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Microscopy Of A Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Soybean From An Interspecific Cross Between Glycine Max And G. Soja (Leguminosae), Marianne B. Smith, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner Mar 2002

Microscopy Of A Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Soybean From An Interspecific Cross Between Glycine Max And G. Soja (Leguminosae), Marianne B. Smith, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Cytoplasmic male sterility has been found independently in soybean three times since 1995, but no microscopic investigation has been published. The purpose of this microscopic study was to establish the developmental sequence leading to sterility in a cytoplasmic male-sterile soybean line that has been found to be stable under all environmental conditions tested and to demarcate the temporal and spatial parameters that result in degeneration of the microspores and pollen grains. Light microscopy showed an abnormal development and/or premature degeneration of the tapetum after meiosis II, but some pollen grains persisted until after microspore mitosis. The pollen grains never ...


Calcium Oxalate Crystals In Developing Seeds Of Soybean, H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner Jan 2001

Calcium Oxalate Crystals In Developing Seeds Of Soybean, H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Young developing soybean seeds contain relatively large amounts of calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate crystals. A test for Ca and CaOx indicated that Ca deposits and crystals initially occurred in the funiculus, where a single vascular bundle enters the seed. Crystals formed in the integuments until the embryo enlarged enough to crush the inner portion of the inner integument. Crystals then appeared in the developing cotyledon tissues and embryo axis. All crystals formed in cell vacuoles. Dense bodies and membrane complexes were evident in the funiculus. In the inner integument, cell vacuoles assumed the shape of the future crystals. This presumed ...


Oxalate Content Of Soybean Seeds (Glycine Max:  Leguminosae), Soyfoods, And Other Edible Legumes, Linda K. Massey, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner Jan 2001

Oxalate Content Of Soybean Seeds (Glycine Max:  Leguminosae), Soyfoods, And Other Edible Legumes, Linda K. Massey, Reid G. Palmer, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Consumption of soybeans and food products made from them is increasing because of their desirable nutritional value. However, the oxalate content of seeds from 11 cultivars of soybean showed relatively high levels of total oxalate from 0.67 to 3.5 g/100 g of dry weight. Oxalate primarily was found as calcium oxalate crystals. Thirteen tested commercial soyfoods contained between 16 and 638 mg of total oxalate per serving. These values compare to those of three other legume foods, peanut butter, refried beans, and lentils, which contained 197, 193, and 100 mg of total oxalate per serving, respectively. After ...


Influence Of Herbicide Application To Soybeans On Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatching, Brian C. Levene, Michael D. K. Owen, Gregory L. Tylka Sep 1998

Influence Of Herbicide Application To Soybeans On Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatching, Brian C. Levene, Michael D. K. Owen, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The hatching of Heterodera glycines eggs in soybean root exudates collected after postemergence application of three herbicides, and the hatching potential of H. glycines eggs from females feeding on herbicide-treated plants, were measured in vitro. Hatching in all root exudate solutions (RES) was greater than in deionized water but less than in 0.003 M ZnSO[sub4] solution. Filtering RES with a 0.22-[mu]m-filter increased H. glycines hatching in RES. Application of acifluorfen, bentazon, and lactofen to foliage of soybean plants inhibited hatching of H. glycines eggs from the same plants. Hatching in RES from the different herbicide-treated ...


Quantitative Determination Of Calcium Oxalate And Oxalate In Developing Seeds Of Soybean (Leguminosae), H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, J. Imsande, Harry T. Horner Aug 1997

Quantitative Determination Of Calcium Oxalate And Oxalate In Developing Seeds Of Soybean (Leguminosae), H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, J. Imsande, Harry T. Horner

Botany Publication and Papers

Developing soybean seeds accumulate very large amounts of both soluble oxalate and insoluble crystalline calcium (Ca) oxalate. Use of two methods of detection for the determination of total, soluble, and insoluble oxalate revealed that at +16 d postfertilization, the seeds were 24% dry mass of oxalate, and three-fourths of this oxalate (18%) was bound Ca oxalate. During later seed development, the dry mass of oxalate decreased. Crystals were isolated from the seeds, and X-ray diffraction and polarizing microscopy identified them as Ca oxalate monohydrate. These crystals were a mixture of kinked and straight prismatics. Even though certain plant tissues are ...


