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Research In The Safety Of Pork, George W. Beran Jan 1997

Research In The Safety Of Pork, George W. Beran

Swine Research Report, 1996

No abstract provided.


Maternal Behavior Potentially Affecting Offspring Survivability: A Comparison Between Meishan And Yorkshire X Landrace (Yl) Sows, L. M. Hohenshell, Jennifer A. Minick, D. C. Lay Jr., Stephen P. Ford Jan 1997

Maternal Behavior Potentially Affecting Offspring Survivability: A Comparison Between Meishan And Yorkshire X Landrace (Yl) Sows, L. M. Hohenshell, Jennifer A. Minick, D. C. Lay Jr., Stephen P. Ford

Swine Research Report, 1996

This study was designed to examine differences in maternal behavior between two breeds, the Meishan breed from China and the Yorkshire/Landrace (YL) cross. This was a preliminary trial aimed at gathering data to appropriately design a more extensive study. Identification of maternal behavioral contributions to piglet survivability may assist in reducing production losses caused by the sow.


Effect Of Prrsv Infection On Mhc Expression By Macrophages And Monocytes, Eileen L. Thacker, Patrick G. Halbur, Brad J. Thacker Jan 1997

Effect Of Prrsv Infection On Mhc Expression By Macrophages And Monocytes, Eileen L. Thacker, Patrick G. Halbur, Brad J. Thacker

Swine Research Report, 1996

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recent and widespread pathogen in the U.S. swine population. PRRSV infects cells of the macrophage/ monocyte/dendritic lineages which are important antigen presenting cells (APCs) of the immune system. Using flow cytometric (FACs) analysis, we demonstrated that PRRSV infection decreases the expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) glycoproteins on the cell surface of infected macrophages. This decrease in MHC protein expression may reduce the ability of the macrophages to present viral antigens to the appropriate lymphocytes. The potential lack of viral antigen presentation may play a crucial role in ...


Thermal Performance Of A Hoop Structure For Finishing Swine, Jay D. Harmon, Hongwei Xin Jan 1997

Thermal Performance Of A Hoop Structure For Finishing Swine, Jay D. Harmon, Hongwei Xin

Swine Research Report, 1996

The hoop structure temperature response indicated that it did provide a 6 to 8oF temperature increase over the outside temperature during winter. Additional comfort could be provided by using straw or equivalent bedding. Summer temperature performance indicated only a slight increase in temperature over outside. These results suggest that starting pigs weighing less than 40 lbs. would probably be ill-advised during winter months. Additional information needs to be gathered on pig performance and other costs parameters to help farmers make informed decisions on the type of structure to use for finishing.


Impact Of Dietary Energy Source On The Responses Of Pigs To An Acute Level Of Antigen Exposure, Tim S. Stahly, D. R. Cook, Richard C. Ewan Jan 1997

Impact Of Dietary Energy Source On The Responses Of Pigs To An Acute Level Of Antigen Exposure, Tim S. Stahly, D. R. Cook, Richard C. Ewan

Swine Research Report, 1996

Two trials were conducted to determine the response of pigs experiencing a low or high level of acute antigen exposure to three dietary energy regimens: a low-fat basal diet, basal diet plus 6% added choice white grease (low linoleic acid), and basal diet plus 6% added corn oil (high linoleic acid).

All pigs were reared via a segregated early weaning scheme to minimize the pigs’ exposure to environmental antigens and thus level of immune system activation. Three littermate pigs in each of 24 litters were allotted at 21 days to one of the three dietary energy regimens for 37 days ...


Isu Swine Enterprise Records Program, Thomas J. Baas Jan 1997

Isu Swine Enterprise Records Program, Thomas J. Baas

Swine Research Report, 1996

High profit producers in the Iowa State University Swine Enterprise Record program are characterized by having the best combination of efficient production levels and lower than average production costs. Records for 1995 indicate that producers in the top 10% based on profit margin were above average for all production parameters, but were not always in the top 10% for each individual production measure. Being above average in most production areas allows a producer to achieve efficient production levels and the optimum cost of production.


Evaluation Of The Thermal Needs Of The Early Weaned Pig, Jay D. Harmon, Hongwei Xin, J. Shao Jan 1997

Evaluation Of The Thermal Needs Of The Early Weaned Pig, Jay D. Harmon, Hongwei Xin, J. Shao

Swine Research Report, 1996

The thermal needs of early weaned pigs were examined by placing pigs that were weaned from 13 to 16 days in indirect calorimeters and exposing them to four different temperature regimes. Pigs, in groups of ten (3 ft. 2 /pig), were weaned into four chambers at 88, 84, 80, and 76 o F and the temperature decreased by 2 o F per week for three weeks post-weaning. The feed efficiency and average daily gain during the three week trial for the four chambers were 1.30, 0.79 lb./day; 1.33, 0.84 lb./day; 1.38, 0.81 ...


