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Soybean Designated Ax 4663-5-4-5, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond Nov 1997

Soybean Designated Ax 4663-5-4-5, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond

Iowa State University Patents

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid contents of at least about 18.0% up to 30.0% or more. The novel soybean lines are obtained from a soybean seed designated A1937NMU-85 and its descendants, particular desirable progeny resulting from the cross of A1937NMU-85 with ElginEMS-421, and further with the cross of selected progeny with A89-259098.


Soybean Designated A1937 Nmu-85, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond Nov 1997

Soybean Designated A1937 Nmu-85, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond

Iowa State University Patents

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid contents of at least about 18.0% up to 30.0% or more. The novel soybean lines are obtained from a soybean seed designated A1937NMU-85 and its descendants, particular desirable progeny resulting from the cross of A1937NMU-85 with ElginEMS-421, and further with the cross of selected progeny with A89-259098.


Soybean Designated A89-259098, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond Sep 1997

Soybean Designated A89-259098, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond

Iowa State University Patents

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid contents of at least about 18.0% up to 30.0% or more. The novel soybean lines are obtained from a soybean seed designated A1937NMU-85 and its descendants, particular desirable progeny resulting from the cross of A1937NMU-85 with ElginEMS-421, and further with the cross of selected progeny with A89-259098.


Differences In Hatching Of Heterodera Glycines Egg-Mass And Encysted Eggs In Vitro, J. M. Thompson, G. L. Tylka Sep 1997

Differences In Hatching Of Heterodera Glycines Egg-Mass And Encysted Eggs In Vitro, J. M. Thompson, G. L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Hatching studies with Heterodera glycines typically have been conducted with a mixture of egg-mass and encysted eggs. Laboratory research was conducted to compare hatching of H. glycines eggs from external egg masses with that of eggs extracted from within females and cysts (encysted eggs). Egg-mass eggs were collected by soaking infected soybean roots in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and encysted eggs were collected from females and cysts dislodged from the same roots with a stream of water. Eggs were incubated at 25ºC in deionized water, 3.0 mM ZnSO[sub4]solution, or one of three synthetic H. glycines hatch inhibitors ...


Inheritance Of Anthocyanin Production And Malate Dehydrogenase Isozymes In Agastache Rugosa (Fisher & Meyer) Kuntze, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner Jul 1997

Inheritance Of Anthocyanin Production And Malate Dehydrogenase Isozymes In Agastache Rugosa (Fisher & Meyer) Kuntze, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of anthocyanin production and of malate dehydrogenase banding patterns in Agastache rugosa. Results of the study support the hypothesis that anthocyanin production is controlled by a single dominant gene, designated as A, for anthocyanin production. The Mdh-3 banding patterns are controlled by two alleles, each of which associated with a two-banded phenotype. A monomeric quaternary structure of MDH, which is rather atypical among plant species, can be inferred from the results. No linkage was found between the loci governing anthocyanin production and Mdh-3 banding patterns. This is the first report of heritable ...


Preparation Of Fish Feed Ingredients: Reduction Of Carotenoids In Corn Gluten Meal, H. Park, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson Jun 1997

Preparation Of Fish Feed Ingredients: Reduction Of Carotenoids In Corn Gluten Meal, H. Park, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson

Center for Crops Utilization Research Publications

Carotenoids in corn gluten meal (CGM) were eliminated by extraction with ethanol and butanol or by bleaching with soy flour as a lipoxygenase source. Corn gluten meal (50 g at 67% moisture basis) was extracted with 150 mL of ethanol or butanol followed by a second extraction with 100 mL of extractant. Of the carotenoids present in CGM, 87% and 94% were removed after the second extraction with ethanol and butanol, respectively. Total solid loss during extraction was greater with butanol (24%) than with ethanol (10%). Increasing the level of soy flour substituted from 5% to 15% did not improve ...


Fumonisins In Maize: Can We Reduce Their Occurrence?, Gary P. Munkvold, Anne E. Desjardins Jun 1997

Fumonisins In Maize: Can We Reduce Their Occurrence?, Gary P. Munkvold, Anne E. Desjardins

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In 1988, W. C. A. Gelderblom et al. reported that the fumonisins (Fig. 1), a new class of mycotoxins, had been identified from cultures of Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld., and that these toxins had cancerpromoting activity (10). This report represented a major breakthrough in nearly a century of investigation into the animal and human diseases associated with consumption of maize contaminated with F. moniliforme. This also was the starting point for worldwide efforts to describe the structure, properties, and toxicology of this new group of toxins. Additionally, the report renewed interest in the phytopathology of the most notorious pathogen of ...


