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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

2013

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Get The Latest Information On Performance Of Scn-Resistant Soybeans, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2013

Get The Latest Information On Performance Of Scn-Resistant Soybeans, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Since 1990 the Iowa State University SCN-resistant Soybean Variety Trial Program has evaluated the agronomic performance and nematode control provided by hundreds of soybean varieties advertised as resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). The work is funded by the soybean checkoff through a grant from the Iowa Soybean Association.


Manure Applicator Certification, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz, Rachel A. Klein Dec 2013

Manure Applicator Certification, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz, Rachel A. Klein

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, in collaboration with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, has scheduled manure applicator certification training for 2014.


Research Update On Sudden Death Syndrome, Daren Mueller Dec 2013

Research Update On Sudden Death Syndrome, Daren Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Much of the sudden death syndrome research is funded through the soybean check off from Iowa Soybean Association, North Central Soybean Research Program, and the United Soybean Board. Recently, ISU received USDA and some industry funding as well to research this disease. We thank all of our sponsors for this research.


An In-Depth Look At The Corn-Colletotrichum Graminicola (Causal Organism Of Anthracnose) Pathosystem, Alison Robertson Dec 2013

An In-Depth Look At The Corn-Colletotrichum Graminicola (Causal Organism Of Anthracnose) Pathosystem, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

A pathosystem is an ecosystem in which parasitism occurs. Parasitism of corn by Colletotrichum graminicola results in anthracnose, an important disease of corn. The disease has three distinct phases: 1. Anthracnose leaf blight that usually occurs between V2 and V12; 2. Anthracnose top dieback that usually occurs from R4 onwards; and 3. Anthracnose stalk rot that is usually prevalent around physiological maturity. Colletotrichum graminicola was not considered an economically important pathogen of corn until the early 1970s. Today it seems like almost every cornfield has plants infected with the pathogen.


Pest Resistance: Overall Principles And Implications On Evolved Herbicide Resistance In Iowa, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2013

Pest Resistance: Overall Principles And Implications On Evolved Herbicide Resistance In Iowa, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The universal truths of the survival of the fittest and the inevitability that organisms will adapt to whatever environmental factors they encounter have been the most important management considerations to achieving success in agronomic endeavors since mankind transitioned from a hunter/gatherer existence to the agrarian society that has existed for more than six millennia.


Increasing Soybean Yields, Chad Lee Dec 2013

Increasing Soybean Yields, Chad Lee

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

There is a large push to increase soybean yields. Numerous products and ideas claim to increase yield. Which ones work? We will highlight the key factors that increase yields and profits.


Integrated Ag Landscapes For Profit And Risk Management, David J. Muth Jr., Jill Euken, Kenneth Mark Bryden Dec 2013

Integrated Ag Landscapes For Profit And Risk Management, David J. Muth Jr., Jill Euken, Kenneth Mark Bryden

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The emerging cellulosic bioenergy and bioproduct industries can provide several agronomic opportunities. New biomass markets give land managers additional choices that can create revenue, mitigate operational risks, and proactively manage soil quality.


Foliar Fungicides In Alfalfa Production, Brian Lang, Kenneth Pecinovsky Dec 2013

Foliar Fungicides In Alfalfa Production, Brian Lang, Kenneth Pecinovsky

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Within the last few years, EPA approved pesticide labels for a few foliar fungicide products for use in alfalfa production. However, university research regarding potential economic benefits of these products are extremely limited. In addition, aggressive salesmanship recommending multiple applications per season raises concerns with proper stewardship for these products to insure long-term effectiveness.


Best Management Practices For Sustaining Yield And Soil Quality, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Dec 2013

Best Management Practices For Sustaining Yield And Soil Quality, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Management and tillage decision is one of several decisions farmers have to make every fall. However, there are many other factors that need to be considered when selecting a tillage system for any given field, or region within the state. Those factors are soil conditions, which include soil slope, soil drainage, topsoil depth or the A-horizon depth. Other equally important factors that need to be considered are hybrid selection, crop rotation, and management factors, such as residue cover, type of residue (corn or soybean), soil moisture condition at the time of making the decision, timing of tillage operation, fertilizer management ...