Development Of A Resource Family To Identify Genes For Meat Quality Traits In The Pig, Max F. Rothschild, Lauren L. Christian, Thomas J. Baas Jan 1997

Development Of A Resource Family To Identify Genes For Meat Quality Traits In The Pig, Max F. Rothschild, Lauren L. Christian, Thomas J. Baas

Swine Research Report, 1996

A three-generation resource family was initiated from a cross of Berkshire grand sires and Yorkshire grand dams. This family has now progressed to breeding F1 animals to produce 500 F2 animals. This family will be eventually used for a genome wide scan to study meat quality traits. It is hoped that genes influencing meat and muscle quality will be identified for use in future breeding programs.


The Effect Of Supplementary Yeast Culture In Diets For Pigs On The Bioavailability Of Dietary Phosphorus, Marshall H. Jurgens, Chad Smith Jan 1997

The Effect Of Supplementary Yeast Culture In Diets For Pigs On The Bioavailability Of Dietary Phosphorus, Marshall H. Jurgens, Chad Smith

Swine Research Report, 1996

Twenty-four crossbred barrow pigs were used in four replications of six treatments to study the effect of supplementary yeast culture in improving the bioavailability of dietary phosphorus. Pigs were fed corn/soybean diets containing 0.5, 0.4, or 0.3% total phosphorus with or without 0.5% yeast culture. The pigs were fed at 5% of body weight daily in two equal feedings for a seven-day preliminary period followed by a seven-day collection period. The percent apparent dry matter digested, percent apparent absorbed phosphorus, and percent apparent absorbed nitrogen only varied according to the amount of phosphorus in the ...


Strength Characteristics Of Swine Injection Devices, Steven J. Hoff Jan 1997

Strength Characteristics Of Swine Injection Devices, Steven J. Hoff

Swine Research Report, 1996

Various needle gauges, lengths, and hub material was tested under static loading conditions. Significant differences exist in the needle industry in terms of strength and failure rate. Needle breakage was found to occur only when a bent needle was straightened and then reused. Manufacturing differences were found especially in the bond that joins the needle/hub assembly resulting in significant differences in failure rate


Cloning Of The Pig Counterpart Of A Gene Involved In Resistance To Bacterial Infection, Christopher K. Tuggle, Claire B. Schmitz, Diane Gingerich-Feil Jan 1997

Cloning Of The Pig Counterpart Of A Gene Involved In Resistance To Bacterial Infection, Christopher K. Tuggle, Claire B. Schmitz, Diane Gingerich-Feil

Swine Research Report, 1996

The pig gene corresponding to a mouse protein known to cause susceptibility to infection by several different bacteria (NRAMP1) was cloned and the entire protein coding region sequenced. The pig protein encoded within this gene is highly similar to the mouse and human NRAMP1. A preliminary expression profile of pig NRAMP1 indicates it is expressed in spleen, a rich source of immune cells, and may be expressed in other tissues at low levels. Taken together, these data strongly indicate that the newly cloned gene has a similar physiological function in pigs to that seen for mouse NRAMP1. With this new ...


Pig Crushing Mortality By Hut Type In Outdoor Farrowing, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush Jan 1997

Pig Crushing Mortality By Hut Type In Outdoor Farrowing, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush

Swine Research Report, 1996

This study emphasizes the difference in pig crushing mortality rates in various outdoor farrowing hut types and suggests that huts with a larger floor space may help reduce preweaning pig crushing. Mothering ability by the sow may be particularly important in outdoor systems where the sows have greater freedom and mobility.


A Study Of Genetic Diversity In A Rare U. S. Pig Breed—The Mulefoot Pig, Paul Kapke, Hans Peter Jorgensen, Max F. Rothschild Jan 1997

A Study Of Genetic Diversity In A Rare U. S. Pig Breed—The Mulefoot Pig, Paul Kapke, Hans Peter Jorgensen, Max F. Rothschild

Swine Research Report, 1996

The genetic relatedness of a foundation herd of Mulefoot pigs was determined using highly informative anonymous genetic markers. Using this information, breeding strategies can be developed to preserve the gene pool of this endangered pig breed.


