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Iowa State University

1997

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Cooperatives And Corporate Farming Laws, Neil Harl Nov 1997

Cooperatives And Corporate Farming Laws, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In 1982, Nebraska voters approved Proposition 300, Nebraska’s anti-corporate farming law. The Nebraska provision has been criticized for its detailed, complex and not completely consistent approach to limiting corporations. The constitutional measure bars corporations or syndicates from acquiring real estate in the state except for family farm or ranch corporations; nonprofit corporations; Indian tribal corporations; and several other categories of corporate enterprises. The Nebraska Supreme Court has now ruled on whether a nonstock cooperative involved in hog production was exempt from the law as a “non-profit corporation.”


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Method And Composition For Coating Wound Or Protecting Animal Skin, Carl A. Huprich, Leo L. Timms Nov 1997

Method And Composition For Coating Wound Or Protecting Animal Skin, Carl A. Huprich, Leo L. Timms

Iowa State University Patents

Solutions of polyether polyurethane with benzoin gum in tetrahydrafuran applied to animal skin provide dry films that are elastic, vapor permeable, water proof, dirt proof, insect proof, aerobic bacteriostatic and adhere well under environmental conditions. Apparent application viscosity can be adjusted as required for specific needs.


Effects Of Bt Transformation On Diseases Of Corn, Gary Munkvold, W. Mark Carlton, Richard Hellmich, Marlin Rice Nov 1997

Effects Of Bt Transformation On Diseases Of Corn, Gary Munkvold, W. Mark Carlton, Richard Hellmich, Marlin Rice

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The availability of genetically engineered com hybrids that are resistant to insect pests is an exciting development for com producers and the entire com industry. These hybrids are likely to become very popular as they continue to demonstrate dependable insect protection and yield performance. But these hybrids have other advantages as well. Because of the relationship between com insects, particularly the European com borer, and certain diseases, Bt hybrids have shown reduced levels of these diseases in side-by-side comparisons.


Effects Of Swine Manure Management Options On Groundwater Quality, Thad Hardeman Nov 1997

Effects Of Swine Manure Management Options On Groundwater Quality, Thad Hardeman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In 1994, there were 31 hog farms across the United States owning at least 10,000 sows and in 1995, there were 44 (Freese, 1994). This increasing number of large hog farms is evidence of the growing swine industry. This growth, however, has independent farmers, neighbors, environmentalists, and legislators in a quandary as to how the industry will evolve. These growing pains are of both an economic and environmental nature. Many topics need to be addressed as the production expands. One of the primary concerns of the growing hog industry is the issue of swine (Sus spp.) manure production.


Controlling Corn Rootworms: Old Technology Versus New, Jon J. Tollefson Nov 1997

Controlling Corn Rootworms: Old Technology Versus New, Jon J. Tollefson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

As is typical with corn rootworms, densities during 1997 varied dramatically throughout the Corn Belt and even within states. Iowa and some of the states east were abundantly blessed with corn rootworms. To the north and west of Iowa, the insect was less abundant, even hard to find at times. Within states where numbers were generally high, there were pockets of very high numbers spread among more typical densities. The result was that there were numerous reports of poor soil insecticide performance, usually clumped within areas. In Iowa I was in a "hot spot" east of Maquoketa where a number ...


Stress Related Soybean Diseases, X. B. Yang, Sourn Sanogo Nov 1997

Stress Related Soybean Diseases, X. B. Yang, Sourn Sanogo

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean plants are subject to a wide array of stresses that ultimately render the plants susceptible to pathogens. Stresses can be classified in four categories: physical, biological, chemical, and physiological. Physical stresses include extreme variation in factors such as temperature and moisture. Conditions such as cold and wet soils are unfavorable to soybean plant growth, but are conducive to many root diseases. Similarly, agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and herbicides, when applied in excessive amounts, can lead to increase in root diseases in soybean. Infestations by other pests, such as soybean cyst nematode and insects, can stress soybean plants and ...


Reliability Of Manure Application Rates To Predict Availability Of Swine Manure-N In Cornfields, David J. Hansen, Alfred M. Blackmer Nov 1997

Reliability Of Manure Application Rates To Predict Availability Of Swine Manure-N In Cornfields, David J. Hansen, Alfred M. Blackmer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Efficient use of the nitrogen in animal manures is essential for economic and environmental reasons. It requires applying the manure appropriately and making adjustments for this N if commercial fertilizer also is applied. Estimates of the amounts of plant-available N supplied by animal manures commonly are based on amounts of manure-N applied. Adjustments are often made for expected losses of N soon after application. These estimates are made with the knowledge that there is unpredictable variability in amounts of N rendered unavailable by ammonia volatilization, surface runoff, inunobilization, leaching, or denitrification. Although it is known to be substantial, there has ...


