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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

2014

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Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


Nutrient Reduction Strategy Update And Opportunities For Agribusinesses, Jamie Benning Dec 2014

Nutrient Reduction Strategy Update And Opportunities For Agribusinesses, Jamie Benning

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy is a science-based framework that identifies in-field, edge of field, and land use practices that minimize loss of nitrogen and phosphorus to surface water. In addition to reductions in agricultural non-point sources of nutrients, the strategy also identifies reductions for non-agricultural point sources such as municipal wastewater treatment plants. The Hypoxia Task Force identified a goal of reducing the total nitrogen and total phosphorus load by 45%. The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy outlines the effectiveness of the identified agricultural practices to assist farmers in selecting practices individually or in combination to meet their nutrient reduction ...


Strip-Tillage Successes, Watch-Outs Based On Soil Type, Soil Drainage, And Climate, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Dec 2014

Strip-Tillage Successes, Watch-Outs Based On Soil Type, Soil Drainage, And Climate, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The perceived effect of no-tillage on soil temperature, soil moisture conditions, soil compaction, soil productivity, and nitrogen movement and availability has become a major concern among producers considering adopting this tillage system. No-tillage presents a unique challenge in poorly drained soils, in which certain surface soil properties are affected due to the absence of tillage as a corrective measure. Effective tillage systems create an ideal seedbed condition (i.e., soil moisture, temperature, and penetration resistance) for plant emergence, plant development, and unimpeded root growth.


Incorporating Risk Into 4r Nutrient Management Decisions, Peter Kyveryga, Pat Reeg, Tristan Mueller, Chris Anderson Dec 2014

Incorporating Risk Into 4r Nutrient Management Decisions, Peter Kyveryga, Pat Reeg, Tristan Mueller, Chris Anderson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

A substantial amount of the uncertainty and unpredictability related to corn nitrogen (N) management across the Midwest can be attributed primarily to several common risk factors: (1) environmental losses of N to water or air, (2) economic penalties from over or under applications of N, and (3) difficulties of quantifying the supply of nitrogen available from the soil, and therefore, making adjustments for in-season weather. Rainfall plays a crucial role in controlling all of these risk factors, but its effects on N management are difficult to quantify when making management decisions for unobserved or future situations.


Fertilizer Situation And Outlook, David Asbridge Dec 2014

Fertilizer Situation And Outlook, David Asbridge

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

No abstract provided.


Nutrient Management Plus With Perennial Grass Strips, Matt Liebman, Tim Youngquist, Ken Moore, Jill Euken Dec 2014

Nutrient Management Plus With Perennial Grass Strips, Matt Liebman, Tim Youngquist, Ken Moore, Jill Euken

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

This session will share learnings from two applied research projects conducted in Iowa that are designed to 1) decrease soil erosion; 2) improve water quality; 3) provide feedstocks for bioprocessors; and, 4) improve farm profitability.


Fungicide Resistance In Field Crops, Daren Mueller Dec 2014

Fungicide Resistance In Field Crops, Daren Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Herbicide resistant weeds have been in the news quite frequently lately, and rightfully so. Their existence is changing how farmers currently manage weeds in corn and soybean fields. But resistance to pesticides is not limited to weeds. Fungi that cause crop disease can also develop resistance to fungicides. This presentation will cover the basics of fungicide resistance and outline ways to avoid or delay fungicide resistance from occurring. Some of this research is funded through the soybean check off from Iowa Soybean Association and the United Soybean Board. We thank our sponsors for this support.


Crop Weather Outlook 2015, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2014

Crop Weather Outlook 2015, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Midwest suffered the first drought since 1988 during 2012. Chances are that event opened a period of crop weather that will have greater variability (a mixture of very good and of very bad crop years) than we have seen since before 1996.


Corn And Soybean Yield Responses To Micronutrients Fertilization, Antonio P. Mallarino, Joshua T. Enderson, Mazhar U. Haq Dec 2014

Corn And Soybean Yield Responses To Micronutrients Fertilization, Antonio P. Mallarino, Joshua T. Enderson, Mazhar U. Haq

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Micronutrients such as boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) are essential plant nutrients taken up by crops in very small amounts, but a deficiency can have profound effects on yield because they perform important physiological functions. Deficiencies seldom are observed or are widespread in Iowa and neighboring states. Farmers and crop consultants have been asking questions, however, concerning possible yield loss due to deficiency of micronutrients in corn and soybean.


