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Insecticidal Activity Of Monoterpenoids To Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), And Fouse Fly (Diptera: Muscidae), Sangkyun Lee, Rong Tsao, Christopher Peterson, Joel R. Coats Aug 1997

Insecticidal Activity Of Monoterpenoids To Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), And Fouse Fly (Diptera: Muscidae), Sangkyun Lee, Rong Tsao, Christopher Peterson, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Acute toxicities of 34 naturally occurring monoterpenoids were evaluated against 3 important arthropod pest species; the larva of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the adult of the twospotted spider mite. Tetranychus urticae Koch; and the adult house fly. Musca domestica L. Potential larvicidal or acaricidal activities of each monoterpenoid were determined by topical application, leaf-dip method, soil bioassay, and greenhouse pot tests. Phytotoxicity was also tested on a corn plant. Citronellic acid and thymol were the most topically toxic against the house fly, and citronellol and thujone were the most effective on the western corn rootworm. Most ...


Preface Of Phytoremediation Of Soil And Water Contaminants, Ellen L. Kruger, Joel R. Coats Apr 1997

Preface Of Phytoremediation Of Soil And Water Contaminants, Ellen L. Kruger, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

PHYTOREMEDIATION, or the use of plants to remediate contaminated soils and water environments, has recently become an area of intense study. Ten years ago there was a realization that the root zone of plants was special with respect to its capacity for biotransformation of organic molecules. The rhizosphere, as it was named, has since been studied for its important role in nutrient availability, as well as for the enhanced microbial degradation of pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and other synthetic chemicals. Plants impact contaminant reduction principally by providing an optimal environment for microbial proliferation in the root zone. This often leads ...


Evaluation Of The Use Of Vegetation For Reducing The Environmental Impact Of Deicing Agents, Patricia J. Rice, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats Apr 1997

Evaluation Of The Use Of Vegetation For Reducing The Environmental Impact Of Deicing Agents, Patricia J. Rice, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

This research project was conducted to evaluate the use of plants for reducing the environmental impact of aircraft deicers. Significant quantities of ethylene glycol-based deicing fluids spill to the ground and inadvertently contaminate soil and surface water environments. Comparisons of the biodegradation of 14C-ethylene glycol ([14C]EG) in rhizosphere soils from five different plant species, nonvegetated soils, and autoclaved control soils at various temperatures (-10 °C, 0 °C, 20 °C) indicate enhanced mineralization (14CO2 production) in the rhizosphere soils. After 28 days at 0 °C, 60.4%, 49.6%, and 24.4% of applied [14C]EG degraded to 14CO2 in ...


Phytoremediation Of Herbicide-Contaminated Surface Water With Aquatic Plants, Pamela J. Rice, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats Apr 1997

Phytoremediation Of Herbicide-Contaminated Surface Water With Aquatic Plants, Pamela J. Rice, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds for the treatment of agricultural drainage water, sewage, and industrial effluents. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems have proved effective and economical in improving the quality of wastewaters containing excess nutrients, organic pollutants, and heavy metals. This investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that herbicide-tolerant aquatic plants can remediate herbicide-contaminated waters. The addition of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail, hornwort), Elodea canadensis (American elodea, Canadian pondweed), or Lemna minor(common duckweed) significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the concentration of [14C]metolachlor (MET) remaining in the treated water. After a 16-day incubation period, only 1.44%, 4.06%, and 22.7% of the applied [14C]MET remained in the water of the surface water systems containing C. demersum, E. canadensis, or L. minor whereas 61% of the applied [14C]MET persisted in ...


Atrazine Degradation In Pesticide-Contaminated Soils: Phytoremediation Potential, Ellen L. Kruger, Jennifer C. Anhalt, Diana Sorenson, Brett Nelson, Ana L. Chouhy, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats Apr 1997

Atrazine Degradation In Pesticide-Contaminated Soils: Phytoremediation Potential, Ellen L. Kruger, Jennifer C. Anhalt, Diana Sorenson, Brett Nelson, Ana L. Chouhy, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Studies were conducted in the laboratory to determine the fate of atrazine in pesticide-contaminated soils from agrochemical dealer sites. No significant differences in atrazine concentrations occurred in soils treated with atrazine individually or combinations with metolachlor and trifluralin. In a screening study carried out in soils from four agrochemical dealer sites, rapid mineralization of atrazine occurred in three out of eight soils tested, with the greatest amount occurring in Bravo rhizosphere soil (35% of the applied atrazine after 9 weeks). Suppression of atrazine mineralization in the Bravo rhizosphere soil did not occur with the addition of high concentrations of herbicide ...