Establishing And Managing Perennial Grasses For Bioenergy, Rob Mitchell Dec 2013

Establishing And Managing Perennial Grasses For Bioenergy, Rob Mitchell

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is native to every U.S. state east of the Rocky Mountains, is the most advanced herbaceous perennial bioenergy feedstock, and best management practices (BMPs) have been developed for bioenergy production in most agro-ecoregions. Additionally, big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) are native perennial warm-season grasses and are promising bioenergy feedstocks, especially when planted in low-diversity mixtures. BMPs have been developed for big bluestem, indiangrass, and sideoats grama specifically for the Great Plains and Midwest. Perennial grasses likely will be grown on cropland that is marginally productive for row crops, similar ...


Palmer Amaranth: Id, Biology And Management, Bob Hartzler Dec 2013

Palmer Amaranth: Id, Biology And Management, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Palmer amaranth is native to the Southwestern United States, but its range has expanded over the past 50 years. The first documented occurrence in Iowa was this year, although with these infestations it is clear that the weed was initially introduced to the state prior to 2013. It has been a serious problem in the south, and gained national notoriety after developing resistance to glyphosate and devastating the cotton industry in the Southeast. This paper will review why the weed has garnered such attention and access the threat it poses to Iowa.


Stewardship In Iowa Crop Production Systems, Roger W. Elmore Dec 2013

Stewardship In Iowa Crop Production Systems, Roger W. Elmore

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

How well are we managing our resources? Genetic? Transgenic? Residue? Soils? Water?


Monitoring And Managing Fungicide Resistance Using The Cercospora Beticola Model, Gary Secor, Viviana Rivera-Varas, Melvin Bolton, Mohamed Khan Dec 2013

Monitoring And Managing Fungicide Resistance Using The Cercospora Beticola Model, Gary Secor, Viviana Rivera-Varas, Melvin Bolton, Mohamed Khan

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola, is the most important foliar disease of sugarbeet throughout the world. It causes disease by reducing the photosynthetic area of leaves and producing a toxin that damages leaf cells. CLS has become endemic in the Red River Valley sugarbeet production area of eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota that accounts for about 60% of the total US crop, producing 13 million metric tons with yields of 42-28 mt/ha.


The ‘Top Ten’ For Corn Management: Truths, Notions, And Fallacies, Roger W. Elmore Dec 2013

The ‘Top Ten’ For Corn Management: Truths, Notions, And Fallacies, Roger W. Elmore

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

This presentation covers corn management ideas—whether valid or invalid—based on scientific findings and some notions. Topics include responses to narrow rows and plant populations as well as ‘mystery’ yield losses after physiological maturity.


Continuous Corn Response To Residue Removal, Tillage, And Nitrogen, Emerson D. Nafziger Dec 2013

Continuous Corn Response To Residue Removal, Tillage, And Nitrogen, Emerson D. Nafziger

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

There has been a great deal of recent interest in “bioenergy” crops that could be burned to generate electricity or heat or used as a feedstock in the manufacture of liquid fuels. Cornstalks represent one of the major “biomass” sources that currently exist. Because today’s healthy, high-yielding hybrids leave behind stalks that present a management challenge, some people are wondering why we don’t help solve both problems—the need for biomass and the difficulty of managing residue—by harvesting cornstalks to use as fuel.


Options For In-Season Adjustment Of Nitrogen Rate For Corn, John E. Sawyer Dec 2013

Options For In-Season Adjustment Of Nitrogen Rate For Corn, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Periods of wetness and dryness extremes can have dramatic effects on available N supply from soil and loss of applied nitrogen (N) from fertilizer and manure. Such effects can happen quickly, as recently occurred with the large profile nitrate levels in the fall following the drought of 2012 and then the losses with excessive precipitation in the spring 2013. Compared to “normal” moisture and temperature conditions, seasonal differences can significantly reduce or increase needed N applications and cause variation in yearly optimal N rates (Fig. 1). Therefore, opportunity exists for seasonal refinement of N application rate. However, based on analysis ...