Cloning, Mapping, And Analyses Of Expression Of The Em-Like Gene Family In Soybean [Glycine Max (L). Merr.], E. S. Calvo, E. S. Wurtele, R. C. Shoemaker Jun 1997

Cloning, Mapping, And Analyses Of Expression Of The Em-Like Gene Family In Soybean [Glycine Max (L). Merr.], E. S. Calvo, E. S. Wurtele, R. C. Shoemaker

Botany Publication and Papers

The entire Em-like Group-1 late embryogenesis abundant (Lea) gene family from soybean was cloned and characterized. The five Group-1 Lea genes (Sle1-5) were divided into two classes based on sequence identity. Sle1-4 were genetically mapped to four different linkage groups. Nucleotide sequencing indicated that Sle1, Sle2, Sle3, and Sle5 encode polypeptides differing primarily by the presence of a repeated 20-amino acid motif. Sle1 and Sle5 were shown by Northern analysis to be expressed in developing embryos weeks earlier than Sle2 and Sle3. Sle4 was shown ...


Genetics And Cytology Of A New Genic Male-Sterile Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Wei Jin, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer Feb 1997

Genetics And Cytology Of A New Genic Male-Sterile Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Wei Jin, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer

Botany Publication and Papers

Genetic and cytological studies were conducted with a new male-sterile, female-fertile soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] mutant. This mutant was completely male sterile and was inherited as a single-recessive gene. No differences in female or male gamete transmission of the recessive allele were observed between reciprocal cross-pollinations in the F1 or F2 generations. This mutant was not allelic to any previously identified soybean genic male-sterile mutants: ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, or ms6. No linkage was detected between sterility and flower color (W1 locus), or between sterility and pubescence color (T1 locus). Light microscopic and cytological observations of microsporogenesis in ...


Responses Of Heterodera Glycines Populations To A Postemergence Herbicide Mixture And Simulated Insect Defoliation, J. A. Browde, G. L. Tylka, L. P. Pedigo, M. D. K. Owen Dec 1994

Responses Of Heterodera Glycines Populations To A Postemergence Herbicide Mixture And Simulated Insect Defoliation, J. A. Browde, G. L. Tylka, L. P. Pedigo, M. D. K. Owen

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Effects of a mixture of the postemergence herbicides acifluorfen and bentazon, and simulated defoliation expected from green cloverworm on population densities of Heterodera glycines were determined in field plots in Iowa. The herbicide mixture and defoliation each suppressed soybean growth. Population densities of H. glycines were generally lower in herbicide-treated than untreated plots. Population densities of the nematode were unaffected by defoliation in 1988 and 1990-91, but were increased by the treatment in 1989. Key words: acifluorfen, bentazon, defoliation, Glycine max, green cloverworm, herbicide, Heterodera glycines, nematode, Plathypena scabra, postemergence herbicides, soybean, soybean cyst nematode.


Mycorrhizal Fungi-Bradyrhizobium-Soybean Tripartite Symbiosis In Iowa Soils , Samina Khalil Jan 1991

Mycorrhizal Fungi-Bradyrhizobium-Soybean Tripartite Symbiosis In Iowa Soils , Samina Khalil

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] makes use of two important symbiotic microbial systems: the rhizobial system, in which Bradyrhizobium japonicum fix atmospheric N2 in root nodules, and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal system, in which VAM fungi increase uptake of phosphate and/or other nutrients from the soil or improve plant drought tolerance. Research has confirmed the advantage of bradyrhizobial and mycorrhizal associations in N and P deficient soils; however, these associations may be inhibitory, or have little effect on plant growth in well-fertilized soils. In Iowa over the past 30-40 years, farmers have been adding large quantities of fertilizers to get ...


Net Photosynthesis And Evapotranspiration Of Field-Grown Soybean Canopies , Wayne Robert Hansen Jan 1972

Net Photosynthesis And Evapotranspiration Of Field-Grown Soybean Canopies , Wayne Robert Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Soybean Response To Nitrogen Fertility, Photoperiod, Root Pruning, Kinetin And Shoot Apex Removal , David Lee Stamp Jan 1971

Soybean Response To Nitrogen Fertility, Photoperiod, Root Pruning, Kinetin And Shoot Apex Removal , David Lee Stamp

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Tiba On The Action Of 2, 4-D On Plants , Evaristo Lazo Jan 1971

Effect Of Tiba On The Action Of 2, 4-D On Plants , Evaristo Lazo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Remote Detection Of Moisture Stress: Field And Laboratory Experiments , Richard Eugene Carlson Jan 1971

Remote Detection Of Moisture Stress: Field And Laboratory Experiments , Richard Eugene Carlson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Net Photosynthesis Of Soybean Leaves As Influenced By Anatomy, Respiration, And Variety , Gary Marvin Dornhoff Jan 1971