Relative Emergence Of Weeds Of Corn And Soybean, Douglas D. Buhler, Robert G. Hartzler Nov 1997

Relative Emergence Of Weeds Of Corn And Soybean, Douglas D. Buhler, Robert G. Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The success of integrated weed management relies on matching control strategies to the specific weed problem in a field. This requires information not only on what weed species and how many of these weeds are present in a field, but also knowledge of the distribution of the weeds throughout the field and the stage of development of these weeds. Weed control recommendations typically provide information on appropriate tillage methods and herbicide selection. The information concerning weed infestations used to base these recommendations typically is not of sufficient detail to optimize the efficiency of these strategies. Information on weed populations can ...


Manue Application Effects On Residue, Odor, And Placement, H. Mark Hanna, Dwaine S. Bundy, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Steven K. Mickelson, Stewart W. Melvin Nov 1997

Manue Application Effects On Residue, Odor, And Placement, H. Mark Hanna, Dwaine S. Bundy, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Steven K. Mickelson, Stewart W. Melvin

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Field experiments in no-till soybean and corn residue were conducted to evaluate six liquid swine manure application methods. The methods were injection with a conventional knife or sweep, incorporation with tandem disk after broadcast application, broadcast application, injection with a narrow-profile knife, and surface application behind row cleaners. The row cleaner and all injection treatments used finger-closing wheels. Air samples over the soil surface were obtained during and after application and residue cover was measured. Odor level was measured by the amount of air dilutions to reach odor threshold. Placement of material into the soil was evaluated with dye. Incorporation ...


Assessing New Technology, Michael Duffy Nov 1997

Assessing New Technology, Michael Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Every day seems to bring a new technology for farmers. Global positioning, infrared analysis, herbicide resistant seeds, new hybrids, and variable rate applications are a few of the relatively recent agricultural technologies.


The Role Of Water Stress In Creating Spatial Yield Variability In Soybeans, William D. Batchelor, Joel O. Paz Nov 1997

The Role Of Water Stress In Creating Spatial Yield Variability In Soybeans, William D. Batchelor, Joel O. Paz

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Recent advancements in yield monitors and global positioning systems that can create spatial yield maps has generated much excitement and controversy among farmers and researchers. Site-specific field management promises to maximize field level net return and minimize environmental impact by managing fields using spatially variable management practices. The success of site-specific field management depends upon discovery of relationships between environment, management, and resulting yield variability, and ultimately, how these relationships can be exploited to compute optimum prescriptions. Farmers are faced with trying to determine how to manage variability to improve profits. Researchers are trying to develop methods to analyze causes ...


Iowa State University Extension Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, Darren Jarboe, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Nov 1997

Iowa State University Extension Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, Darren Jarboe, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The worldwide emphasis on quality management is beginning to affect grain marketing in that users are identifying specific attributes that have additional economic importance. The Iowa Grain Quality Initiative (IGQI), a consortium of producer, industry, government and university experts, was formed to assist in the development of user-driven marketing strategies. Value-added grains, grains that exceed normal commodity grain in user performance or function, will present a wide range of challenges for producers and handlers, but represent potential value increases of 10-30 cents per bushel, more in very specialized applications.


Interseeding Crp "Options And Precautions", Michael L. White Nov 1997

Interseeding Crp "Options And Precautions", Michael L. White

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

During the 15th Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sign-up period which ended in May of 1997, 415,447 acres (42.6%) of the 975,478 acres of old CRP land scheduled to expire on October 1st, 1997 were accepted back into the Iowa CRP program. Many of these re-enrollment acres are subject to legume interseeding agreements signed by the landowners. The same bodes true for those entering into the 16th CRP sign-up period which ran from October 14th through November 14th, 1997. CRP contracts are accepted based on their Environmental Benefit Index (EBI) points. The factors used to arrive at an ...


Compost Quality Considerations For Crop Utilization, Tom L. Richard Nov 1997

Compost Quality Considerations For Crop Utilization, Tom L. Richard

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Over the past several years compost production has increased dramatically in the agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors. This expansion has been driven by increasing solid waste management costs, heightened public enthusiasm for organic matter recycling, and recognition that composting provides a way to manage manures and other organic solid wastes in an environmentally sound manner.


Potato Leafhopper-Resistant Alfalfa: Yield Advantages And New Pest Management Guidelines, Stephen A. Lefko, Larry P. Pedigo, Marlin E. Rice Nov 1997

Potato Leafhopper-Resistant Alfalfa: Yield Advantages And New Pest Management Guidelines, Stephen A. Lefko, Larry P. Pedigo, Marlin E. Rice

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In 1997 several companies released new potato leafhopper-resistant alfalfa varieties. These products are not genetically engineered, like Bt com, but have had leafhopper resistance bred into them using classical plant breeding techniques. Our research is focusing on the yield advantages of these products, the mechanism(s) of resistance and its effect on the pest and natural enemy community, and the potential changes in insect pest management that will accompany their use.


