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More On Fobe, Neil Harl Dec 1997

More On Fobe, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The family-owned business exclusion, enacted as part of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 contained numerous omissions and ambiguities as enacted. A letter from the Joint Committee on Taxation to Sen. Charles E. Grassley of Iowa has provided additional insights into JCT’s view of how the statute should be interpreted.


Index To Volume 8, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 1997

Index To Volume 8, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Income Averaging, Neil Harl Dec 1997

Income Averaging, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Although the possibility of a return to income averaging had been discussed for several years, enactment of income averaging for farm income came as a great surprise to many. The provision is not effective until 1998, and remains available for 1999 and the year 2000, and sunsets at the end of 2000 unless extended by legislative action.


Toward A Theory Of Food And Agriculture Policy Intervention For A Developing Economy With Particular Reference To Nigeria, Gbolagade B. Ayoola Dec 1997

Toward A Theory Of Food And Agriculture Policy Intervention For A Developing Economy With Particular Reference To Nigeria, Gbolagade B. Ayoola

CARD Working Papers

Following three months as a visiting scholar in the Department of Economics at lows State University, the author documents the results of his discussions regarding the policy process for agriculture and rural development in developing countries. His goal in this study is to initiate a process that will lead to a concise theory of policy intervention specifically suitable for the prevailing conditions in developing countries. He discusses the main features of the Nigerian agricultural polio environment to arouse interest in the analysis of that environment in relation to the advanced agricultural system of the United States.


Informality, Size, And Regulation: Theory And An Application To Egypt, Marcelo M. Giugale, Sherif El-Diwany Dec 1997

Informality, Size, And Regulation: Theory And An Application To Egypt, Marcelo M. Giugale, Sherif El-Diwany

CARD Working Papers

The paper shows how, when the enforceability of regulations is size-sensitive, price competition can lock firms into informality and, thus, smallness, depending on the form of the production function. In that context, exogenous "help" packages targeted to informal firms "promote" micro and small enterprises (i.e., increase their numbers) but do not "develop" them (i.e., foster their growth). The "help" only generates a short-term span of abnormal profits for existing informal firms, and a long-term income transfer toward informal-market consumers. The model is tested in the context of Egypt's micro and small enterprise sector.


Cooperatives And Corporate Farming Laws, Neil Harl Nov 1997

Cooperatives And Corporate Farming Laws, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In 1982, Nebraska voters approved Proposition 300, Nebraska’s anti-corporate farming law. The Nebraska provision has been criticized for its detailed, complex and not completely consistent approach to limiting corporations. The constitutional measure bars corporations or syndicates from acquiring real estate in the state except for family farm or ranch corporations; nonprofit corporations; Indian tribal corporations; and several other categories of corporate enterprises. The Nebraska Supreme Court has now ruled on whether a nonstock cooperative involved in hog production was exempt from the law as a “non-profit corporation.”


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Assessing New Technology, Michael Duffy Nov 1997

Assessing New Technology, Michael Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Every day seems to bring a new technology for farmers. Global positioning, infrared analysis, herbicide resistant seeds, new hybrids, and variable rate applications are a few of the relatively recent agricultural technologies.


Iowa Cropping Practices, 1996, Michael Duffy Nov 1997

Iowa Cropping Practices, 1996, Michael Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Crop production practices in Iowa are changing rapidly. New technologies and methods are being adopted with such frequency that it is difficult to ascertain current practices. This paper presents summary statistics and initial analysis from a 1996 cropping practices survey. The data were collected as an expansion of the USDA cost and return survey. The Iowa State University Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture provided the funding to expand the survey.


Sampling Schemes For Policy Analyses Using Computer Simulation Experiments, Alicia L. Carriquiry, F. Jay Breidt, P. G. Lakshminarayan Nov 1997

Sampling Schemes For Policy Analyses Using Computer Simulation Experiments, Alicia L. Carriquiry, F. Jay Breidt, P. G. Lakshminarayan

CARD Working Papers

Evaluating the environmental and Economic impacts of agricultural policies is not a simple task. A systematic approach to evaluation would include the effect of policy-dependent factors (such as tillage practices, crop rotations, and chemical use) as well as the effect of policy independent covariates (such as weather, topography, and soil attributes) on response variables (such as amount of soil eroded or chemical leached into the groundwater). For comparison purposes, the effects of these input combinations on the response variable would have to be assessed under competing policy scenarios. Because the number of input combinations is high in most problems, and ...


1997 Survey Of Former Iowa Hog Producers: Motivations Of Exiting And Incentives To Return, John D. Lawrence Nov 1997

1997 Survey Of Former Iowa Hog Producers: Motivations Of Exiting And Incentives To Return, John D. Lawrence

Economic Staff Paper Series

Over 14,000 Iowa farmers quit raising hogs between December 1992 and December 1996. This exodus represents 40 percent of the report number of farms with hogs in 1992. This five year period also represents a time of enormous,change in the.pork industry; rapidly changing technology,.. emergence of mega operations, regional shifts of hog production, record high com prices, and the lowest hog prices in over 20 years; There has been a great deal of speculation about why Iowa farmers quit raising hogs, but little is known about what type of individuals and operations left the industry, why they ...