Using Precision Agriculture Technologies For Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Management With Lower Grain Prices And To Improve Water Quality, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2014

Using Precision Agriculture Technologies For Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Management With Lower Grain Prices And To Improve Water Quality, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Crop prices are decreasing after several years of good prices and public concerns about nutrient application impacts on water quality are increasing. The profitability of nutrient management can be increased and impacts on water quality can be decreased by using a variety of precision agriculture technologies.


Using Pesticide Stewardship To Minimize Off-Target Exposures, Gretchen Paluch Dec 2014

Using Pesticide Stewardship To Minimize Off-Target Exposures, Gretchen Paluch

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Fundamental concepts of pesticide stewardship are of increasing importance to support the future of Iowa agriculture. Pesticide applicators are depended upon to integrate these concepts into current crop production practices that face numerous challenges including resistance in pest populations, changes in technology, shifting land use management practices, and the rising costs of production. The complexity of agricultural production and instant access to information empowered by modern technologies are placing increasing importance on efficiency of decision-making practices and communication of on-site assessment.


Corn Nitrogen Rate Management: Facts, Concepts, And Mother Nature, John E. Sawyer Dec 2014

Corn Nitrogen Rate Management: Facts, Concepts, And Mother Nature, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Yearly nitrogen (N) input is typically required for optimal corn yields in the majority of Iowa crop rotations. The exception would be first-year corn following established alfalfa where none to only a small N input is typically needed. If not fertilized with N over time, corn yield will be very limited as the soils ability to supply plantavailable N becomes depleted.


Increasing Profitability In Soybean Production By Optimizing Planting Rates, Tristan Mueller, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga Dec 2014

Increasing Profitability In Soybean Production By Optimizing Planting Rates, Tristan Mueller, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Farmers are interested in better management of seeding rates within soybean fields to increase productivity andeconomic returns. With seed prices trending higher and soybean commodity prices trending lower during the lasttwo years, there are many questions about optimal seeding rates and factors that influence these rates under specificfield conditions.


Sudden Death Syndrome Management Update, Daren Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Leonor Leandro Dec 2014

Sudden Death Syndrome Management Update, Daren Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Leonor Leandro

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) was severe in many fields across Iowa in 2014, resulting in yield loss and frustration for farmers. There are a few positive things that we can learn in a year like this, though. For one, many soybean varieties were pushed to their limits, allowing farmers to get a really good evaluation of the genetic resistance for SDS in a variety. Additionally, other beneficial management strategies can be identified that complement variety resistance.


Cover Crops, Weeds And Herbicides, Bob Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson Dec 2014

Cover Crops, Weeds And Herbicides, Bob Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy and other factors have increased interest in fitting cover crops into Iowa’s cropping systems. The benefits of cover crops are well documented, and include reducing erosion, nutrient losses, and soil compaction. Legume cover crops such as hairy vetch may contribute nitrogen via biological fixation. The extended period of plant growth during times when soil is often left bare also is beneficial for overall soil health. Finally, cover crops can complement weed management programs by suppressing the establishment of weeds. This paper will focus on the interactions between cover crops, weeds and current weed management ...


Corn Diseases Of 2014: Northern Corn Leaf Blight, Physoderma Brown Spot, Ear And Stalk Rots, Alison Robertson Dec 2014

Corn Diseases Of 2014: Northern Corn Leaf Blight, Physoderma Brown Spot, Ear And Stalk Rots, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2014 growing season started with good conditions at planting. Above normal precipitation in June however was prevalent across most of the state and likely played a role in infection and development of Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), Physoderma brown spot and stalk rot, and stalk rot. A dry July brought NCLB to a stand still but frequent precipitation events in August and September enabled further development of the disease. Goss’s wilt was also prevalent on hybrids rated susceptible to moderately susceptible to this disease. Although southern rust was reported, the cooler than normal temperatures in August and September ...


Research Insights In Goss’S Wilt And Leaf Blight, Alison Robertson, Charlie Block, Sharon Eggenberger, Andy Gogherty, Harry Horner, Sally Mallowa, Forrest Nutter, Jeff Sernett, Lisa Shepherd Dec 2014

Research Insights In Goss’S Wilt And Leaf Blight, Alison Robertson, Charlie Block, Sharon Eggenberger, Andy Gogherty, Harry Horner, Sally Mallowa, Forrest Nutter, Jeff Sernett, Lisa Shepherd

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Goss’s wilt and leaf blight is caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn). The disease was first reported in Nebraska in 1969 and soon after in the surrounding states including Iowa. Corn breeders identified resistance to the bacterium and by the 1980s the disease was no longer a threat to corn production except in eastern Nebraska. In 2008, Goss’s leaf blight was reported in eight counties in Iowa. In 2011, the disease was widespread throughout the state and up to 50 percent yield losses occurred in some fields.