Understanding Iowa Soils For Precision Agriculture Use, T. E. Fenton Nov 1997

Understanding Iowa Soils For Precision Agriculture Use, T. E. Fenton

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The objectives of this presentation are to explain soil surveys and to better understand soils, their properties, and their spatial variability so that this information can contribute to improved decision-making related to precision soil, crop, and water management.


Improving Soil And Water Quality With Riparian Buffers, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard C. Schulz Nov 1997

Improving Soil And Water Quality With Riparian Buffers, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard C. Schulz

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The agricultural landscape has four major sources of non-point source (NPS) pollutants. These are: 1) surface and subsurface runoff which carry sediment and agricultural chemicals to streams; 2) eroding streambanks which can contribute more than fifty percent of the sediment load to the stream; 3) field tile drains which contribute the highest concentrations of soluble agricultural chemicals to streams; and 4) livestock grazing of streamside or riparian areas which contribute to bank instability and add animal waste and pathogens to the water. Maintaining or establishing a forested or prairie buffer along streams and rivers provides more than just a beautiful ...


Soybean Cyst Nematode - Biology And Management, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 1997

Soybean Cyst Nematode - Biology And Management, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is a microscopic, unsegmented plant-parasitic roundworm that attacks the roots of soybeans. Many plant-parasitic nematodes are believed to be native to the United States, but soybean cyst nematode likely was introduced into the United States from Japan. Soybean cyst nematode was first discovered in the United States in 1954 in North Carolina (Winstead et al., 1955) and since has spread to 26 additional states in the Southeast and Midwest (Noel, 1992). The nematode was first discovered in Iowa in Winnebago County in 1978. Currently, soybean cyst nematode is known to exist in more than 75 ...


Accessing Soybase And Other Genome Databases Via The Internet, David Grant, Marcia Imsande, Randy Shoemaker Nov 1997

Accessing Soybase And Other Genome Databases Via The Internet, David Grant, Marcia Imsande, Randy Shoemaker

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Internet or World Wide Web is increasingly in the news. It seems to be much like Mark Twain's comment about the weather - everyone talks about the Internet but no one knows much about it. In fact the Internet is full of useful information if one only can find it. This paper (and associated computer demonstration) will first describe some of the genome databases that are accessible via the Internet and then give some strategies for searching the Internet for other types of information.


How Much Do Weeds Impact Crop Yields?, Bob Hartzler Nov 1997

How Much Do Weeds Impact Crop Yields?, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The primary purpose for controlling weeds in field crops is to prevent or reduce yield losses associated with competition between weeds and the crop. Competition occurs when plants seek the same resource (light, water, etc.) that is available in limited supplies. The interaction between crops and weeds is complicated and impacted by many factors, including characteristics of the weed species, weed populations, timing of weed emergence, characteristics of the crop variety/hybrid, crop population and row spacing, and the environment. This complexity limits our ability to predict yield losses early in the growing season, therefore hindering the development of economic ...


Establishing Alfalfa, Stephen K. Barnhart Nov 1997

Establishing Alfalfa, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Alfalfa is a profitable crop when well managed. It is an economical source of home grown protein, energy, minerals, and vitamins for livestock. Iowa's state average yield estimate is about 3 1/2 ton per acre, but properly managed on suitable soils alfalfa can yield 5 to 7 ton per acre or more. Although a number of important management practices are necessary to achieve high alfalfa yields, the first and a frequently mismanaged practice is stand establishment.


Implementing Fee-Based Icm Services, Kevin Kuhn, Susan Brown, Dan Frieberg, Joel Dejong, Paul Kassel Nov 1997

Implementing Fee-Based Icm Services, Kevin Kuhn, Susan Brown, Dan Frieberg, Joel Dejong, Paul Kassel

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Since 1993, a group of agrichemical dealers and public sector agencies, including Iowa State University Extension (ISUE) and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), have been exploring the potential for fee-based crop management services in northwest Iowa. The Agribusiness Association of Iowa helped to bring the public and private sector groups together. In 1995, funding from USDA, and later also U.S. EPA through the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, established the Northwest Iowa Agribusiness ICM Project. The objective of the project is to demonstrate comprehensive, fee-based ICM services by dealers, ideally as separate profit centers. All dealers in a ...