Phytoremediation Of Herbicide-Contaminated Surface Water With Aquatic Plants, Pamela J. Rice, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats Apr 1997

Phytoremediation Of Herbicide-Contaminated Surface Water With Aquatic Plants, Pamela J. Rice, Todd A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds for the treatment of agricultural drainage water, sewage, and industrial effluents. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems have proved effective and economical in improving the quality of wastewaters containing excess nutrients, organic pollutants, and heavy metals. This investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that herbicide-tolerant aquatic plants can remediate herbicide-contaminated waters. The addition of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail, hornwort), Elodea canadensis (American elodea, Canadian pondweed), or Lemna minor(common duckweed) significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the concentration of [14C]metolachlor (MET) remaining in the treated water. After a 16-day incubation period, only 1.44%, 4.06%, and 22.7% of the applied [14C]MET remained in the water of the surface water systems containing C. demersum, E. canadensis, or L. minor whereas 61% of the applied [14C]MET persisted in ...


Buffer Strip Design, Establishment, And Maintenance, Richard C. Schultz, Paul H. Wray, Joseph P. Colletti, Thomas M. Isenhart, Charles A. Rodriguez, Amy Kuehl Apr 1997

Buffer Strip Design, Establishment, And Maintenance, Richard C. Schultz, Paul H. Wray, Joseph P. Colletti, Thomas M. Isenhart, Charles A. Rodriguez, Amy Kuehl

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

This publication discusses how to design, plant, and maintain a multi-species buffer strip, which is an important part of river ecosystems.


Have You Checked Your Grain Bin?, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Mar 1997

Have You Checked Your Grain Bin?, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The problem is with low test weight corn that was either slow to mature or did not fully mature before it was harvested last fall. Corn with a high moisture content may have been dried to 13-14 percent last fall, but those readings might not be reliable.


Soybeans And Soybeans Products Having High Palmitic Acid Content, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond Feb 1997

Soybeans And Soybeans Products Having High Palmitic Acid Content, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond

Iowa State University Patents

A method is described for producing soybean varieties and lines exhibiting palmitic acid contents of at least about 18.0% up to 30.0% or more. The novel soybean lines are obtained from a soybean seed designated A1937NMU-85 and its descendants, particular desirable progeny resulting from the cross of A1937NMU-85 with ElginEMS-421, and further with the cross of selected progeny with A89-259098.


An Assessment Of Diagnostic Tools For Improved Soil And Crop Management , Moses Mang'eni Siambi Jan 1997

An Assessment Of Diagnostic Tools For Improved Soil And Crop Management , Moses Mang'eni Siambi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Evaluation of soil quality requires the development of a minimum dataset that can be used at different levels and scales. Soil organic matter is a major reservoir of plant nutrients, and hence the dynamics associated with it due to management practices are important. Particulate organic matter (POM) has been suggested as one of the parameters that may be sensitive to management practices and hence can be used to monitor the changes in soil organic matter. The objective of the first study was to investigate the temporal and spatial changes in particulate organic matter when a field that had been under ...


Carbon Dynamics Of Surface Residue- And Root-Derived Particulate Organic Matter In The Whole Soil And Aggregate Size Fractions , William Jeffrey Gale Jan 1997

Carbon Dynamics Of Surface Residue- And Root-Derived Particulate Organic Matter In The Whole Soil And Aggregate Size Fractions , William Jeffrey Gale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The importance of particulate organic matter (POM) in the soil ecosystem has been emphasized by many researchers, but the dynamics of POM and its role in aggregate formation are not well understood. I concluded a simulated no-till experiment which utilized 14C labeled plant material, periodic sampling, and a combination of physical and chemical fractionation methods to measure progressive changes in aggregation and the distribution of new POM C as surface residue and in situ roots decomposed. The main objectives of this dissertation were: (i) to characterize the relative contribution of surface residue- and root-derived C to soil organic matter (SOM ...


Genetic Studies Of Agastache , Roger Guillermo Fuentes-Granados Jan 1997

Genetic Studies Of Agastache , Roger Guillermo Fuentes-Granados

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Agastache is a genus of perennial plants in the mint family primarily native to North America. This genus produces aromatic oils that are used in foods, drugs, and perfumes. Agastache has also been reported to be a valuable source of nectar for honey bee forage. The genus has gained importance in America, Asia, and Europe as a component of tea mixtures and as a flavoring in confections. Because of the increasing popularity of this genus and our limited base of knowledge about it, this dissertation project was conducted to address questions of how aromatic compounds and isozymes are inherited in ...