Net Photosynthesis Of Soybean Leaves As Influenced By Anatomy, Respiration, And Variety , Gary Marvin Dornhoff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Dry Matter Changes And Carbohydrate Metabolism Of Germinating Soybeans , Abdul Hyatt Wahab Jan 1971

Dry Matter Changes And Carbohydrate Metabolism Of Germinating Soybeans , Abdul Hyatt Wahab

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Physiological And Biochemical Changes And Field Performance Of Deteriorated Soybean Seeds , Oghenetsavbuko Todo Edje Jan 1970

Physiological And Biochemical Changes And Field Performance Of Deteriorated Soybean Seeds , Oghenetsavbuko Todo Edje

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Physiological Bases For The Temperature-Dependent Short Growth Of Hypocotyls In Some Varieties Of Soybean , Cyrus Samimy Jan 1970

Physiological Bases For The Temperature-Dependent Short Growth Of Hypocotyls In Some Varieties Of Soybean , Cyrus Samimy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Bacteria-Free Soybean Plants , Jerry Fred Strissel Jan 1970

Bacteria-Free Soybean Plants , Jerry Fred Strissel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Populations Of Rhizobium Japonicum In Iowa Soils And Inoculum Level Needed For Nodulation Of Glycine Max (L.) Merrill , Richard Wayne Weaver Jan 1970

Populations Of Rhizobium Japonicum In Iowa Soils And Inoculum Level Needed For Nodulation Of Glycine Max (L.) Merrill , Richard Wayne Weaver

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Environmental Variables And Plant Morphology On Leaf Resistances, Leaf Temperatures And Relative Water Content In Soybeans , Kenneth Ross Stevenson Jan 1969

The Effects Of Environmental Variables And Plant Morphology On Leaf Resistances, Leaf Temperatures And Relative Water Content In Soybeans , Kenneth Ross Stevenson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Natural And Induced Variation In Soybean Seed Quality During Maturation , Robert Benjamin Metzer Jan 1967

Natural And Induced Variation In Soybean Seed Quality During Maturation , Robert Benjamin Metzer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Differential Responses Of Soybean Varieties To Application Of Phosphorus, Potassium And Calcium Carbonate Materials With Respect To Leaf Composition And Yield , Cornelis Jacobus De Mooy Jan 1965

Differential Responses Of Soybean Varieties To Application Of Phosphorus, Potassium And Calcium Carbonate Materials With Respect To Leaf Composition And Yield , Cornelis Jacobus De Mooy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Kinetics Of Photosynthate Translocation, Donald Boyd Fisher Jan 1965

Kinetics Of Photosynthate Translocation, Donald Boyd Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Growth Regulators On Reproduction In Soybeans , Howard A. L. Greer Jan 1964

Effect Of Growth Regulators On Reproduction In Soybeans , Howard A. L. Greer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Developmental Vegetative Morphology Of Glycine Max , Jerome P. Miksche Jan 1959

Developmental Vegetative Morphology Of Glycine Max , Jerome P. Miksche

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Phenological Study Of Soybeans In Iowa And Ontario, Canada , Donald Murray Brown Jan 1958

A Phenological Study Of Soybeans In Iowa And Ontario, Canada , Donald Murray Brown

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Floral Induction In Soja Max , John Edwin Fisher Jan 1953

Floral Induction In Soja Max , John Edwin Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Translocation In Soybean Plants , Leo Preston Vernon Jan 1951

Translocation In Soybean Plants , Leo Preston Vernon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Chemical Investigations Of The Effect Of Fertilizer Ratios And Green Manures On Yields And Composition Of Crops And The Organic Matter In Norfolk Sand , James Edward Adams Jan 1936

Chemical Investigations Of The Effect Of Fertilizer Ratios And Green Manures On Yields And Composition Of Crops And The Organic Matter In Norfolk Sand , James Edward Adams

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The data presented have been obtained from a combined field and laboratory study conducted on Norfolk sand; this type of soil is prevalent throughout the sand-hill region of the Carolinas and Georgia. Investigations concerning the relative efficiencies of fertilizers and crop residues as sources of nitrogen for corn and cotton have been made. These involved a comparison of legumes used as green manures; i.e., soybeans, velvet beans, and cowpeas, with only the stubble turned; a low-nitrogen fertilizer was applied to the crops grown on the green manure plats, while a high-nitrogen ratio was used on the stubble plats. These ...