Simulated Sunlight-Uv Sensitivity Of Engineered Juvenile Hormone Esterase And Scorpion Toxin Recombinants Of The Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Of Autographa Californica, C. M. Ignoffo, C. Garcia, Bryony C. Bonning, R. Herman, Bruce D. Hammock Apr 1997

Simulated Sunlight-Uv Sensitivity Of Engineered Juvenile Hormone Esterase And Scorpion Toxin Recombinants Of The Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Of Autographa Californica, C. M. Ignoffo, C. Garcia, Bryony C. Bonning, R. Herman, Bruce D. Hammock

Entomology Publications

There has been an effort over the last decade to enhance the effectiveness of wild-type baculoviruses using genetic engineering. Wild-type viruses are extremely sensitive to sunlight-ultraviolet, but, what about engineered, recombinant baculoviruses? We found that insertion of a foreign gene did not result in recombinant baculoviruses being more or less sensitive to simulated sunlight-UV than a parental wild-type baculovirus. The half-life of activity for all recombinants and the wild-type parental isolate we tested was within that previously reported for other baculoviruses.


Acute Toxicity And Behavioral Effects Of Chlorpyrifos, Permethrin, Phenol, Strychnine, And 2,4-Dinitrophenol To 30-Day-Old Japanese Medaka (Oryzias Latipes), Patricia J. Rice, Charles D. Drewes, Theresa M. Klubertanz, Steven P. Bradbury, Joel R. Coats Apr 1997

Acute Toxicity And Behavioral Effects Of Chlorpyrifos, Permethrin, Phenol, Strychnine, And 2,4-Dinitrophenol To 30-Day-Old Japanese Medaka (Oryzias Latipes), Patricia J. Rice, Charles D. Drewes, Theresa M. Klubertanz, Steven P. Bradbury, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Five chemicals with different modes of action were evaluated in laboratory studies to determine their acute toxicity (48-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) and behavioral effects on 30-d-old Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The order of toxicity for these xenobiotics was permethrin > chlorpyrifos > 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) > strychnine > phenol. The 48-h LC50s were significantly different and ranged from 0.011 to 24.1 mg/L. In addition, chlorpyrifos and permethrin accumulated in the tissues of juvenile O. latipes. Observations of five behavioral/morphological responses, including changes in equilibrium, general activity, startle response, and morphology (e.g., hemorrhage and deformities) were used as ...


Gene Flow In The Exotic Colonizing Ladybeetleharmonia Axyridisin North America, E. S. Krafsur, T. J. Kring, J. C. Miller, P. Nariboli, J. J. Obrycki, J. R. Ruberson, P. W. Schaefer Mar 1997

Gene Flow In The Exotic Colonizing Ladybeetleharmonia Axyridisin North America, E. S. Krafsur, T. J. Kring, J. C. Miller, P. Nariboli, J. J. Obrycki, J. R. Ruberson, P. W. Schaefer

Entomology Publications

Gene flow was studied inHarmonia axyridis(Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an exotic, arboreal ladybeetle predator that recently spread rapidly throughout North America. A survey of isozyme polymorphisms showed 30 of 52 resolved putative loci were polymorphic (58%), and the mean heterozygosity was 16.75 ± 2.98% among all loci and 26.31 ± 4.37% at only the polymorphic loci. The mean number of alleles at the 52 loci was 2.01 ± 1.97. Gene frequencies were estimated in populations from Georgia, Virginia, Delaware, Rhode Island, Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, and Oregon and differed significantly (P < 0.02) at 11 of 16 loci. Three of 16 loci (Fbp, Est-1, Tre) were not in ...


Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot And Symptomless Infection In Kernels Of Maize Genetically Engineered For European Corn Borer Resistance, Gary P. Munkvold, Richard L. Hellmich, W. B. Showers Jan 1997

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot And Symptomless Infection In Kernels Of Maize Genetically Engineered For European Corn Borer Resistance, Gary P. Munkvold, Richard L. Hellmich, W. B. Showers

Entomology Publications

ABSTRACT Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp-tomless Fusarium infection in kernels of maize hybrids genetically engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding for the delta-endotoxin CryIA(b). Treatments included manual infestation with European corn borer (ECB) larvae and insecticide applications to limit ECB activity to specific maize growth stages or mimic standard ECB control practices. Fusarium symptoms and infection were affected by the specific cryIA(b) transformation used in each hybrid that determines tissue-specific expression of CryIA(b). In hybrids expressing CryIA(b ...