The National Pilot Program Integrated Modeling System: Environmental Baseline Assumptions And Results For The Apex Model, Philip W. Gassmann Nov 1997

The National Pilot Program Integrated Modeling System: Environmental Baseline Assumptions And Results For The Apex Model, Philip W. Gassmann

CARD Staff Reports

This paper presents the underlying assumptions and results for the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model, which was applied within an integrated modeling system for the National Polio Program (NPP) environmental baseline simulations for the Upper North Bosque River Watershed area in Texas. The system consists of an economic model linked to an environmental component comprising the field-scale APEX and watershed-scale Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models. The results are edge-of-field environmental indicators obtained from the APEX model.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Oct 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Meeting The "50 Percent" Test For The Fobe, Neil Harl Oct 1997

Meeting The "50 Percent" Test For The Fobe, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Without much doubt, the most complex, convoluted and confusing provision in the family-owned business exclusion (FOBE) is the pre-death requirement that the adjusted value of qualified family-owned business interests (plus pre-death gifts of family-owned business interests within the family) must exceed 50 percent of the decedent’s adjusted gross estate (with various modifications). The calculation involves a fraction with both the numerator and the denominator posing formidable problems of interpretation.


Hedge-To-Arrive Contracts: Two Federal Court Cases, Neil Harl Oct 1997

Hedge-To-Arrive Contracts: Two Federal Court Cases, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Cases filed in recent months involving hedge-to-arrive contracts are continuing to filter out at the trial court level. The cases were filed after a run-up in grain prices in late 1995 and early 1996 boosted the cost of rolling futures contracts forward to later contract months.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Oct 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Res Ipsa Loquitur For Animals On The Highway?, Neil Harl Oct 1997

Res Ipsa Loquitur For Animals On The Highway?, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

A continuing liability problem since the advent of motorized transportation early in this century for those raising livestock has been who bears responsibility for the damages caused when a vehicle strikes a farm or ranch animal on the highway. The doctrine of negligence is, of course, central to determinations of liability.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Oct 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Moving From Uniform To Variable Fertilizer Rates On Iowa Corn: Effects On Rates And Returns, Bruce A. Babcock, Gregory R. Pautsch Oct 1997

Moving From Uniform To Variable Fertilizer Rates On Iowa Corn: Effects On Rates And Returns, Bruce A. Babcock, Gregory R. Pautsch

CARD Working Papers

There is a growing need for research that estimates the potential value to farmers of acquiring and using improved information about spatial variability within their fields. This paper considers the potential value of switching from single rate technologies (SRT) to variable rate technologies (VRT) for applying nitrogen fertilizer in 12 Iowa counties. Changes in yields, nitrogen use, and profits are estimated for individual field and entire counties. The economic and environmental impacts of moving from SRT to VRT depend heavily on the amount of inherent yield variability in field.


Biotechnology And Pest Resistance: An Economic Assessment Of Refuges, Terrance M. Hurley, Bruce A. Babcock, Richard L. Hellmich Oct 1997

Biotechnology And Pest Resistance: An Economic Assessment Of Refuges, Terrance M. Hurley, Bruce A. Babcock, Richard L. Hellmich

CARD Working Papers

Biologists now engineer transgenic crop varieties that offer farmers a new tool for effectively managing pests. Concern over pest resistance, however, has prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to require resistance management plans. This paper develops an economic model of pest management with pest resistance to estimate the constant proportion of cropland planted in refuge that maximizes farm income over a fixed planning horizon. Results indicate a clear economic tradeoff between the pest control benefits of a transgenic variety and the resistance management benefits afforded by refuge.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Sep 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


The Family-Owned Business Exclusion: How Useful Is It?, Neil Harl Sep 1997

The Family-Owned Business Exclusion: How Useful Is It?, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

One of the centerpieces of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 was the family-owned business exclusion, or FOBE. The various requirements of FOBE were discussed in the August 8, 1997, issue of the Digest.


Constructing A Succession Plan, Neil Harl Sep 1997

Constructing A Succession Plan, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Historically, relatively few farm and ranch businesses have survived the generation of their founding. In most instances, farm businesses go through a family farm cycle with the firm peaking in efficiency about midway through the life cycle followed by a decline in efficiency in later years.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Sep 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Taxpayer Relief Act Of 1997 (Pub. L. No. 105-34) Summary Of Selected Provisions (Part 2), Neil Harl Aug 1997

Taxpayer Relief Act Of 1997 (Pub. L. No. 105-34) Summary Of Selected Provisions (Part 2), Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Traditional IRAs. Under the legislation, an individual is not considered an active participant in an employer-sponsored retirement plan merely because the individual’s spouse is an active participant.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Aug 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Taxpayer Relief Act Of 1997 (H.R. 2014) Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil Harl Aug 1997

Taxpayer Relief Act Of 1997 (H.R. 2014) Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Earned Income Credit. Legislation to make it clear that gains and losses “from the sale of livestock described in section 1231(b)(3)” were not included in “disqualified income” for purposes of calculating the earned income credit failed to be included in the final bill. IRS had taken the position in late 1996 and early 1997 that Section 1231 gains were to be treated the same as Section 1221 gains for this purpose and both were counted as disqualified income.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Aug 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.