Pesticide Application Technology In The 21st Century, Greg Kruger, Brad Fritz, Clint Hoffmann, Andrew Hewitt, Ryan Henry, Cody Creech Dec 2013

Pesticide Application Technology In The 21st Century, Greg Kruger, Brad Fritz, Clint Hoffmann, Andrew Hewitt, Ryan Henry, Cody Creech

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Since 1996, glyphosate has been the predominant herbicide used postemergence for weed control in corn, soybean and cotton in the United States. Because of that, glyphosate-resistant weeds have become increasingly more prevalent in glyphosate-resistant crops which have forced many growers to use other herbicides. Herbicide programs that relied primarily on glyphosate for weed control often used rates as low as 5 gallon/acre (GPA). The other herbicides being used in row crops often require a higher carrier volume according to the label when compared to glyphosate which can be burdensome to the applicator, requiring the transport of more water, more ...


Optimizing Yield While Minimizing Phosphorus Water Quality Impacts: Some Do’S And Don’Ts, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2013

Optimizing Yield While Minimizing Phosphorus Water Quality Impacts: Some Do’S And Don’Ts, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Public concerns about agriculture impacts on water quality and the likelihood of further regulation have been increasing. The uninformed public and many in regulatory government agencies see reducing fertilization rates as an effective way of reducing nutrient loss from fields and improving water quality, especially when animal manure is applied.


Summary Of 2013 Corn And Soybean Diseases, Erika Saalau-Rojas, Daren Mueller, Alison Robertson Dec 2013

Summary Of 2013 Corn And Soybean Diseases, Erika Saalau-Rojas, Daren Mueller, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Because of the late planting and dry weather during the bulk of the season, corn diseases were of minor importance this year in Iowa. A few “common” diseases, such as common smut and common rust, were found at higher than usual levels, but this was field specific. A few interesting diseases “popped” up late.


Producing Food, Feed And Energy: How Can Agriculture Do It All?, Emily Heaton, Lisa Schulte-Moore, Matt Helmers, Matt Liebman, Ferman Milster Dec 2013

Producing Food, Feed And Energy: How Can Agriculture Do It All?, Emily Heaton, Lisa Schulte-Moore, Matt Helmers, Matt Liebman, Ferman Milster

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems has been suggested—in addition to reducing waste and changing consumption habits—as a way to increase food, feed, fuel, and fiber security in the 21st century. Here we describe three primary strategies of agricultural intensification—conventional intensification, temporal intensification, and spatial intensification—and how they can be used to manage and integrate food and second-generation (2G) crop portfolios. While each strategy has individual merits, combining them to meet case-specific targets may achieve optimum results. Multiple experiments and examples from Iowa, USA illustrate the potential of combining these approaches for agroecological intensification that can provide ...


Pythium, Seedling Disease Of Soybean And More…, Martin Chilvers, Alejandro Rojas, Janette Jacobs, Alison Robertson, Rashelle Matthiesen-Andersen Dec 2013

Pythium, Seedling Disease Of Soybean And More…, Martin Chilvers, Alejandro Rojas, Janette Jacobs, Alison Robertson, Rashelle Matthiesen-Andersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Seedling diseases of soybean and corn can cause significant losses through poor stand establishment and reduced plant vigor. Identifying the causal agent of seedling disease is not a simple process as the soil environment is complex and contains many thousands of microbe species but only a small portion of these actually cause disease. The primary causes of soybean seedling disease are Pythium spp., Phytophthora sojae, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In this study it was our objective to identify the predominant oomycete (Pythium and Phytophthora) species that cause soybean seedling disease. Only by understanding which pathogens cause disease are we ...


Update To Iowa Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Recommendations, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer Dec 2013

Update To Iowa Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Recommendations, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

This article highlights revisions to Iowa State University (ISU) soil-test interpretations and application guidelines for phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and lime in the updated ISU extension publication PM 1688 “A General Guide for Crop Nutrient and Limestone Recommendations in Iowa”. The previous update to this publication was in 2002. Field research is conducted as issues or questions arise to assure that nutrient management suggestions are up to date. This research has indicated that some recommendations should not be changed, but that others needed significant changes to optimize nutrient management to improve the profitability and sustainability of crop production.


Weed Management Update For 2014, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2013

Weed Management Update For 2014, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Weed management in 2014 will continue to be more challenging regardless of the weather. Factors such as prevented planting, poor weed control in 2013, increasing populations of weeds with evolved herbicide resistances and recently, the discovery of Palmer amaranth in Iowa will make weed control decisions interesting. However, other factors such as grower and dealer attitudes, promotional incentives, desire for simple and convenient tactics and perceived costs of more diverse alternative approaches to weed management programs are still primary considerations impacting weed control. Increasing the diversity of weed management tactics will improve the consistency of weed control, mitigate herbicide-resistant weeds ...


