss’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight of corn (Zea mays), caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, to a wider geographic range in the early 2000s compared with the late 1960s has generated concern about the possible role of seed transmission in long-distance spread. The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the percentage of seed infection found in seed harvested from inoculated and noninoculated plants of hybrids that varied in resistance to Goss’s wilt; and (2) to estimate the seed transmission rate from these infected seed lots. The greatest percent seed infection was detected ...


Fewer But More Diverse Choices Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa In 2019, Greg Tylka Nov 2018

Fewer But More Diverse Choices Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa In 2019, Greg Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean varieties that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) have been a critically important tool for managing this pest. These SCN-resistant soybean varieties have allowed farmers to keep SCN numbers in check while producing profitable soybean yields.


A Third Class: Functional Gibberellin Biosynthetic Operon In Beta-Proteobacteria, Raimund Nagel, John E. Bieber, Mark G. Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S. Nett, Reuben J. Peters Nov 2018

A Third Class: Functional Gibberellin Biosynthetic Operon In Beta-Proteobacteria, Raimund Nagel, John E. Bieber, Mark G. Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S. Nett, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The ability of plant-associated microbes to produce gibberellin A (GA) phytohormones was first described for the fungal rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the 1930s. Recently the capacity to produce GAs was shown for several bacteria, including symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria (α-rhizobia) and gamma-proteobacteria phytopathogens. All necessary enzymes for GA production are encoded by a conserved operon, which appears to have undergone horizontal transfer between and within these two phylogenetic classes of bacteria. Here the operon was shown to be present and functional in a third class, the beta-proteobacteria, where it is found in several symbionts (β-rhizobia). Conservation of function was examined by ...


Empirical Comparisons Of Different Statistical Models To Identify And Validate Kernel Row Number-Associated Variants From Structured Multi-Parent Mapping Populations Of Maize, Jinliang Yang, Cheng-Ting “Eddy” Yeh, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Xinshuai Qi, Rohan L. Fernando, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Dorian J. Garrick, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable Nov 2018

Empirical Comparisons Of Different Statistical Models To Identify And Validate Kernel Row Number-Associated Variants From Structured Multi-Parent Mapping Populations Of Maize, Jinliang Yang, Cheng-Ting “Eddy” Yeh, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Xinshuai Qi, Rohan L. Fernando, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Dorian J. Garrick, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Statistics Publications

Advances in next generation sequencing technologies and statistical approaches enable genome-wide dissection of phenotypic traits via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Although multiple statistical approaches for conducting GWAS are available, the power and cross-validation rates of many approaches have been mostly tested using simulated data. Empirical comparisons of single variant (SV) and multi-variant (MV) GWAS approaches have not been conducted to test if a single approach or a combination of SV and MV is effective, through identification and cross-validation of trait-associated loci. In this study, kernel row number (KRN) data were collected from a set of 6,230 entries derived from ...


Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey Nov 2018

Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A Grasslands dominated by non-native (exotic) spe- cies have replaced purely native-dominated areas in many parts of the world forming ‘novel’ ecosystems. Altered precipitation patterns are predicted to exacerbate this trend. It is still poorly understood how soil microbial communities and their functions differ between high diversity native- and low diversity exotic-dominated sites and how altered precipitation will impact this difference.

Methods We sampled 64 experimental grassland plots in central Texas with plant species mixtures of either all native or all exotic species; half with summer irrigation. We tested how native vs. exotic plant species mixtures and summer irrigation affected ...


The Effect Of Cold Stress On Damping-Off Of Soybean Caused By Pythium Sylvaticum, M. Serrano, Alison Robertson Nov 2018

The Effect Of Cold Stress On Damping-Off Of Soybean Caused By Pythium Sylvaticum, M. Serrano, Alison Robertson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

To improve our understanding of the timing of cold stress and its effect on Pythium damping-off, we performed a factorial experiment with two cold stress temperatures (4 and 10°C); exposure to 96 h of cold stress at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after planting; and inoculation with Pythium sylvaticum-infested millet or control. Increased susceptibility to damping-off resulting in reduced emergence was found in inoculated plants when the cold stress period began 2 or 4 days after planting. In the noninoculated controls, no effect of cold stress on emergence was observed. Slower seedling growth was observed ...


An Effector From The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii Derepresses Host Rrna Genes By Altering Histone Acetylation, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Tarek Hewezi, Frederic Pontvianne, Thomas J. Baum Nov 2018

An Effector From The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii Derepresses Host Rrna Genes By Altering Histone Acetylation, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Tarek Hewezi, Frederic Pontvianne, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Cyst nematodes are plant-pathogenic animals that secrete effector proteins into plant root cells to alter host gene expression and reprogram these cells to form specialized feeding sites, known as syncytia. The molecular mechanisms of these effectors are mostly unknown. We determined that the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) 32E03 effector protein strongly inhibits the activities of Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylases including the HDT1 enzyme, which has a known function in the regulation of rRNA gene expression through chromatin modifications. We determined that plants expressing the 32E03 coding sequence exhibited increased acetylation of histone H3 along the rDNA chromatin. At ...


Perennial Biomass Crop Establishment, Community Characteristics, And Productivity In The Upper Us Midwest: Effects Of Cropping Systems Seed Mixtures And Biochar Applications, Catherine L. Bonin, Rivka B. Fidel, Chumki Banik, David A. Laird, Robert Mitchell, Emily A. Heaton Nov 2018

Perennial Biomass Crop Establishment, Community Characteristics, And Productivity In The Upper Us Midwest: Effects Of Cropping Systems Seed Mixtures And Biochar Applications, Catherine L. Bonin, Rivka B. Fidel, Chumki Banik, David A. Laird, Robert Mitchell, Emily A. Heaton

Agronomy Publications

Native perennial plants have potential as bioenergy feedstocks, but their use is currently limited by relatively long establishment times and low biomass yields. Some research suggests that incorporating plant species diversity and applying biochar as a soil amendment might alleviate these limitations by creating a more resilient crop and soil system. The objective of this research was to investigate how 1) seeded plant diversity and 2) biochar soil amendments interact to affect the establishment, yield, and plant species composition of biomass cropping systems during the first four years of growth on productive soils. We measured species emergence, cover, peak and ...