Insights Into The Diaporthe/Phomopsis Complex Infecting Soybeans In The United States, Febina M. Mathew, Samuel G. Markell Dec 2014

Insights Into The Diaporthe/Phomopsis Complex Infecting Soybeans In The United States, Febina M. Mathew, Samuel G. Markell

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Diaporthe/Phomopsis species are pathogens on a wide range of hosts including soybeans (Glycine max L.), and responsible for several diseases, some of which are of economic importance. Under favorable environmental conditions, these diseases can result in in significant yield losses (Backman et al. 1985). For example, yield losses from Stem canker in the Midwest have ranged from minor to in excess of 50% (Hartman et al. 1999). Four Diaporthe species have been reported pathogenic on soybean – Diaporthe sojae, the causal agent of pod and stem blight; Diaporthe caulivora and Diaporthe aspalathi, causal agents of Northern and Southern stem cankers ...


Weed Management Update For 2015, Micheal D. K. Owen, Robert G. Hartzler Dec 2014

Weed Management Update For 2015, Micheal D. K. Owen, Robert G. Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Given the environmental conditions in 2013 resulting in delayed herbicide applications and drought later in the summer, the increasing use of “alternative” herbicides and the cool wet conditions in 2014, conditions were excellent for many interesting occurrences. Herbicide carryover was a factor for several products, several products provided evidence why farmers preferred using glyphosate alone, and herbicide-resistant weed populations continue to evolve. It appears that the message of diversity in order to manage herbicide resistance is gaining traction but to the extent that the focus is primarily on herbicides which was the reason that herbicide resistance became such a big ...


The Benefit Of Understanding Biotechnology, Don Lee Dec 2014

The Benefit Of Understanding Biotechnology, Don Lee

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

If you would answer yes to the questions below, then you would benefit from understanding biotechnology: 1. Do farmers ask me to predict the work-load consequences of making different seed product choices? 2. Would the farmers I serve be happy if I can help them slow the evolution of their pest populations? 3. Can I describe how biotechnology will develop to bring new approaches to addressing crop management problems in the future? and 4. Am I considered an expert in my community on the science behind our food production system? This session will provide a chance to explore several on-line ...


Continuous Improvement In The Areas Of Crop, Nutrient, Pest And Soil And Water Management, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga, Tristan Mueller Dec 2014

Continuous Improvement In The Areas Of Crop, Nutrient, Pest And Soil And Water Management, Patrick Reeg, Peter Kyveryga, Tristan Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

During the last 15 years, the Iowa Soybean Association On-Farm Network® has developed and adopted a variety of tools to conduct on-farm studies to improve efficiency and profitability in crop production by engaging farmers in participatory learning. The information collected enables farmers to make informed decisions by examining results of on-farm studies evaluating different products and management practices.


Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver Dec 2014

Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In the tallgrass prairies of the United States, the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) often is considered a reliable indicator of high quality remnant habitat. Purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens) is considered an indicator of high quality oak savanna habitat at the edge of prairie. Indicator and other surrogate species often are regarded as inescapable necessities in conservation, because limited budgets and the myriad pieces of an ecosystem render comprehensive monitoring impossible. Regardless of whether or not surrogate species are necessary, do they really work?


Anthocyanin, Phenolics And Antioxidant Activity Changes In Purple Waxy Corn As Affected By Traditional Cooking, Bhornchai Harakotr, Bhalang Suriharn, Ratchada Tangwongchai, Marvin P. Scott, Kamol Lertrat Dec 2014

Anthocyanin, Phenolics And Antioxidant Activity Changes In Purple Waxy Corn As Affected By Traditional Cooking, Bhornchai Harakotr, Bhalang Suriharn, Ratchada Tangwongchai, Marvin P. Scott, Kamol Lertrat

Agronomy Publications

Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p ⩽ 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss ...


