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Impact Of Spontaneous Haploid Genome Doubling In Maize Breeding, Nicholas A. Boerman, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt Mar 2020

Impact Of Spontaneous Haploid Genome Doubling In Maize Breeding, Nicholas A. Boerman, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Doubled haploid (DH) technology has changed the maize-breeding landscape in recent years. Traditionally, DH production requires the use of chemical doubling agents to induce haploid genome doubling and, subsequently, male fertility. These chemicals can be harmful to humans and the plants themselves, and typically result in a doubling rate of 10%–30%. Spontaneous genome doubling and male fertility of maize haploids, without using chemical doubling agents, have been observed to a limited extent, for nearly 70 years. Rates of spontaneous haploid genome doubling (SHGD) have ranged from less than 5% to greater than 50%. Recently, there has been increased interest ...


A Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Vector For Gene Expression In Maize, Yu Mei, Guanjun Liu, Chunquan Zhang, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham Aug 2019

A Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Vector For Gene Expression In Maize, Yu Mei, Guanjun Liu, Chunquan Zhang, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Zea mays L. ssp. mays (maize) is an important crop plant as well as model system for genetics and plant biology. The ability to select among different virus‐based platforms for transient gene silencing or protein expression experiments is expected to facilitate studies of gene function in maize and complement experiments with stable transgenes. Here, we describe the development of a sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) vector for the purpose of protein expression in maize. An infectious SCMV cDNA clone was constructed, and heterologous genetic elements were placed between the protein 1 (P1) and helper component‐proteinase (HC‐Pro) cistrons in ...


Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee Jul 2019

Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Exploring the metabolic differences directly on tissues is essential for the comprehensive understanding of how multicellular organisms function. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an attractive technique toward this goal; however, MSI in metabolomics scale has been hindered by multiple limitations. This is most notable for single cell level high-spatial resolution imaging because of the limited number of molecules in small sampling size and the low ionization yields of many metabolites. Several on-tissue chemical derivatization approaches have been reported to increase MSI signals of targeted compounds, especially in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)- MSI. Herein, we adopt a combination of chemical ...


Assessment Of Inducibility And Spontaneous Haploid Genome Doubling In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Benjamin Thomas Trampe Jan 2019

Assessment Of Inducibility And Spontaneous Haploid Genome Doubling In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Benjamin Thomas Trampe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maize is a staple food, fuel, and feed crop grown around the world. Doubled haploid technology allows for the quick of development of inbred lines for hybrid development. The maternal in vivo doubled haploid system has gained rapid adoption by the maize breeding sector within the last 10 years. There have been significant improvements in the doubled haploid technology, which made it commercially viable. Within the doubled haploid system, there is limited genetic information about the two important traits that control the ability of generating doubled haploids, which are inducibility and spontaneous haploid genome doubling. Better understanding of these two ...


Impact Of A Foliar Applied Silicate Product On The Observed And Measured Stalk Strength Of Inbred Maize, Mikkal Hodge Jan 2019

Impact Of A Foliar Applied Silicate Product On The Observed And Measured Stalk Strength Of Inbred Maize, Mikkal Hodge

Creative Components

No abstract provided.


Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth Jan 2019

Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maize-based agricultural systems dominate the U.S. Midwest landscape and maintaining productive systems in the short- and long-term are high priorities for the agricultural sector. Climate change has and will continue to alter the environment in which farmers produce their crops. Information and recommendations are necessary for understanding the magnitude of warming and adaptation strategies that can mitigate intensified precipitation events, moisture shortages, and increased temperatures. The multi-faceted changes in temperature were aggregated using thermal time as an agro-climate index to describe the warming relevant for producing maize. Across 1054 counties, the change in thermal time since 1950 was disproportionally ...


Light Intensity Influences Leaf Fusing In Maize Seedlings, John Tunink Jan 2019

Light Intensity Influences Leaf Fusing In Maize Seedlings, John Tunink

Creative Components

Maize (Zea mays L.) is grown year-round by seed companies in controlled environments to continually advance new germplasm, unimpeded by season. During winter months, maize seedlings can exhibit a physiological disorder in which newly emerging leaves from the whorl become tightly wrapped, resulting in necrosis and preventing new growth from emerging, hereafter referred to as leaf fusing. These symptoms have been recognized as a calcium deficiency in maize. Experiments were conducted to test hypotheses of light as an environmental catalyst to induce maize leaf fusing and that supplemental light emitting diode (LED) lighting or changes to soil substrate, could remediate ...