Genotypic Variation In Anthocyanins, Phenolic Compounds, And Antioxidant Activity In Cob And Husk Of Purple Field Corn, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Danupol Ketthaisong, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn Nov 2018

Genotypic Variation In Anthocyanins, Phenolic Compounds, And Antioxidant Activity In Cob And Husk Of Purple Field Corn, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Danupol Ketthaisong, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn

Agronomy Publications

Information on phytochemicals in the cob and husk of field corn is important for the use of corn waste in the production of value-added corn products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity, as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in 53 purple field corn genotypes, and to study the correlations of these traits with color parameters. Fifty-three corn genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two locations in the ...


Haplotype Loci Under Selection In Canadian Durum Wheat Germplasm Over 60 Years Of Breeding: Association With Grain Yield, Quality Traits, Protein Loss, And Plant Height, Amidou N'Diaye, Jemanesh K. Haile, Kirby T. Nilsen, Sean Walkowiak, Yuefeng Ruan, Asheesh K. Singh, Fran R. Clarke, John M. Clarke, Curtis J. Pozniak Nov 2018

Haplotype Loci Under Selection In Canadian Durum Wheat Germplasm Over 60 Years Of Breeding: Association With Grain Yield, Quality Traits, Protein Loss, And Plant Height, Amidou N'Diaye, Jemanesh K. Haile, Kirby T. Nilsen, Sean Walkowiak, Yuefeng Ruan, Asheesh K. Singh, Fran R. Clarke, John M. Clarke, Curtis J. Pozniak

Agronomy Publications

Durum wheat was introduced in the southern prairies of western Canada in the late nineteenth century. Breeding efforts have mainly focused on improving quality traits to meet the pasta industry demands. For this study, 192 durum wheat lines were genotyped using the Illumina 90K Infinium iSelect assay, and resulted in a total of 14,324 polymorphic SNPs. Genetic diversity changed over time, declining during the first 20 years of breeding in Canada, then increased in the late 1980s and early 1990s. We scanned the genome for signatures of selection, using the total variance Fst-based outlier detection method (Lositan), the hierarchical ...


Field-Based Robot Phenotyping Of Sorghum Plant Architecture Using Stereo Vision, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Matthew W. Breitzman, Maria G. Salas-Fernandez, Patrick S. Schnable Oct 2018

Field-Based Robot Phenotyping Of Sorghum Plant Architecture Using Stereo Vision, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Matthew W. Breitzman, Maria G. Salas-Fernandez, Patrick S. Schnable

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is known as a major feedstock for biofuel production. To improve its biomass yield through genetic research, manually measuring yield component traits (e.g. plant height, stem diameter, leaf angle, leaf area, leaf number, and panicle size) in the field is the current best practice. However, such laborious and time‐consuming tasks have become a bottleneck limiting experiment scale and data acquisition frequency. This paper presents a high‐throughput field‐based robotic phenotyping system which performed side‐view stereo imaging for dense sorghum plants with a wide range of plant heights throughout the growing season. Our study ...


Managing Wet Soybeans In A Late Harvest, Charles R. Hurburgh, Meaghan J. B. Anderson Oct 2018

Managing Wet Soybeans In A Late Harvest, Charles R. Hurburgh, Meaghan J. B. Anderson

Integrated Crop Management News

As of October 14, 2018, Iowa soybean harvest was only about 20% complete, making it the latest soybean harvest on record. This was caused by the prolonged heavy rains in September and early October. As a result, field losses, abnormally high harvest moisture content and moldy/weathered soybeans are all issues this year.


Let's Talk No-Till, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Oct 2018

Let's Talk No-Till, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

As of October 14, 2018, Iowa soybean harvest was only about 20% complete, making it the latest soybean harvest on record. This was caused by the prolonged heavy rains in September and early October. As a result, field losses, abnormally high harvest moisture content and moldy/weathered soybeans are all issues this year.


Mycotoxins And Deterioration In The 2018 Corn Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson Oct 2018

Mycotoxins And Deterioration In The 2018 Corn Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

Above normal rains in September have slowed field crop dry-down. Coupled with early season drought in South Central and Southeast Iowa and above-average rainfall in the Northwest, there is high risk of reduced grain quality. Corn and soybeans remaining in the field are currently exposed to excessive moisture that encourages the growth of ear molds. Moldy kernels are counted in total damage, thereby affecting the overall grade of the corn. Additionally, if the fungus is capable of producing mycotoxins, affected grain may be subject to marketing restrictions.


How To Minimize Soil Compaction During Harvest, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht Oct 2018

How To Minimize Soil Compaction During Harvest, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht

Integrated Crop Management News

Rain events during September and October have created challenging conditions not only for timely harvest of corn and soybean crops but also for the impact harvest will have on the soil. These wet conditions coupled with a drop in air temperature will slow harvest operations. Soils are too wet for traffic from heavy equipment, making them susceptible to compaction during harvest operations. When soils are near saturated conditions, heavy equipment loads weaken soil structure where water works as lubricant, leading to the collapse of soil aggregates. This will cause significant surface compaction, rutting, and deep subsoil compaction.