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Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Breeding Square System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Breeding Square System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The breeding square is arranged with four breeding pens that are surrounded by turn-around crates. The two sides of the square facing each other are the same sex animal. The corners hold the gilts in pens. The center is divided into four breeding pens, each 11 ft by 11 ft. This system is designed for twenty boars, twenty sows, and sixteen gilts.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Evaporative Pads, Jay D. Harmon Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Evaporative Pads, Jay D. Harmon

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Evaporative pads are porous pads that are mounted on the sidewall of a building, wet with water, either by running water down it from the top or by spraying water on it with nozzles, and then air is drawn through the pad. This process, called evaporative cooling, uses heat in the air to evaporate water, thereby reducing the air temperature but increasing the humidity.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Sprinkling, Jay D. Harmon Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Sprinkling, Jay D. Harmon

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Sprinkling is a cooling method in which pigs are sprinkled with water and then the water is allowed to evaporate. Evaporation of water removes heat from the skin surface of the animals, thereby making them feel cooler.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Levis System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Levis System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The Levis System was developed by Dr. Don Levis at the University of Nebraska. The basic concept is housing of sows and boars in separate rooms. To heat check, sows are walked into the boar room. Because they have not been exposed to boars on a continuous basis, sows in standing estrus will “lock up” immediately because they are more sensitive to boar stimuli. Pens or stalls may be used for gestation housing.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—Effects Of Heat Stress, Jay D. Harmon Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—Effects Of Heat Stress, Jay D. Harmon

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The thermal environment in the breeding facility plays an important role in total herd management. This manifests itself in poor conception and farrowing rates that may not be detected until weeks or months past the occurrence of an improper thermal environment. Because of this, it is important to anticipate these potential lulls in breeding performance and counteract them by managing the breeding facility environment properly and adding additional open females to keep the facilities full.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Drip Cooling, Jay D. Harmon Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Drip Cooling, Jay D. Harmon

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Drip cooling systems are used to drip water on the shoulder of sows or boars in a crated situation. This allows evaporation of the water which removes heat from the neck where a large blood supply is present. It is best used for systems where the animal is confined below the drip nozzle. In farrowing crate usage it has been shown to reduce sow respiration rate, increase feed consumption and improve litter weights.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Lubbock System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Lubbock System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The Lubbock System places weaned sows in crates with a boar placed in a pen directly behind them. Usually one boar is housed behind five or six sows. The boar pen is used not only to house the boar but for breeding. Females are backed into the breeding pen when estrus is detected. Generally all five sows are not from the same weaning group. This prevents the boar from being over-used.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Mo-Flex System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Breeding Systems—The Mo-Flex System, Jay D. Harmon, Carl Watson

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The MO-Flex Swine Building System allows for any production stage (Farrowing, Nursery, Grow-Finish and Breeding/Gestation) to be built using the same structural building shell design.


Safe Farm: 1996 Iowa Farm Injury And Fatality Data By County, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller Sep 1997

Safe Farm: 1996 Iowa Farm Injury And Fatality Data By County, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Injury and fatality data are listed by hospitalized or not hospitalized, and work or leisure related.


Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Stirring Fans, Jay D. Harmon Sep 1997

Livestock Industry Facilities And Environment: Swine Cooling Methods—Stirring Fans, Jay D. Harmon

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Stirring fans are used to increase the air flow across animals during hot weather or to reduce temperature stratification in ventilated rooms. Stirring fans may be either the basket type or the ceiling fan type. Both have distinctive uses.


Preparation Of Fish Feed Ingredients: Reduction Of Carotenoids In Corn Gluten Meal, H. Park, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson Jun 1997

Preparation Of Fish Feed Ingredients: Reduction Of Carotenoids In Corn Gluten Meal, H. Park, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson

Center for Crops Utilization Research Publications

Carotenoids in corn gluten meal (CGM) were eliminated by extraction with ethanol and butanol or by bleaching with soy flour as a lipoxygenase source. Corn gluten meal (50 g at 67% moisture basis) was extracted with 150 mL of ethanol or butanol followed by a second extraction with 100 mL of extractant. Of the carotenoids present in CGM, 87% and 94% were removed after the second extraction with ethanol and butanol, respectively. Total solid loss during extraction was greater with butanol (24%) than with ethanol (10%). Increasing the level of soy flour substituted from 5% to 15% did not improve ...