Analysis Of The Genetic Architecture Of Maize Kernel Size Traits By Combined Linkage And Association Mapping, Min Liu, Xiaolong Tan, Yan Yang, Peng Liu, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yinchao Zhang, Lei Wang, Yu Hu, Langlang Ma, Zhaoling Li, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Haijian Lin, Shibin Gao, Michael Lee, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen Jan 2019

Analysis Of The Genetic Architecture Of Maize Kernel Size Traits By Combined Linkage And Association Mapping, Min Liu, Xiaolong Tan, Yan Yang, Peng Liu, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yinchao Zhang, Lei Wang, Yu Hu, Langlang Ma, Zhaoling Li, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Haijian Lin, Shibin Gao, Michael Lee, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen

Agronomy Publications

Kernel size‐related traits are the most direct traits correlating with grain yield. The genetic basis of three kernel traits of maize, kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW) and kernel thickness (KT), was investigated in an association panel and a biparental population. A total of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected to be most significantly (P < 2.25 × 10−6) associated with these three traits in the association panel under four environments. Furthermore, 50 quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits were detected in seven environments in the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population, of which eight were repetitively identified in at least three environments. Combining the two mapping populations revealed that 56 SNPs (P < 1 × 10−3) fell within 18 of the QTL confidence intervals. According to the top significant SNPs, stable‐effect SNPs and the co‐localized SNPs by association analysis and linkage mapping, a total of 73 candidate genes were identified, regulating seed development. Additionally, seven miRNAs were found to situate within the linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions of the co‐localized SNPs, of which zma‐miR164e was demonstrated to cleave the mRNAs of Arabidopsis CUC1, CUC2 and NAC6 in vitro. Overexpression of zma‐miR164e resulted in the down‐regulation of these genes above and the failure of seed formation in Arabidopsis pods, with the increased branch number. These findings provide insights into the mechanism of ...


Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers Jan 2019

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

Agronomy Publications

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


Assessing Variation In Maize Grain Nitrogen Concentration And Its Implications For Estimating Nitrogen Balance In The Us North Central Region, Fatima A. M. Tenorio, Alison J. Eagle, Eileen L. Mclellan, Kenneth G. Cassman, Reka Howard, Fred E. Below, David E. Clay, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Allen B. Geyer, Darin K. Joos, Joseph G. Lauer, Mark A. Licht, Alexander J. Lindsey, Bijesh Maharjan, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Peter R. Thomison, Charles S. Wortmann, Victor O. Sadras, Patricio Grassini Nov 2018

Assessing Variation In Maize Grain Nitrogen Concentration And Its Implications For Estimating Nitrogen Balance In The Us North Central Region, Fatima A. M. Tenorio, Alison J. Eagle, Eileen L. Mclellan, Kenneth G. Cassman, Reka Howard, Fred E. Below, David E. Clay, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Allen B. Geyer, Darin K. Joos, Joseph G. Lauer, Mark A. Licht, Alexander J. Lindsey, Bijesh Maharjan, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Peter R. Thomison, Charles S. Wortmann, Victor O. Sadras, Patricio Grassini

Agronomy Publications

Accurate estimation of nitrogen (N) balance (a measure of potential N losses) in producer fields requires information on grain N concentration (GNC) to estimate grain-N removal, which is rarely measured by producers. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine the degree to which variation in GNC can affect estimation of grain-N removal, (ii) identify major factors influencing GNC, and (iii) develop a predictive model to estimate GNC, analyzing the uncertainty in predicted grain-N removal at field and regional levels. We compiled GNC data from published literature and unpublished databases using explicit criteria to only include experiments that portray ...


Genotypic Variation In Anthocyanins, Phenolic Compounds, And Antioxidant Activity In Cob And Husk Of Purple Field Corn, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Danupol Ketthaisong, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn Nov 2018

Genotypic Variation In Anthocyanins, Phenolic Compounds, And Antioxidant Activity In Cob And Husk Of Purple Field Corn, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Danupol Ketthaisong, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn

Agronomy Publications

Information on phytochemicals in the cob and husk of field corn is important for the use of corn waste in the production of value-added corn products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity, as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in 53 purple field corn genotypes, and to study the correlations of these traits with color parameters. Fifty-three corn genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two locations in the ...