Reducing Agriculture's Contribution To Nitrate Contamination Of Surface Waters, Dana L. Dinnes, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin, Daniel B. Jaynes, Douglas L. Karlen Nov 1997

Reducing Agriculture's Contribution To Nitrate Contamination Of Surface Waters, Dana L. Dinnes, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin, Daniel B. Jaynes, Douglas L. Karlen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

One of the most prevalent environmental issues throughout the Midwest is nitrate (N03) contamination of surface waters. Non-point source pollution resulting from nitrogen (N) fertilizer use on artificially drained agricultural land has been identified as a major contributor to this problem. High levels of nitratenitrogen (N03-N) in water supplies pose risks to humans and livestock (Tyson et. al., 1992), and has cost some communities millions of dollars for N03 removal. The city of Des Moines, Iowa alone has spent in excess of 5.3 million dollars, not including labor costs, for nitrate treatment of its drinking waters from 1992-1996 (Graham ...


Diagnosis And Management Of Nematodes In Corn, Timothy C. Todd Nov 1997

Diagnosis And Management Of Nematodes In Corn, Timothy C. Todd

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nematodes, also known as roundworms, are a phylum of nonsegmented invertebrates that are the most numerous multicellular animals present in soils and plant tissues. Although their numbers can easily exceed 10 billion per acre of soil, the importance of nematodes is often overlooked due to their small size (most are less than 1/25 inch in length). Many species are beneficial, either because they feed on fungi and bacteria, accounting for a significant amount of nitrogen mineralization in the soil, or as parasites of insect pests. Other species, however, are parasites of plant roots and, in some cases, can severely ...


Soybean Cyst Nematode - Identification And Extraction Techniques, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 1997

Soybean Cyst Nematode - Identification And Extraction Techniques, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

A major factor limiting soybean production in Iowa is the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Soybean cyst nematode is now known to be present in more than 75 Iowa counties. It is very likely that the nematode is present in many other counties as well, but the nonspecific nature of the above-ground symptoms of soybean cyst nematode damage makes early identification or diagnosis of infestations difficult. Results of recent random surveys indicate that the nematode likely exists in nearly 70% of Iowa fields.


Breeding For Quantitative Resistance To Leaf Blights Of Corn: A Continuing Success Story, Martin L. Carson Nov 1997

Breeding For Quantitative Resistance To Leaf Blights Of Corn: A Continuing Success Story, Martin L. Carson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The development of high yielding, disease resistant hybrids is the goal of most public and private corn breeding programs. These programs have largely been successful in reducing the incidence and severity of foliar diseases of corn in the U.S. Significant, damaging levels of leaf diseases are considered the exception throughout most of the corn belt, and a healthy corn crop the norm. This highly desirable situation did not arise by chance or good fortune, but rather is the result of dedicated efforts of corn breeders and pathologists over the decades. Unlike most other crops, corn breeders have been able ...


Weather And Yield Variation In The Midwest: So, Sunspots, Or What?, Richard E. Carlson Nov 1997

Weather And Yield Variation In The Midwest: So, Sunspots, Or What?, Richard E. Carlson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn production throughout the Midwest has been variable during the last 3 decades after a fairly stable time which extended from the late 1950's through 1973. The stable period was described by Carlson (1990) and Baker et al. (1993), and others. Historically, corn production also varied before that time, but with yield levels at a lower potential. Some of this year-to-year yield variation has been apparently caused by the Southern Oscillation (SO) (Carlson et al. 1996) or sea surface temperature variation (Handler, 1984 and Thompson, 1990). The SO is closely related to El Nino and La Nina conditions (anomolusly ...


Use Of Dgps, Yield Monitors, Soil Testing, And Variable Rate Technology To Improve Phosphorus And Potassium Management, Antonio Mallarino, David Wittry Nov 1997

Use Of Dgps, Yield Monitors, Soil Testing, And Variable Rate Technology To Improve Phosphorus And Potassium Management, Antonio Mallarino, David Wittry

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

New technologies such as differential global positioning systems (DGPS), yield monitors and other sensors, variable rate technology, and associated practices (such as grid soil sampling) have potential to improve soil fertility management. Soil sampling in the field is one of the most important sources of error in soil testing. A very small amount of soil needs to appropriately represent thousands of tons of soil and usually there is significant spatial variability of nutrient levels. The expectation of many producers and agronomists is that grid sampling will adequately describe field nutrient availability and that variable rate fertilization will result in better ...


The Iowa Crop Management Database: An Agronomic And Economic Information Recording Tool, Craig K. Tordsen, Susan S. Brown, Gerald A. Miller Nov 1997

The Iowa Crop Management Database: An Agronomic And Economic Information Recording Tool, Craig K. Tordsen, Susan S. Brown, Gerald A. Miller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Crop Management Database (CMD) is designed to record field-by-field agronomic and economic information for crop production in Iowa. Iowa State University Extension is promoting use of such comprehensive records by producers and crop consultants to improve management decisions and farm profitability. Extension staff can use this information and summaries of these records in educational programs, and to document pollution prevention through refined crop management practices. The CMD program is a relational database designed on a model first developed by Pennsylvania State University. The Iowa version was expanded and developed to include a wider range of information resources needed ...