2013 Herbicide Guide For Iowa Corn And Soybean Production, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2013

2013 Herbicide Guide For Iowa Corn And Soybean Production, Micheal D. K. Owen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The success of weed management programs, more specifically herbicide programs, varied considerably during 2012 reflecting the importance of environmental conditions on herbicide performance. Variability of success was seen not only in the postemergence herbicide applications that continue to dominate herbicide use but also in the soil-applied residual herbicides; all herbicide applications were strongly influenced by tillage system, crop planting date, timing and amount of rainfall, and resulting weed emergence timing. While more soil-applied herbicides were used in Iowa during 2012, there are still too many acres of corn and soybean that are treated only with glyphosate. Importantly, the trend of ...


Farmer’S Observation On Climate Change Impacts On Maize (Zea Mays) Production In A Selected Agro-Ecological Zone In Ghana, Nama Ama Browne Klutse, Kwadwo Owusu, David Cudjoe Adukpo, Francis Nkrumah, Kwesi Quagraine, Alfred Owusu, William J. Gutowski Dec 2013

Farmer’S Observation On Climate Change Impacts On Maize (Zea Mays) Production In A Selected Agro-Ecological Zone In Ghana, Nama Ama Browne Klutse, Kwadwo Owusu, David Cudjoe Adukpo, Francis Nkrumah, Kwesi Quagraine, Alfred Owusu, William J. Gutowski

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Although maize farmers may not have a clear understanding of climate change, they live close to natural resources and are among the first in perceiving and reacting to environmental changes. They have observed and felt the effects of decreasing rainfall, emphasizing changes in the regularity, length, intensity and timing of rainfall; increasing air temperature, increasing sunshine intensity and seasonal changes in rainfall pattern which is affecting their farming practices. Moreover, farmers are also aware of the interacting effect between bad management practices and changes in climate. For instance, deforestation and clearing of riparian vegetation is considered a major factor increasing ...


Crop Rotation Research Studies Residual Nitrate, Becky Ohrtman Dec 2013

Crop Rotation Research Studies Residual Nitrate, Becky Ohrtman

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

This fact sheet summarizes research that was part of a five-year project to explore residual nitrate in a variety of cropping systems. The experiment was conducted on a farm in an area where the City of Sioux Center owns several shallow wells that supply more half of the municipal water supplies.


Accelerating Plant Breeding, Gerald N. De La Fuente, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt Dec 2013

Accelerating Plant Breeding, Gerald N. De La Fuente, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for ...


Mapping A New Source Of Self-Fertility In Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne L.), Andrea Arias Aguirre, Bruno Studer, Javier Do Canto, Ursula Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt Dec 2013

Mapping A New Source Of Self-Fertility In Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne L.), Andrea Arias Aguirre, Bruno Studer, Javier Do Canto, Ursula Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

There is a rising interest of moving towards hybrid breeding in outcrossing species. Self-compatibility (SC), which occurs at low rates in self-incompatible species, could be used to develop inbred lines, a key requirement for hybrid breeding programs. In perennial ryegrass, the existence of SC independent from the self-incompatibility (SI) loci S and Z has been reported. In this study, we used 98 F2 individuals from a cross between a self-compatible ecotype and an individual of the VrnA mapping population that were tested with markers for two candidate linkage groups 3 and 5 as well as markers for candidate regions ...


Effects Of Rag1 On The Preference And Performance Of Soybean Defoliators, Robert F. Bruner, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann Dec 2013

Effects Of Rag1 On The Preference And Performance Of Soybean Defoliators, Robert F. Bruner, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Entomology Publications

The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphidsusceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata ...


Revisions In Corn Field Guide Reduce Uncertainty, Integrated Crop Management News, Iowa State University Nov 2013

Revisions In Corn Field Guide Reduce Uncertainty, Integrated Crop Management News, Iowa State University

Integrated Crop Management News

Identifying pests, diseases, disorders and developmental stages in Midwestern corn crops just became easier. New and larger color photographs, updated information on plant diseases and crop production, and additional topics are included in the second edition of Iowa State University’s popular Corn Field Guide.