Heterosis-Related Genes Under Different Planting Densities In Maize, Juan Ma, Dengfeng Zhang, Yanyong Cao, Lifeng Wang, Jingjing Li, Thomas Lubberstedt, Tianyu Wang, Yu Li, Huiyong Li Aug 2018

Heterosis-Related Genes Under Different Planting Densities In Maize, Juan Ma, Dengfeng Zhang, Yanyong Cao, Lifeng Wang, Jingjing Li, Thomas Lubberstedt, Tianyu Wang, Yu Li, Huiyong Li

Agronomy Publications

Heterosis and increasing planting density have contributed to improving maize grain yield (GY) for several decades. As planting densities increase, the GY per plot also increases whereas the contribution of heterosis to GY decreases. There are trade-offs between heterosis and planting density, and the transcriptional characterization of heterosis may explain the mechanism involved. In this study, 48 transcriptome libraries were sequenced from four inbred Chinese maize lines and their F1 hybrids. They were planted at densities of 45,000 plants/ha and 67,500 plants/ha. Maternal-effect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) played important roles in processes related to photosynthesis and ...


Direct Production Of Dihydroxylated Sesquiterpenoids By A Maize Terpene Synthase, Jin Liang, Jiang Liu, Reid Brown, Meirong Jia, Ke Zhou, Reuben J. Peters, Qiang Wang Jun 2018

Direct Production Of Dihydroxylated Sesquiterpenoids By A Maize Terpene Synthase, Jin Liang, Jiang Liu, Reid Brown, Meirong Jia, Ke Zhou, Reuben J. Peters, Qiang Wang

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The astounding structural and biological diversity of the large class of terpenoid natural products are imparted by both their complex hydrocarbon backbones and further elaboration by the addition of multiple hydroxyl groups, which provide both solubility and specific binding properties. While the role of terpene synthases in generating hydrocarbons with complex backbones is well known, these also are known to generate (singly) hydroxylated products by the addition of water prior to terminating deprotonation. Here a maize sesquiterpene synthase was unexpectedly found to generate dually hydroxylated products directly from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate, primarily eudesmane-2,11-diol, along with two closely related ...


A Solution For Sampling Position Errors In Maize And Soybean Root Mass And Length Estimates, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Mark A. Licht, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis May 2018

A Solution For Sampling Position Errors In Maize And Soybean Root Mass And Length Estimates, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Mark A. Licht, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy Publications

Root mass and length attributes are difficult to obtain in the field and currently there is uniformity among literature studies in estimating the effect of sampling position error. With the objectives of 1) quantifying the sampling position error in calculating weighted average root values per unit area and 2) developing an algorithm to minimize root position sampling error so that existing data in the literature can be used in future studies, we collected and analyzed root mass and length data across four sampling positions (0, 12, 24 and 36 cm distance from the plant row; row-to-row spacing 76 cm) from ...


Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Doubled Haploid Exotic Introgression Lines For Root System Architecture Traits In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Darlene L. Sanchez, Sisi Liu, Rania Ibrahim, Michael Blanco, Thomas Lubberstedt Mar 2018

Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Doubled Haploid Exotic Introgression Lines For Root System Architecture Traits In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Darlene L. Sanchez, Sisi Liu, Rania Ibrahim, Michael Blanco, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Root system architecture (RSA) is becoming recognized as important for water and nutrient acquisition in plants. This study focuses on finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with seedling RSA traits from 300 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from crosses between Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) accessions and inbred lines PHB47 and PHZ51. These DH lines were genotyped using 62,077 SNP markers, while root and shoot phenotype data were collected from 14-day old seedlings. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted using three models to offset false positives/negatives. Multiple SNPs associated with seedling root traits were detected, some of which ...


Colonization History Of The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) In North America: Insights From Random Forest Abc Using Microsatellite Data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, Thomas Guillemaud Mar 2018

Colonization History Of The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) In North America: Insights From Random Forest Abc Using Microsatellite Data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, Thomas Guillemaud

Entomology Publications

First described from western Kansas, USA, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the worst pests of maize. The species is generally thought to be of Mexican origin and to have incidentally followed the expansion of maize cultivation into North America thousands of years ago. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated formally. In this study, the genetic variability of samples collected throughout North America was analysed at 13 microsatellite marker loci to explore precisely the population genetic structure and colonization history of D. v. virgifera. In particular, we used up-to-date approximate Bayesian computation methods based on ...


Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Leaf-Related Traits In An Ibm Syn10 Dh Maize Population Across Three Environments, Langlang Ma, Zhongrong Guan, Zhiteng Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Guangtang Pan, Michael Lee, Yaou Shen, Thomas Lubberstedt Feb 2018

Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Leaf-Related Traits In An Ibm Syn10 Dh Maize Population Across Three Environments, Langlang Ma, Zhongrong Guan, Zhiteng Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Guangtang Pan, Michael Lee, Yaou Shen, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Leaf-related traits (leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and leaf angle) are very important for the yield of maize (Zea mays L) due to their influence on plant type. Therefore, it is necessary to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for leaf-related traits. In this report, 221 doubled haploid lines (DHLs) of an IBM Syn10 DH population were provided for QTL mapping. In total, 54 QTLs were detected for leaf-related traits in single environments using a high-density genetic linkage map. Among them, only eight common QTLs were identified across two or three environments, and the common QTLs for the four traits ...


Qtl Mapping In Three Connected Populations Reveals A Set Of Consensus Genomic Regions For Low Temperature Germination Ability In Zea Mays L., Xuhui Li, Guihua Wang, Junjie Fu, Li Li, Guangyao Jia, Lisha Ren, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guoying Wang, Jianhua Wang, Riliang Gu Jan 2018

Qtl Mapping In Three Connected Populations Reveals A Set Of Consensus Genomic Regions For Low Temperature Germination Ability In Zea Mays L., Xuhui Li, Guihua Wang, Junjie Fu, Li Li, Guangyao Jia, Lisha Ren, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guoying Wang, Jianhua Wang, Riliang Gu

Agronomy Publications

Improving seed vigor in response to cold stress is an important breeding objective in maize that allows early sowing. Using two cold tolerant inbred lines 220 and P9-10 and two susceptible lines Y1518 and PH4CV, three connected F2:3 populations were generated for detecting quantitative trait locus (QTL) related to seed low-temperature germination ability. At 10°C, two germination traits (emergence rate and germination index) were collected from a sand bed and three seedling traits (seedling root length, shoot length, and total length) were extracted from paper rolls. Significant correlations were found among all traits in all populations. Via single-population ...


Functions Of Maize Genes Encoding Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase In Developing Endosperm, Ryan R. Lappe, John W. Baier, Susan K. Boehlein, Ryan Huffman, Qiaohui Lin, Fabrice Wattebled, A. Mark Settles, L. Curtis Hannah, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Hardy Rolletschek, Jon D. Stewart, M. Paul Scott, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers Jan 2018

Functions Of Maize Genes Encoding Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase In Developing Endosperm, Ryan R. Lappe, John W. Baier, Susan K. Boehlein, Ryan Huffman, Qiaohui Lin, Fabrice Wattebled, A. Mark Settles, L. Curtis Hannah, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Hardy Rolletschek, Jon D. Stewart, M. Paul Scott, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers

Agronomy Publications

Maize opaque2 (o2) mutations are beneficial for endosperm nutritional quality but cause negative pleiotropic effects for reasons that are not fully understood. Direct targets of the bZIP transcriptional regulator encoded by o2 include pdk1 and pdk2 that specify pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). This enzyme reversibly converts AMP, pyrophosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate to ATP, orthophosphate, and pyruvate and provides diverse functions in plants. This study addressed PPDK function in maize starchy endosperm where it is highly abundant during grain fill. pdk1 and pdk2 were inactivated individually by transposon insertions, and both genes were simultaneously targeted by endosperm-specific RNAi. pdk2 accounts for the ...