Comparison Of Cellulosic Ethanol Yields From Midwestern Maize And Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairie Systems Managed For Bioenergy, V. A. Nichols, F. E. Miguez, M. E. Jarchow, M. Z. Liebman, B. S. Dien Dec 2014

Comparison Of Cellulosic Ethanol Yields From Midwestern Maize And Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairie Systems Managed For Bioenergy, V. A. Nichols, F. E. Miguez, M. E. Jarchow, M. Z. Liebman, B. S. Dien

Agronomy Publications

Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequate fertilization over years both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and the 31-species reconstructed prairie was grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization. Both maize stover and prairie biomass were harvested in the fall. We compared amounts of cellulosic biomass produced and harvested, carbohydrate contents as measured by both dietary and detergent methods, and estimated cellulosic ethanol yields per hectare. From 2009–2013, the cropping system with the ...


Iowa Pesticide Education Program Updates Name, Elizabeth J. Buffington, Kristine J. P. Schaefer Dec 2014

Iowa Pesticide Education Program Updates Name, Elizabeth J. Buffington, Kristine J. P. Schaefer

Integrated Crop Management News

Effective December 1, the Pest Management and the Environment (PME) program at Iowa State University Extension and Outreach will be known as Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP). The name change better describes the programs offered, audiences served and reflects the program’s emphasis on providing educational information throughout Iowa on the safe and effective use of pesticides.


Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski Dec 2014

Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Symphoricarpos, a genus of the Caprifoliaceae family, consists of about 15 species of clonal deciduous shrubs in North America and 1 species endemic to China. In North American tallgrass prairie, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (buckbrush) is the dominant shrub often forming large colonies via sexual and asexual reproductive mechanisms. Symphoricarpos shrubs, in particular S. orbiculatus, use a unique sexual reproductive mechanism known as layering where vertical stems droop and the tips root upon contact with the soil. Because of conflicting societal values of S. orbiculatus for conservation and agriculture and the current attempt to restore historical fire regimes, there is a ...


Cenh3 Evolution In Diploids And Polyploids Of Three Angiosperm Genera, Rick E. Masonbrink, Joseph P. Gallagher, Josef J. Jareczek, Simon Renny-Byfield, Corrinne E. Grover, Lei Gong, Jonathan F. Wendel Dec 2014

Cenh3 Evolution In Diploids And Polyploids Of Three Angiosperm Genera, Rick E. Masonbrink, Joseph P. Gallagher, Josef J. Jareczek, Simon Renny-Byfield, Corrinne E. Grover, Lei Gong, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Centromeric DNA sequences alone are neither necessary nor sufficient for centromere specification. The centromere specific histone, CenH3, evolves rapidly in many species, perhaps as a coevolutionary response to rapidly evolving centromeric DNA. To gain insight into CenH3 evolution, we characterized patterns of nucleotide and protein diversity among diploids and allopolyploids within three diverse angiosperm genera, Brassica, Oryza, and Gossypium (cotton), with a focus on evidence for diversifying selection in the various domains of the CenH3 gene. In addition, we compare expression profiles and alternative splicing patterns for CenH3 in representatives of each genus. All three genera retain both duplicated CenH3 ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Nov 2014

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Crop Advantage Series Provides Latest Crop Porduction Information Across Iowa, Brent A. Pringnitz Nov 2014

Crop Advantage Series Provides Latest Crop Porduction Information Across Iowa, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach will offer the Crop Advantage Series to producers at 13 locations across Iowa during January. Crop Advantage Series provides the latest information to promote profitable decision-making for upcoming growing seasons. Each location features a full agenda of workshops that attendees can choose from to develop a personalized agenda. ISU Extension field agronomists will present program topics focusing on local needs and production issues.


Transposition-Mediated Dna Re-Replication In Maize, Jianbo Zhang, Tao Zuo, Dafang Wang, Thomas Peterson Nov 2014

Transposition-Mediated Dna Re-Replication In Maize, Jianbo Zhang, Tao Zuo, Dafang Wang, Thomas Peterson

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Every DNA segment in a eukaryotic genome normally replicates once and only once per cell cycle to maintain genome stability. We show here that this restriction can be bypassed through alternative transposition, a transposition reaction that utilizes the termini of two separate, nearby transposable elements (TEs). Our results suggest that alternative transposition during S phase can induce re-replication of the TEs and their flanking sequences. The DNA re-replication can spontaneously abort to generate double-strand breaks, which can be repaired to generate Composite Insertions composed of transposon termini flanking segmental duplications of various lengths. These results show how alternative transposition coupled ...