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The Source Matters For Getting The Most Out Of Aerial Imagery, Matthew J. Darr, Zachery S. Vanderleest, Ryan William Bergman, Christopher J. Murphy Mar 2016

The Source Matters For Getting The Most Out Of Aerial Imagery, Matthew J. Darr, Zachery S. Vanderleest, Ryan William Bergman, Christopher J. Murphy

Integrated Crop Management News

As spring plans are finalized, don’t forget to consider aerial imaging as part of a continuous improvement plan. Remote sensing and the use of aerial imagery has been used for decades in agriculture but since 2010 we’ve seen the number of available imagery providers grow extensively. The use of imagery can vary from farm to farm but several common uses include variable rate fertility recommendations, assessing water management performance, quantifying soil compaction and machinery induced yield limiters, locating late season weed outbreaks, and generally evaluating the consistency of crop vigor across a field.


Selecting Nozzles For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna Feb 2016

Selecting Nozzles For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

An earlier ICM News article discussing affects of nozzle type and size on spray coverage prompted a question from a farmer regarding nozzle selection. In recent years there have been many advances in nozzle design. The primary improvement has been development of nozzles that minimize the formation of driftable droplets (< 200 micron) while still producing a droplet spectrum that provides the level of coverage required for consistent, postemergence weed control.


Spray Volume Is Critical For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna Feb 2016

Spray Volume Is Critical For Postemergence Herbicides, Robert G. Hartzler, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

Proper herbicide application is critical to ensure products achieve their full potential for weed control. For postemergence herbicides, this includes application to appropriately sized weeds and equipping the sprayer to achieve uniform coverage of target weeds. Weed scientists at Purdue University recently reported on the influence of nozzle type and spray volume on target coverage within the soybean canopy. A traditional flat fan (XR) nozzle and three drift reduction nozzles were included in the study. The XR nozzle produced more driftable droplets than the other nozzles, and the two types of air induction nozzles had much less volume in small ...


Nation’S Premier Site For Water Quality Drives Progress, Matt J. Helmers Jan 2016

Nation’S Premier Site For Water Quality Drives Progress, Matt J. Helmers

Integrated Crop Management News

A farm just outside the north-central Iowa town is home to Iowa State University’s Agriculture Drainage Research and Demonstration Site, a facility that has been working to further Iowa State University’s water conservation efforts since 1990. The site was born out of the Iowa Groundwater Protection Act, a piece of legislation passed in 1987 that generated funds from fees on pesticide manufacturing registrations, pesticide dealer licensing and a tax on fertilizer sales. A portion of the funds were used to create the 11-acre research site, with Iowa State University partnering with the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land ...


What A Difference The Weather Makes, Charles R. Hurburgh Oct 2015

What A Difference The Weather Makes, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

A few weeks ago a cool and wet long range forecast meant that large volumes of wet grains would be coming out of the field, at highly variable quality. Well, that did not happen. Warm temperatures and low dewpoints (dry air) since Labor Day have completely changed the crop quality picture. While there are still instances of wet grain and areas with delayed harvest from early September rains, overall the Iowa corn and soybean crops have had a marked reversal from what we anticipated.


Pay Attention To Stored Grain, Charles R. Hurburgh Mar 2015

Pay Attention To Stored Grain, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

The first significant warmup of the year should be a reminder to check stored grain frequently. If good practices were followed through the fall and winter seasons, grain temperatures should be in the 30s or below. Grain moistures last fall were above average, and there are many bins with corn moistures in the range of 16-20%. This wetter grain will spoil quickly if grain temperatures rise.


Denitrification And Nitrous Oxide Emissions In Annual Croplands, Perennial Grass Buffers, And Restored Perennial Grasslands, Javed Iqbal, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Xiaobo Zhou, Michael J. Castellano Jan 2015

Denitrification And Nitrous Oxide Emissions In Annual Croplands, Perennial Grass Buffers, And Restored Perennial Grasslands, Javed Iqbal, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Xiaobo Zhou, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFSs) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease NO3–N losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFSs are similar to riparian buffers, the processes responsible for NO3–N removal from PFSs are not well understood. Our objectives were to (i) determine the importance of denitrification as a sink for NO3–N loss from PFSs and (ii) evaluate how PFSs alter the biophysical processes that affect the relative importance of N2O and N2 emissions. To address our objectives, we used a coupled field laboratory approach with ...