Impact Of Amino Acid Regimen On Milk Nutrient Yields By Sows Differing In Genetic Capacity For Lean Tissue Growth, T. E. Sauber, Tim S. Stahly, Richard C. Ewan Jan 1997

Impact Of Amino Acid Regimen On Milk Nutrient Yields By Sows Differing In Genetic Capacity For Lean Tissue Growth, T. E. Sauber, Tim S. Stahly, Richard C. Ewan

Swine Research Report, 1996

The impact of dietary amino acid regimen on the milk nutrient yield of sows differing in genetic capacity for lean tissue growth was determined. Primiparous sows with a high (.77 to .85 lb/day) or low (.53 to .62 lb/day) genetic capacity for lean tissue growth from 40 to 240 pounds body weight were evaluated. During lactation, sows were offered daily 14.3 pounds of one of four fortified corn-soybean meal diets containing .58, .77, .96 and 1.15% lysine (L). Litters were standardized to 14 pigs within eight hours postpartum. Milk yield (via a deuterium oxide dilution technique ...


Dietary Thiamin Needs Of High Lean Growth Pigs, Tim S. Stahly, D. R. Cook Jan 1997

Dietary Thiamin Needs Of High Lean Growth Pigs, Tim S. Stahly, D. R. Cook

Swine Research Report, 1996

Ten sets of five littermate pigs with a high genetic capacity for lean tissue growth (350 to 370 g/day) and reared via a segregated-early-weaning scheme were used to determine the dietary thiamin needs of pigs exhibiting a high rate of lean tissue growth. Within each litter, pigs were randomly allotted to one of five dietary thiamin concentrations equivalent to 200, 330, 460, 590, and 720% of the current NRC (1988) estimated requirement for 11 to 22 pound pigs. Pigs were penned individually and given ad libitum access to experimental diets and water from 22 to 88 pounds body weight ...


Use Of Cryoprotectants For Mechanically Deboned Pork, Gitanjali Prabhu, Joseph G. Sebranek Jan 1997

Use Of Cryoprotectants For Mechanically Deboned Pork, Gitanjali Prabhu, Joseph G. Sebranek

Swine Research Report, 1996

Mechanically deboned pork (MDP) is used a great deal in further processed products as an economical lean meat ingredient. Because it must be frozen to prevent rapid spoilage, loss of protein functionality occurs due to freezing and frozen storage. The use of maltodextrins and corn syrup solids was shown in this study to protect proteins in MDP from freezing damage and increase the functionality of the proteins during processing. Because these cryoprotectants easily are incorporated into MDP before freezing, the use of cryoprotectants offers the industry a significant potential improvement in quality of MDP.


Lymphocyte Populations And Antibody Production In Vaccinated And Non-Vaccinated Pigs Challenged With Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae, Eileen L. Thacker, Tamara B. Boettcher, Brad J. Thacker Jan 1997

Lymphocyte Populations And Antibody Production In Vaccinated And Non-Vaccinated Pigs Challenged With Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae, Eileen L. Thacker, Tamara B. Boettcher, Brad J. Thacker

Swine Research Report, 1996

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), the cause of enzootic pneumonia in swine, is a worldwide problem. Despite the developmental vaccines that have been commercially available for several years, M. hyo-induced pneumonia is still a major concern to swine producers. The pathologic lesions observed with enzootic pneumonia consist primarily of a lymphoid cell infiltration of the lungs. Four groups of pigs consisting of challenge control, vaccinated and challenged, vaccinated only, and nonvaccinated and non-challenged were used in this study. Lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, lung, and bronchial lymph nodes were analyzed by flow cytometry (FACs) to determine the populations of cells activated ...


Effect Of Challenge Dose And Route On Transmission Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Infection, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Chih-Cheng Chang, Patricia Reitz, Michael J. Mcginley Jan 1997

Effect Of Challenge Dose And Route On Transmission Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Infection, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Chih-Cheng Chang, Patricia Reitz, Michael J. Mcginley

Swine Research Report, 1996

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is believed to be highly infectious because of the rapid spread of the virus through populations of domestic swine throughout the world. However, no information is available on the minimum infectious dose of PRRSV. In our experiment, 10 groups of pigs were inoculated with five different quantities of PRRSV via two different routes: intramuscular and intranasal. The presence of virus in serum and early immune response of pigs were monitored for 21 days. We found that 10 or fewer virions were sufficient to achieve infection. No significant difference in the level of immune ...