Cover Crop Effects On Maize Productivity: Insights From Statistical And Process-Based Models, Guillermo Marcillo Jan 2018

Cover Crop Effects On Maize Productivity: Insights From Statistical And Process-Based Models, Guillermo Marcillo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Winter cover crops can be an effective strategy to buffer soil and water impairing effects from intensively managed agriculture. While cover crops have shown potential to sequester off-season nitrate, control weeds, or promote nutrient cycling, knowledge gaps persist in regard to maize impacts driven by cover crop decision making. In this context, statistical and process-based models can be valuable tools for predicting changes in maize systems that include a winter cover crop. In a meta-analysis combining peer-reviewed research from several regions in the US, grain yields were found to change between 0 and 21% when maize (Zea mays L.) followed ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Daily Light Integral Or Photoperiod On Maize Tassel Morphology Across Developmental Stages, Elizabeth Ann Trecker Jan 2018

Quantifying The Effects Of Daily Light Integral Or Photoperiod On Maize Tassel Morphology Across Developmental Stages, Elizabeth Ann Trecker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important agronomic crop throughout the world. Maize seed production and trait introgression is performed in both field and greenhouse settings (which allow for continual production seasons). The winter months within the greenhouses produce maize tassels with increased barren tassel branches (suppressed anther production) and the hypothesis is that the most limiting factor is daily light integral (DLI). Growing maize year-round in temperate regions, such as the northern part of the United States, requires the use-of greenhouse production. The low light intensities of these regions in the winter months creates a need for supplemental ...


Nutritional Quality And Performance Evaluation Of Hybrid And Open-Pollinated Maize, Zachary Paige Jan 2018

Nutritional Quality And Performance Evaluation Of Hybrid And Open-Pollinated Maize, Zachary Paige

Creative Components

The value of organically produced maize (Zea mays L.) is increased as traits such as nutrient content are improved (Berzonsky, 2000). For example, maize with high methionine and lysine concentrations, both critical to egg, meat and general bird health, may have the potential to reduce at least some fraction of synthetic additives (Moore et al., 2008; Adeyemo, 2012). In most grain crops, the protein component is lower than what is needed to meet dietary requirements of humans and most other non-ruminants (Peterson, 2000). Modern maize breeding and selection for large starchy kernels may have contributed to reduced concentration of essential ...


Biomass Production And Composition Of Temperate And Tropical Maize In Central Iowa, Pedro Alexander Infante, Ken Moore, Charlie Hurburgh, Paul Scott, Sotirios Archontoulis, Andrew Lenssen, Shuizhang Fei Jan 2018

Biomass Production And Composition Of Temperate And Tropical Maize In Central Iowa, Pedro Alexander Infante, Ken Moore, Charlie Hurburgh, Paul Scott, Sotirios Archontoulis, Andrew Lenssen, Shuizhang Fei

Agronomy Publications

Bioethanol production in the midwestern U.S. has largely focused on maize (Zea mays L.) grain for starch-based ethanol production. There has been growing interest in lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels. Because maize adapted to the tropics does not initiate senescence as early as temperate-adapted maize, using a tropical germplasm could improve biomass yield. This study compares the suitability of temperate and tropical maize with differing relative maturities as feedstocks for bioethanol production. Field trials were established in central Iowa during the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Six hybrids of different relative maturities were grown at two levels ...


The Effect Of Five Biomass Cropping Systems On Soil-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Across A Topographic Gradient, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Matthew J. Helmers, Randall K. Kolka Sep 2017

The Effect Of Five Biomass Cropping Systems On Soil-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Across A Topographic Gradient, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Matthew J. Helmers, Randall K. Kolka

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Understanding the environmental impact of bioenergy crops is needed to inform bioenergy policy development. We determined the effects of five biomass cropping systems—continuous maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max)-triticale (Triticosecale ×)/soybean-maize, maize-switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), triticale/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and triticale-aspen (Populus alba × P. grandidentata)—on soil-saturated hydraulic conductivity (K S ) across a toposequence in central Iowa, USA. We compared data from the time of cropping system establishment in 2009 to 4 years post-establishment. Both our 2009 and 2013 data confirmed that cropping system impacts on K S vary by landscape position. We found that differences in cropping system ...


Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Seed Set In Cereal Crop Species Under Stress And Non-Stress Conditions, Li Hui-Yong, Thomas Lubberstedt Aug 2017

Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Seed Set In Cereal Crop Species Under Stress And Non-Stress Conditions, Li Hui-Yong, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Maximizing seed yield is the ultimate breeding goal in important cereal crop species. Seed set is a key developmental stage in the process of seed formation, which determines grain number, seed mass, and realized yield potential, and can be severely affected by abiotic and biotic stress. However, seed set can also be substantially reduced by genetic factors even under optimal fertilization conditions. The underlying molecular genetic mechanisms are still obscure. In this review, we elucidate the process of seed set of cereal crop species in detail, including development of floral structures, formation of viable gametes, double fertilization, seed development and ...


Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee Aug 2017

Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by GC-MS analysis of polar metabolites also ...


Complexity And Specificity Of The Maize (Zea Mays L.) Root Hair Transcriptome, Stefan Hey, Jutta Baldauf, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger Apr 2017

Complexity And Specificity Of The Maize (Zea Mays L.) Root Hair Transcriptome, Stefan Hey, Jutta Baldauf, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger

Statistics Publications

Root hairs are tubular extensions of epidermis cells. Transcriptome profiling demonstrated that the single cell-type root hair transcriptome was less complex than the transcriptome of multiple cell-type primary roots without root hairs. In total, 831 genes were exclusively and 5585 genes were preferentially expressed in root hairs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%]. Among those, the most significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) functional terms were related to energy metabolism, highlighting the high energy demand for the development and function of root hairs. Subsequently, the maize homologs for 138 Arabidopsis genes known to be involved in root hair development were identified and ...


An Atypical Thioredoxin Imparts Early Resistance To Sugarcane Mosaic Virus In Maize, Qingqing Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Yangqing Gong, Yongfu Tao, Lu Jiang, Weiliang Zuo, Qin Yang, Jianrong Ye, Jinsheng Lai, Jianyu Wu, Thomas Lubberstedt, Mingliang Xu Mar 2017

An Atypical Thioredoxin Imparts Early Resistance To Sugarcane Mosaic Virus In Maize, Qingqing Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Yangqing Gong, Yongfu Tao, Lu Jiang, Weiliang Zuo, Qin Yang, Jianrong Ye, Jinsheng Lai, Jianyu Wu, Thomas Lubberstedt, Mingliang Xu

Agronomy Publications

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) causes substantial losses of grain yield and forage biomass in susceptible maize worldwide. A major quantitative trait locus, Scmv1, has been identified to impart strong resistance to SCMV at the early infection stage. Here, we demonstrate that ZmTrxh, encoding an atypical h-type thioredoxin, is the causal gene at Scmv1, and that its transcript abundance correlated strongly with maize resistance to SCMV. ZmTrxh alleles, whether they are resistant or susceptible, share the identical coding/proximal promoter regions, but vary in the upstream regulatory regions. ZmTrxh lacks two canonical cysteines in the thioredoxin active-site motif and exists uniquely ...


An Agrobacterium-Delivered Crispr/Cas9 System For High-Frequency Targeted Mutagenesis In Maize, Si Nian Char, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Hartinio Nahampun, Bronwyn Frame, Marcy Main, Martin H. Spalding, Philip W. Becraft, Blake C. Meyers, Virginia Walbot, Kan Wang, Bing Yang Feb 2017

An Agrobacterium-Delivered Crispr/Cas9 System For High-Frequency Targeted Mutagenesis In Maize, Si Nian Char, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Hartinio Nahampun, Bronwyn Frame, Marcy Main, Martin H. Spalding, Philip W. Becraft, Blake C. Meyers, Virginia Walbot, Kan Wang, Bing Yang

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing tool in many organisms, including a number of monocots and dicots. Although the design and application of CRISPR/Cas9 is simpler compared to other nuclease-based genome editing tools, optimization requires the consideration of the DNA delivery and tissue regeneration methods for a particular species to achieve accuracy and efficiency. Here, we describe a public sector system, ISU Maize CRISPR, utilizing Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize. This system consists of an Escherichia coli cloning vector and an Agrobacterium binary vector. It can be used to clone up to four ...


Molecular And Phenotypic Characterization Of Doubled Haploid Exotic Introgression Lines For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Maize, Darlene Lonjas Sanchez Jan 2017

Molecular And Phenotypic Characterization Of Doubled Haploid Exotic Introgression Lines For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Maize, Darlene Lonjas Sanchez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen (N) is an important macroelement for promoting crop growth and development, and is essential for increased grain yield. However, less than half of the N fertilizer applied goes into the grain, and excess N goes back into the environment. Developing maize hybrids with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) can help minimize N losses, and in turn reduce adverse ecological, economical, and health consequences. The root system plays a major role in the acquisition of N, as well as water and nutrients; thus, selecting for root architecture traits ideal for N uptake might help improve NUE in maize. This project ...