The Cost Of Regulating Hog Manure Storage Facilities And Land Application Techniques, Bruce A. Babcock, Ronald A. Fleming, Dwaine S. Bundy Jun 1997

The Cost Of Regulating Hog Manure Storage Facilities And Land Application Techniques, Bruce A. Babcock, Ronald A. Fleming, Dwaine S. Bundy

CARD Briefing Papers

Much of the recent public concern over Iowa livestock production is focused on hogs, especially on the manner in which hog manure is stored and land applied. This report estimates the financial costs of implementing two regulations regarding the storage and disposition of manure: the first would require that all outside earthen storage basins and anaerobic lagoons be covered; the second would require that manure applied to crop acreage be immediately incorporated into the soil. The report also estimates the possible aggregate impact of the two regulations on the competitiveness of the Iowa hog industry.


Have You Checked Your Grain Bin?, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Mar 1997

Have You Checked Your Grain Bin?, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The problem is with low test weight corn that was either slow to mature or did not fully mature before it was harvested last fall. Corn with a high moisture content may have been dried to 13-14 percent last fall, but those readings might not be reliable.


Reacting Interior Protein Of Grain To Fluoresce, Gerald Davis Christenbury, Wesley F. Buchele Jan 1997

Reacting Interior Protein Of Grain To Fluoresce, Gerald Davis Christenbury, Wesley F. Buchele

Iowa State University Patents

A method of measuring mechanical damage to a grain, such as corn, includes applying a reacting solution to a sample of corn. The solution contains a material, such as 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid, that reacts selectively with the damaged portion of the corn kernels, i.e., the internal protein that is exposed when the outer shell is penetrated or breached. Excess solution is washed off; and the kernels are dried for convenience of handling. The dried corn is ground to a uniform fineness and then spread over a predetermined area. What is inherently a three-dimensional or volume phenomena (damage) is converted ...


Effective High-Speed, High-Residue Rowcrop Cultivation, H. Mark Hanna, Robert G. Hartzler, Donald C. Erbach, Ron Rosmann Jan 1997

Effective High-Speed, High-Residue Rowcrop Cultivation, H. Mark Hanna, Robert G. Hartzler, Donald C. Erbach, Ron Rosmann

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Banding of herbicides linked with mechanical cultivation has been touted as a way to decrease dependence on chemical inputs in farming. Tests on a farm near Boone, Iowa, were used to determine the effects of cultivator design and speed when combined with the banding of chemicals to control weeds. Three cultivator styles, two speeds, and two herbicide bands (19 cm. and 38 cm.) were tested. Results showed that faster cultivation speeds did not harm weed control or crop yields. There was no difference between yield in a broadcast treatment and that of a cultivator treatment in conjunction with a wide ...


Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Jan 1997

Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Better nitrogen (N) management practices can improve nitrogen uptake and possibly reduce nitrogen leaching to groundwater. More efficient herbicide use can decrease or eliminate the herbicide leaching losses to water sources. In this project, the effects of seven N management practices on water quality were evaluated after collecting data from 40 experimental plots. Lower rates of N application and strip and hay cropping systems help produce lower concentrations of NO3-N in the shallow groundwater in comparison with the higher rate of N application. Also, banding of herbicides has resulted in lower herbicide losses to shallow groundwater. The use of the ...


Initiation Of End-User Specific Grain Marketing At Iowa Elevators, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Jan 1997

Initiation Of End-User Specific Grain Marketing At Iowa Elevators, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

MATRIC Working Papers

The newest concept in grain marketing is to identify specific quality needs of individual users, resulting in more efficient allocation of grain supplies, greater user satisfaction, and increased value of U.S. grain. This paper presents results from a project that assimilated and organized information about the market potential of end-user specific (value-added) grains. The author suggests that the country elevator will become the key point for segregation of grains by quality.