The Relationship Between In Vitro Adherence Capability And Pathogenicity Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae For Swine, Richard F. Ross, Barbara Z. Erickson, Theresa F. Young Jan 1997

The Relationship Between In Vitro Adherence Capability And Pathogenicity Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae For Swine, Richard F. Ross, Barbara Z. Erickson, Theresa F. Young

Swine Research Report, 1996

The data indicated a positive correlation exists between in vitro adherence capability and in vivo pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae clones. Results obtained with the in vitro microtiter plate adherence assay indicated that it can be used to estimate the pathogenicity of strains. However, low adherence capability and possibly pathogenicity were not stable as indicated by the shifting adherence capability of M. hyopneumoniae during in vivo growth. In this study, the in vivo environment apparently favored development of a population of more adherent M. hyopneumoniae. Further research to identify immunogenic, protective proteins involved in this phenomenon could enable development of improved ...


Characterization Of Finely Textured Lean Pork For Use In Processed Meats, Ying He, Joseph G. Sebranek Jan 1997

Characterization Of Finely Textured Lean Pork For Use In Processed Meats, Ying He, Joseph G. Sebranek

Swine Research Report, 1996

Lean finely textured pork (LFTP) is a low-fat protein source produced from fresh pork fatty trimmings. LFTP has similar protein and fat contents as lean meat, but is more economical for processed meat formulations. In order to recommend best utilization of this inexpensive meat ingredient, we studied the protein composition and functionality of LFTP. The protein composition of LFTP was different from that of muscle meats, containing more connective tissue proteins and less functional proteins. Difference in gelation characteristics of the proteins were shown to result in a soft texture and lower yield when used in frankfurters at 50% of ...


Synergism Between Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory, Robert W. Wills, Paula Fedorka-Cray, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jeffery T. Gray, Tom J. Stabel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman Jan 1997

Synergism Between Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory, Robert W. Wills, Paula Fedorka-Cray, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jeffery T. Gray, Tom J. Stabel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Swine Research Report, 1996

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of exposure to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Salmonella choleraesuis, and stress on young swine. Five-week-old segregated early weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight treatments consisting of all possible combinations of three factors: S. choleraesuis (SC) on day zero, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on day three, and dexamethasone (DEX) on days three to seven. DEX was used as a proxy for stress. Treatment differences were seen in performance parameters, levels and duration of SC shedding, level and distribution of SC in tissues, clinical disease, and ...


Survival Of Selected Viruses On Processed Pork Products, Terry Proescholdt, E. C. Pirtle, George W. Beran Jan 1997

Survival Of Selected Viruses On Processed Pork Products, Terry Proescholdt, E. C. Pirtle, George W. Beran

Swine Research Report, 1996

Contamination of food with viruses of human health significance is primarily due to human carriers. While cooking or fermenting and drying will inactivate viruses, products can be contaminated post-processing. The data show that the changes produced in pork products by processing will have little effect in decreasing viral numbers if post-processing contamination occurs.


Evaluation Of A Byproduct From Hydrolyzed Porcine Small Intestines As An Ingredient In Pig Starters, Dean R. Zimmerman, Chris Sparks Jan 1997

Evaluation Of A Byproduct From Hydrolyzed Porcine Small Intestines As An Ingredient In Pig Starters, Dean R. Zimmerman, Chris Sparks

Swine Research Report, 1996

Partial replacement of dried whey with dried hydrolysate of pig intestines resulted in a delayed positive growth performance response in three experiments. In weeks three and four, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were increased an average of 23.9 and 17.6%, respectively, by feeding intestinal hydrolysate in weeks one and two. The active component(s) in the product may speed the maturation of the pig’s ability to digest and/or assimilate nutrients.


Differential Prepartum And Postpartum Growth Patterns Of Yorkshire And Meishan Piglets Gestated In The Same Uterine Environment, Nina J. Biensen, Stephen P. Ford, M. E. Wilson Jan 1997

Differential Prepartum And Postpartum Growth Patterns Of Yorkshire And Meishan Piglets Gestated In The Same Uterine Environment, Nina J. Biensen, Stephen P. Ford, M. E. Wilson

Swine Research Report, 1996

While Yorkshire fetal growth appears to depend on increasing placental size, more extensive vascularization of a smaller placenta appears to support Meishan fetal growth. Further studies are needed to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling placental growth and vascularization. The ability to manipulate conceptus size may allow producers the opportunity to increase litter size in domestic pigs. More piglets farrowed per sow per year combined with the effects of fetal genotype on postpartum growth rate, as confirmed by the current study, would allow more efficient pork production.