Comparing Nitrate Sink Strength In Perennial Filter Strips At Toeslopes Of Cropland Watersheds, David C. Mitchell, Xiaobo Zhou, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Michael J. Castellano Jan 2015

Comparing Nitrate Sink Strength In Perennial Filter Strips At Toeslopes Of Cropland Watersheds, David C. Mitchell, Xiaobo Zhou, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Integration of perennial filter strips (PFS) into the toeslopes of agricultural watersheds may decrease downstream nitrate (NO3) losses. However, long-term NO3 removal depends on the relative importance of several NO3 sinks in the PFS. Plant biomass and labile soil organic matter (SOM) are temporary NO3 sinks, while stable SOM is a long-term, but potentially finite, NO3 sink. In contrast, denitrification is a permanent NO3 sink. We investigated the relative importance of these NO3 sinks in PFS at the toeslope of row crop watersheds in Iowa. Using 25- × 30-cm in situ mesocosms, we added ...


Investigation Of Bacteria Transport And Resistance Mechanisms And Implications For Water Quality From Confinement Swine And Beef Grazing Production Systems In Iowa, Michelle Soupir, Matt Helmers, Michael L. Thompson, Laura R. Jarboe, Antonio P. Mallarino, Ramesh S. Kanwar Jan 2015

Investigation Of Bacteria Transport And Resistance Mechanisms And Implications For Water Quality From Confinement Swine And Beef Grazing Production Systems In Iowa, Michelle Soupir, Matt Helmers, Michael L. Thompson, Laura R. Jarboe, Antonio P. Mallarino, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

This multi-scale, multi-year study was conducted to begin answering questions related to the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria from land receiving manure application. Experiments were conducted on tile water drainage at an ISU Research Farm in northeast Iowa.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer Jan 2015

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Day-to-day farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or monitoring tractor tire inflation pressures can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during field operations.


Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Resistance Genes In Crop Fields, Michelle Soupir, Matt Helmers, Thomas Moorman Jan 2015

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Resistance Genes In Crop Fields, Michelle Soupir, Matt Helmers, Thomas Moorman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Antimicrobials are added to swine feed or water to boost the daily growth of pigs and reduce animal death rates at swine facilities, thereby enhancing overall production efficiency and increasing profitability. Tylosin is among the most widely used of the macrolide class of veterinary antibiotics by the swine industry. This study is being conducted over multiple years to examine the fate and transport of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) from fields receiving swine manure application to tile drainage systems.


On-Farm Corn Planter Trials, Jim Fawcett, H. Mark Hanna, Josh Sievers, Zack Koopman Jan 2015

On-Farm Corn Planter Trials, Jim Fawcett, H. Mark Hanna, Josh Sievers, Zack Koopman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Corn planting is one of the most critical operations of the season. Correct seed-soil contact is important in order to optimize yields.


Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Nitrate In Subsurface Drainage Water, Carl Pederson, Matt Helmers, Michelle Soupir, Ramesh Kanwar, Antonio Mallarino Jan 2015

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Nitrate In Subsurface Drainage Water, Carl Pederson, Matt Helmers, Michelle Soupir, Ramesh Kanwar, Antonio Mallarino

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The primary objective of this project was to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen requirements of crops and the potential of nitrate leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this longterm experimental study was to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize the water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as an organic fertilizer. A third component of this study was to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to shallow ground water.


Impact Of Drainage Water Management On Crop Yield, Drainage Volume, And Nitrate Loss, Linda Schott, Matt Helmers, Carl Pederson, Greg Brenneman, Myron Rees Jan 2015

Impact Of Drainage Water Management On Crop Yield, Drainage Volume, And Nitrate Loss, Linda Schott, Matt Helmers, Carl Pederson, Greg Brenneman, Myron Rees

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of shallow, controlled, conventional, and no drainage on crop yields, subsurface drainage volumes, and nitrate loss through subsurface drainage. This research investigates whether drainage water management reduces nitrate loadings to downstream surface waters.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer Jan 2015

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Day-to-day farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or reducing tillage depths can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer Jan 2015

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Day-to-day farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings, reducing tillage depths, and monitoring tractor tire inflation pressures can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during field operations.


Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth Mccabe, William Graves, David Grewell Jan 2015

Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth Mccabe, William Graves, David Grewell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Container-crops horticultural industries rely almost exclusively on petroleum-based plastic containers for modern production systems. Containers made of these materials fulfill all of the functions required during crop production, and perform better than containers made of clay, peat, and other natural materials, but the source of the plastic materials (fossil carbon), their lack of biodegradability, and their end-of-life disposal (97% end up in landfills) are major obstacles to sustainability. Although function and efficiency are among the most important aspects in determining the best materials for horticultural containers, there is no need for containers to persist in the environment for decades when ...


Impacts Of Cover Crops On Phosphorus And Nitrogen Loss With Surface Runoff, Antonio Mallarino, Richard Cruse, Dan Jaynes, John Sawyer, Pablo Barbieri Jan 2015

Impacts Of Cover Crops On Phosphorus And Nitrogen Loss With Surface Runoff, Antonio Mallarino, Richard Cruse, Dan Jaynes, John Sawyer, Pablo Barbieri

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Iowa research has demonstrated that cover crops can improve soil productivity and water quality by increasing soil organic matter and reducing nitrate nitrogen (N) leaching. Other research has investigated and is investigating the agronomic and economic viability of using cereal rye cover crops in continuous corn or corn-soybean rotations. However, no Iowa research has evaluated under natural rainfall the impact of cover crops on phosphorus (P) and N loss with surface runoff interacting with other management practices. The need for this type of research was indicated in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy documents. This effort assessed what would be needed ...