Root Production, Soil Organic Matter, Soil Moisture, And Sorghum Yield In An Alley-Cropping System With Acacia Saligna (Labill.) Wendl. And Gliricidia Sepium (Jacq.) Walp. In The Hararghe Highlands, Eastern Ethiopia , Abdu Abdelkadir Jan 1997

Root Production, Soil Organic Matter, Soil Moisture, And Sorghum Yield In An Alley-Cropping System With Acacia Saligna (Labill.) Wendl. And Gliricidia Sepium (Jacq.) Walp. In The Hararghe Highlands, Eastern Ethiopia , Abdu Abdelkadir

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A field experiment was conducted to study root production, soil organic matter, and moisture and sorghum yield in an alley-cropping system with Acacia saligna and Gliricidia sepium in the Hararghe highlands of Ethiopia. Tree hedgerows were planted on either side of a 4-m wide crop alley. Intra-row spacing between trees was 25, 50, and 100 cm. In October, 1994 and March, 1995 soil samples were taken at depths of 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm at 50 and 200 cm distance from the hedgerows using direct coring and mesh bags. Roots were separated from the soil by wet-sieving and root weight ...


Population Dynamics And Management Of Potato Leafhopper And Other Insect Pests In Forage Systems , Todd Allen Degooyer Jan 1997

Population Dynamics And Management Of Potato Leafhopper And Other Insect Pests In Forage Systems , Todd Allen Degooyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) is a major insect pest of alfalfa in the north central and northeastern United States. Studies were conducted from 1994 through 1996 to better understand the population dynamics of potato leafhopper in Iowa, as well as improve sampling and management of this and other alfalfa pests. The specific objectives of this dissertation were to (1) understand the population dynamics and diurnal activity of potato leafhopper in Iowa forage systems; (2) determine the effect of alfalfa-forage grass intercrops on potato leafhopper, as well as other alfalfa insect pests and predators; (3) assess the ...


Productivity And Profitability Of Strip Intercropping Systems As Implemented By Agronomists And Farmers , Derrick Noble Exner Jan 1997

Productivity And Profitability Of Strip Intercropping Systems As Implemented By Agronomists And Farmers , Derrick Noble Exner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

On-station experiments investigated whether three-crop strips produced net gains in yield and profit and examined different crop rotations in strips for profitability, border interactions, and fertilizer nitrogen requirements. The sites were the Northeast Research Station (NERC), at Nashua, Iowa, and Living History Farms (LHF), near Des Moines. A corn-soybean rotation was compared to three-year crop rotations that included a sole-seeded forage legume or a forage legume established with a small grains nurse crop;For three years, six cooperating farmers recorded yields and kept Iowa State University Crop Enterprise Records (CER) for strip intercropping and for single-crop blocks. Four compared three-crop ...


Insecticidal Properties Of Monoterpenoids And Their Derivatives As A New Natural Means Of Crop Protection , Sang Kyun Lee Jan 1997

Insecticidal Properties Of Monoterpenoids And Their Derivatives As A New Natural Means Of Crop Protection , Sang Kyun Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The overall objectives are to determine the feasibility of using natural monoterpenoids as alternatives to the conventional insecticides and to investigate the biological properties of monoterpenoids and derivatives. The evaluations for biological properties of monoterpenoid compounds were undertaken against economically important pest species with several systematic bioassays and parameters showing biological activities;A wide range of monoterpenoids showed acute topical toxicity against insects tested and most monoterpenoids were lethal to the mite at high concentrations. Soil bioassays revealed that monoterpenoids had larvicidal activity against the corn rootworm. Several monoterpenoids also effectively protected corn plants from corn rootworm attack under greenhouse ...


The Acquisition Of Desiccation Tolerance In Maize Seed: Effects Of Genotype, Developmental Stage And Drying Environment , Joan Marie Peterson Jan 1997

The Acquisition Of Desiccation Tolerance In Maize Seed: Effects Of Genotype, Developmental Stage And Drying Environment , Joan Marie Peterson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of genotype, developmental stage, and drying environment on the acquisition of desiccation tolerance were characterized in two maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds differing in sensitivity to high temperature (HT) desiccation, A632, tolerant, and B73, sensitive. Ears harvested periodically were dried: at room temperature (Rm); in thin-layer dryers (TL) at 25°C (TL25), 35°C (TL35) or 45°C (TL45); or in high relative humidity (HRH). In all treatments, axis moisture content (mc) decreased more slowly than that of whole seed and equilibrated to a higher final mc. Increasing warm and cold germination percentages and seedling dry weights (SDW ...