Cost Of On-Farm Microbial Testing For Salmonella: An Application By Farm Size And Prevalence Level, Stephen J. Gorton, James B. Kliebenstein, George W. Beran Jan 1997

Cost Of On-Farm Microbial Testing For Salmonella: An Application By Farm Size And Prevalence Level, Stephen J. Gorton, James B. Kliebenstein, George W. Beran

Swine Research Report, 1996

As the pork production industry moves closer to adopting and using Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) management systems, effective pathogen identification becomes necessary. Additionally, relationships between management strategies and prevention and/or reduction of pathogens on the farm is needed. An important component of these systems is the associated economic costs and benefits. Studies have assessed the economic costs and benefits of HACCP management systems that target specific pathogen reduction, such as Salmonella spp. in food animals (Morales, 1995; Perrin, 1993). Morales’ and Perrin’s research lacked an analysis of HACCP’s proactive approach to prevention of foodborne ...


Comparative Recovery Of Coliforms From Meat And Milk Using M-Coliblue24 And Standard Methods, J. J. Erdmann, James S. Dickson, M. A. Grant Jan 1997

Comparative Recovery Of Coliforms From Meat And Milk Using M-Coliblue24 And Standard Methods, J. J. Erdmann, James S. Dickson, M. A. Grant

Swine Research Report, 1996

A new membrane filtration medium, m-ColiBlue24 (mCB), simultaneously detects Total Coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) in a single 24-hour incubation. Samples of ground beef, ground pork, and milk were analyzed by mCB and compared to standard methods. When TC from beef and pork samples were compared, there were no significant difference between mCB and pour plating on Violet Red Bile (VRB) agar. In a most probable number (MPN) analysis, nine counts from mCB were within the 95% confidence interval (CI) and 13 were outside the CI. VRB yielded six counts within and 16 outside the CI. The raw milk ...


Swine Facility Costs In Iowa, Jay D. Harmon Jan 1997

Swine Facility Costs In Iowa, Jay D. Harmon

Swine Research Report, 1996

Surveys were sent to over 500 producers around Iowa that had been identified as building facilities since 1990. Responses were received from 144 producers, many with information on multiple buildings. The results of the survey show that there are trends in the types of buildings being constructed but there is still a wide variety in cost and construction type. According to this survey, finishing building cost has actually dropped over the last two years, perhaps indicating changes in market pressure and construction techniques. Manures storage costs were also compared, with earth storage showing the lowest cost. For planning purposes, estimate ...


Mapping Of The Melatonin Receptor 1a (Mtnr1a) Gene In Pigs, Sheep And Cattle, L. A. Messer, L. Wang, C. K. Tuggle, Max F. Rothschild Jan 1997

Mapping Of The Melatonin Receptor 1a (Mtnr1a) Gene In Pigs, Sheep And Cattle, L. A. Messer, L. Wang, C. K. Tuggle, Max F. Rothschild

Swine Research Report, 1996

Human and sheep Melatonin receptor 1a (MTNR1A) gene information was used to clone a portion of the coding region of this gene in pigs, and to identify polymorphisms of the gene for its assignment to both the genetic linkage and physical maps. MTNR1A maps to pig chromosome 17, establishing a new region of conserved synteny between this chromosome and human chromosome 4. Furthermore, we have assigned MTNR1A to bovine chromosome 27 and sheep chromosome 26. The addition of genes like MTNR1A to livestock genome maps allows questions about evolutionary events and the genetic basis for quantitative traits in livestock to ...


Market Access—Survey Results, John D. Lawrence Jan 1997

Market Access—Survey Results, John D. Lawrence

Swine Research Report, 1996

Iowa pork producers surveyed in 1995 indicated that while 42% of producers typically receive two or more bids for their hogs, 85% sell to only one packer. Eighty-three percent sold hogs on the spot market only. More than 70% of producers believe that they receive a price higher than reported in the media. Killsheets from approximately onethird of the respondents indicated an average lean premium and sort loss over $1.70 and under $.50 per cwt. carcass weight.

The results imply that Iowa continues to have an active spot market for hogs and that two or more bids are typically ...


Dietary Available Phosphorus Needs Of Pigs Experiencing A Moderate And High Level Of Antigen Exposure, Dean R. Zimmerman, D. R. Cook Jan 1997

Dietary Available Phosphorus Needs Of Pigs Experiencing A Moderate And High Level Of Antigen Exposure, Dean R. Zimmerman, D. R. Cook

Swine Research Report, 1996

Pigs experiencing a moderate and a high level of antigen exposure were self-fed one of six dietary concentrations (.30, .40, .50, .60, .70, .80%) of available phosphorus (AP) from 14 to 60 pounds body weight. Pigs reared via a management scheme that resulted in a moderate level of antigen exposure consumed more feed daily, gained body weight faster, required less feed per unit of gain, and accrued more body protein daily than pigs reared in a high antigen exposure environment. Over the duration of the study, dietary AP concentrations of .6 to .7% and .4 to .5% in the moderate ...