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Tractor Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer Jan 2015

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Tractor Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Day-to-day farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings, making use of front-wheel-drive, and other strategies can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production and general tractor operations. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during field operations.


On-Farm Corn Planter Trials, Jim Fawcett, H. Mark Hanna, Josh Sievers, Zack Koopman Jan 2015

On-Farm Corn Planter Trials, Jim Fawcett, H. Mark Hanna, Josh Sievers, Zack Koopman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Corn planting is one of the most critical operations of the season. Correct seed-soil contact is important in order to optimize yields.


Impact Of 4r Management On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Loss In Tile Drainage, Matthew Helmers, John Sawyer, Josh Sievers Jan 2015

Impact Of 4r Management On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Loss In Tile Drainage, Matthew Helmers, John Sawyer, Josh Sievers

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Corn Belt corn and soybean producers are increasingly challenged to maximize crop production while addressing the contributions farm practices make to Gulf hypoxia. Based on the need for nitrate-N reductions to meet water quality goals, new management practices are needed to reduce nitrate-N losses at minimal cost and maximum economic benefits. This three-year field research and demonstration project is evaluating various promising N management methods and technologies by documenting the nitrate-N export and crop yield from various systems.


Pay Attention To Stewardship Requirements For Biotech Grains, Charles R. Hurburgh Oct 2014

Pay Attention To Stewardship Requirements For Biotech Grains, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

Most of us have been following developments in biotechnology approval for many years. The most recent issue is the non-approval of certain corn events by China. Viptera (MIR162) corn has not been approved there since its introduction in 2010; Duracade, new this year, is in the same situation. The greatest impact of the Chinese situation is on distillers grains from ethanol production. China is a major importer of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS); much less so for whole corn.


Mycotoxins Videos Released, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers Oct 2014

Mycotoxins Videos Released, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers

Integrated Crop Management News

For a more in-depth discussion and overview of mycotoxins, the Grain Quality Initiative and the Crop Advisor Institutehave prepared two video modules, Mycotoxins in Feed and Grain Industries.


Update On 2014 Crop Quality, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers Oct 2014

Update On 2014 Crop Quality, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers

Integrated Crop Management News

It seems like a broken record...weather changes have shifted expectations of new crop corn quality. Three weeks ago, somewhat wetter corn than normal but high quality was the forecast. It is clear that the wetter part will come true; early harvest moistures are generally coming in at 18 – 22 percent, which is above average but not high enough to cause severe complications in drying. Field drydown is probably nearly over so do not expect much change in moisture from here on.


July Spray Applications, Clarke Mcgrath, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2014

July Spray Applications, Clarke Mcgrath, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

Applicators using ground sprayers for herbicide may be using higher speeds to catch up with weeds and cover more acres in a narrow time window. If so, they should consider the travel speed they've used to calculate appropriate nozzle size. If field speed increases by 25% (e.g., going from 12 to 15 mi/h), spray pressure for a given nozzle must increase by 56% (e.g., from 40 psi to 63 psi) to maintain output. A better choice to reduce smaller droplets and minimize drift would be to increase nozzle size.


Field Evaluation And System Improvement Of A Semi-Automated Mechanical Intra-Row Weeder For Vegetable Crops, Lie Tang, Kathleen Delate Jan 2014

Field Evaluation And System Improvement Of A Semi-Automated Mechanical Intra-Row Weeder For Vegetable Crops, Lie Tang, Kathleen Delate

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

This was the original project description: This is an expansion of a previous Leopold Center competitive grant (M2009-23), which supported the development of a basic semi-automated mechanical intra-row weed removal system for vegetable crops. The investigators will conduct field trials to evaluate and improve the prototype.


An Automated Mechanical Intra-Row Weed Removal System For Vegetable Crops, Lie Tang Jan 2014

An Automated Mechanical Intra-Row Weed Removal System For Vegetable Crops, Lie Tang

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

This was the original project description: The goal of this project is to develop a practical mechanical intra-row weed control solution for automatically removing weeds from vegetable crops for small and mid-scale Iowa growers. Investigators will explore an optical sensing system and a mechanism to remove weeds with minimal soil disturbance, crop damage and energy input. The project also will demonstrate the effectiveness and economic viability of the system.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings, reducing tillage depths, and monitoring tractor tire inflation pressures can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or reducing tillage depths can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Chisel Plowing, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Chisel Plowing, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or reducing tillage depths can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.