The Colonization Of Corn, Zea Mays L., By The Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria Bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin , Bruce Lamoine Wagner Jan 1997

The Colonization Of Corn, Zea Mays L., By The Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria Bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin , Bruce Lamoine Wagner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ubiquitous entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) has been extensively investigated to suppress populations of several insect species worldwide. In studies investigating the response of inbred maize lines to plant pathogenic fungi, B. bassiana was isolated from the pith of plants. Subsequent field studies have shown that B. bassiana placed in or on maize plants formed an endophytic relationship, persisted for greater than 90 days and remained virulent to insects throughout the growing season. Even though these field studies demonstrated the potential insecticidal use of this relationship, the manner in which B. bassiana colonizes Zea mays L ...


Soybean Tolerance To Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera Glycines Ichinohe), And Interactions Between H Glycines And Phialophora Gregata, The Causal Agent Of Brown Stem Rot Of Soybean , James Edward Behm Jan 1997

Soybean Tolerance To Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera Glycines Ichinohe), And Interactions Between H Glycines And Phialophora Gregata, The Causal Agent Of Brown Stem Rot Of Soybean , James Edward Behm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Experiments were conducted in Heterodera glycines-infested and noninfested fields in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate H. glycines-susceptible soybean genotypes for tolerance to H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode. Results of linear regression analysis of relative yield (RY = (individual plot yield div experiment mean yield)x 100) versus log10-transformed initial H. glycines soil egg population densities (Log10(Pi + 1)) revealed significant inverse relationships for all genotypes evaluated, including H. glycines-resistant 'Jack'. Regression slope values were used as indicators of tolerance, and regression Y intercepts were used as indicators of relative yield potential in absence of the nematode. Tolerance indices (TI ...


Stability Analysis Of Single-Cross Hybrids Of Maize (Zea Mays L.) , Jean Barbara Cormack Jan 1997

Stability Analysis Of Single-Cross Hybrids Of Maize (Zea Mays L.) , Jean Barbara Cormack

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Yield data from three experiments of maize single cross trials grown at 5 to 8 locations in 1994, 1995, and 1996 were analyzed for stability using regression methods. Only single crosses grown in all locations and years (environments) were included in the analyses. Effects for environments, genotypes, genotype x environment, heterogeneity of regression (slopes), and deviations from regression were tested for significance. Slopes and deviation from regression were calculated for each single cross and slopes were tested for equality to 0.0 and 1.0. Slopes sums of squares were subdivided into sums of squares due to concurrence and non-concurrence ...


Sample Distance And Observer Characteristic Effects On Corn Rootworm Beetles Counts In Corn And Resource Allocation Optimization In Corn Rootworm Insecticide Trials , James Joel Mcnutt Jan 1997

Sample Distance And Observer Characteristic Effects On Corn Rootworm Beetles Counts In Corn And Resource Allocation Optimization In Corn Rootworm Insecticide Trials , James Joel Mcnutt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Counting adult rootworms has not yet met with widespread adoption by Iowa growers. It is more economical to always treat with an insecticide than to scout and treat when the rootworm population reaches economic levels. However, it is estimated that the majority of insecticide applications are not warranted. This inconsistency results from the cost and variability of scouting resulting in unrealistic thresholds;Establishing the existence or non-existence of an edge effect can reduce the error and/or cost of scouting. If there are differences at the edges, then the establishment of the sample boundaries will reduce sampling error. Sampling as ...


Biological Control Of The Tarnished Plant Bug In Iowa, John J. Obrycki, Gail R. Nonnecke Jan 1997

Biological Control Of The Tarnished Plant Bug In Iowa, John J. Obrycki, Gail R. Nonnecke

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

TPB, the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolarisj, attacks strawberries in Iowa and the Midwest. The egg parasitoid (Anaphes \o\e) has been observed to parasitize TPB in several crops in the western United States, but its activities have not been studied in strawberries in the Midwest. Under laboratory conditions, it was determined that A. iole will parasitize TPB eggs in strawberry stems. Releases of A. iole females in large field cages containing low densities of TPB eggs did not result in successful parasitization.


Identifying Genetic Markers And Their Role In Selecting Chemotypes In Perennial Lamiaceae, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Lester A. Wilson, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1997

Identifying Genetic Markers And Their Role In Selecting Chemotypes In Perennial Lamiaceae, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Lester A. Wilson, Mark P. Widrlechner

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This is a report of research progress in this project through early 1995. The results of these initial experiments have led us to propose hypotheses about the patterns of inheritance of aromatic compounds in Agastache foeniculum. We are now testing those hypotheses with larger plant populations. On request, we will be pleased to provide readers with more up-to-date information as we complete the analyses of our ongoing experiments. Until such results are subject to scientific peer review, the data presented in the following report must be considered strictly preliminary.


Soybean Quality Loss During Constant Storage Conditions , Ibni Hajar Rukunudin Jan 1997

Soybean Quality Loss During Constant Storage Conditions , Ibni Hajar Rukunudin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A modified method for determining free fatty acid (FFA) in crude and refined soybean oils from 0.3 to 6.0 g oil sample size was developed. Good correlation between the modified and official methods was established for crude and refined soybean oils with R2 of 0.9995 and 0.997, respectively. The slopes were 1.01 and 0.99 for the crude and refined oil, respectively.;The number of days soybean lost 0.5 and 1.0% dry matter, for low and high harvest moisture content (MC) soybeans both mechanically and manually harvested, were determined. Soybeans manually harvested at ...


Seed Development Of Shrunken-2 Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L.) And The Use Of Film Coating And Field Chemical Applications To Improve Seed Quality , Xianming Duan Jan 1997

Seed Development Of Shrunken-2 Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L.) And The Use Of Film Coating And Field Chemical Applications To Improve Seed Quality , Xianming Duan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the impacts of shrunken-2 (sh2) endosperm mutation on sweet corn embryogenesis and germination acquisition during seed development and maturation. Comparison between three pairs of sh2 and sugary (su) isogenic inbred lines and two dent corn inbreds showed that sh2 not only reduced the endosperm reserve accumulation, but also significantly retarded embryo development, especially during early seed development, resulting in a smaller embryo after maturation. Developing seed of sh2 lines acquired the same germinability at least 10 days later than su and dent corn seeds. During the late maturation stage, the germinability of sh2 seeds tended to decline ...


Effective High-Speed, High-Residue Rowcrop Cultivation, H. Mark Hanna, Robert G. Hartzler, Donald C. Erbach, Ron Rosmann Jan 1997

Effective High-Speed, High-Residue Rowcrop Cultivation, H. Mark Hanna, Robert G. Hartzler, Donald C. Erbach, Ron Rosmann

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Banding of herbicides linked with mechanical cultivation has been touted as a way to decrease dependence on chemical inputs in farming. Tests on a farm near Boone, Iowa, were used to determine the effects of cultivator design and speed when combined with the banding of chemicals to control weeds. Three cultivator styles, two speeds, and two herbicide bands (19 cm. and 38 cm.) were tested. Results showed that faster cultivation speeds did not harm weed control or crop yields. There was no difference between yield in a broadcast treatment and that of a cultivator treatment in conjunction with a wide ...


Managerial Tools For Seed Regeneration, M. P. Widrlechner Jan 1997

Managerial Tools For Seed Regeneration, M. P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

This report reviews some tools that curators of ex situ plant germplasm collections can employ to manage seed regeneration. It examines the various roles of germplasm users as sources of technical expertise and advice about germplasm needs. Analysis of past demand for germplasm and forecasts of future demand trends are valuable guides to plan regeneration. Seed quantity and viability are key planning criteria, but regeneration planning should also weigh such factors as overall genetic diversity within collections, institutional duplication, and the relative quality and completeness of passport and characterization data. The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station conducts applied research ...


Building In Integrated Pest Management Network In Cooperation With Iowa Fruit And Vegetable Growers, Mark L. Gleason, Donald R. Lewis, Forrest W. Nutter Jr., Gail R. Nonnecke, Paul Lasley, Steven C. Padgitt, Eldon R. Everhart, Gary Peterson, Naomi Maahs Jan 1997

Building In Integrated Pest Management Network In Cooperation With Iowa Fruit And Vegetable Growers, Mark L. Gleason, Donald R. Lewis, Forrest W. Nutter Jr., Gail R. Nonnecke, Paul Lasley, Steven C. Padgitt, Eldon R. Everhart, Gary Peterson, Naomi Maahs

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Fifty-one commercial growers of apples, strawberries, tomatoes, and/or watermelons cooperated with Iowa State University (ISU) Extension specialists in a three-year program to evaluate IPM control techniques. Scouts and growers monitored pest infestations and diseases such as codling moth on apples, tarnished plant bugs on strawberries, and anthracnose on tomatoes and melons. Growers sprayed only when pest populations or disease risk values reached levels capable of doing crop damage. Weather conditions were monitored for periods favorable to pest outbreaks. On average, ISU researchers estimate that growers applied from 25 to 55 percent fewer insecticide and fungicide sprays (depending on the ...