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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

2003

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Crop Rotation Considerations For 2004 Management Season Rotation, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Dec 2003

Crop Rotation Considerations For 2004 Management Season Rotation, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

There are many management strategies for improving soil productivity. Crop rotation or cropping sequence is proven to be very effective in addressing concerns related to soil, water, and environment quality from long- or short-term perspectives. Producers who are innovative in diversifying their cropping systems and management strategies will be more successful than others who are not.


Crop Advantage Series Offers Local Topics For Producers, Brent A. Pringnitz Dec 2003

Crop Advantage Series Offers Local Topics For Producers, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

If you are concerned about soybean aphids, next season's weather, and about what you can do to become a better crop producer, plan to attend the Iowa State University's Crop Advantage Series in 2004. ISU Extension is offering the third annual series of statewide conferences for farmers and agribusiness professionals. The program has expanded and will be at 10 different locations in Iowa, between January 5 and 22.


Spots Available At The Webgro Training Workshops, William D. Batchelor Dec 2003

Spots Available At The Webgro Training Workshops, William D. Batchelor

Integrated Crop Management News

The genetic yield potential of soybeans in the Midwestern United States is estimated to be approximately 100 bushels per acre, based on results from small-plot studies. However, field and statewide average yields are much lower. Soybean yield is the result of complex interactions between genetics, management, environment, fertility, and stresses. Water stress is often viewed as the biggest underlying factor resulting in yield loss. However, other factors such as soybean cyst nematodes, Rhizoctonia root rot, and hail damage can also cause significant injury to soybean yields.


Icm Conference Proceedings Now On Sale, Brent A. Pringnitz Dec 2003

Icm Conference Proceedings Now On Sale, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

Proceedings from the 2003 Integrated Crop Management Conference are now on sale. The proceedings is a collection of manuscripts submitted by each of the presenters at the conference outlining the research and information they presented. The 245-page volume is available for $15 plus $2.50 shipping and handling. Order forms are available here, by sending an e-mail to aep@iastate.edu, or calling the Agribusiness Education Program at (515) 294-6429.


2003 Soybean Disease And Future Management, X. B. Yang Dec 2003

2003 Soybean Disease And Future Management, X. B. Yang

Integrated Crop Management News

Diseases are an important factor in our management to stabilize soybean yield. Weather in a growing season dictates the types of disease outbreaks. In the past 10 years, outbreaks of diseases have varied from season to season and 2003 was no exception. Early in the season, rainfall was excessive and some fields were flooded. There were reports on occurrence of Phytophthora and seedling diseases in Iowa. Cool and wet early summer was also favorable to white mold infections and the disease appeared in eastern Iowa with reported infections over 70 percent diseased plants in some fields.


Looking Back At The 2003 Growing Season, Palle Pedersen Dec 2003

Looking Back At The 2003 Growing Season, Palle Pedersen

Integrated Crop Management News

Now looking back at the 2003 growing season, who would have thought that it would turn out the way it did? I think that we all got challenged in many unexpected ways and we definitely learned a lot. One thing for sure, many do often underestimate "mother nature" but after the 2003 growing season, I think that we all can agree that no management practice can match "her" power. Another thing that we learned was that different seasons have different pests and pathogens. The interactions between a host, the environment, and a pathogen or pest couldn't have been clearer ...


Overview Of Atrazine Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision (Ired): Watershed Mitigation Components, Dennis P. Tierney Dec 2003

Overview Of Atrazine Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision (Ired): Watershed Mitigation Components, Dennis P. Tierney

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

On January 31, 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs (EPAOPP) published its Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Atrazine (IRED) followed by the release of a revised IRED on October 31, 2003 to meet consent degree deadline. These two documents and associated reports can be obtained from the EPA-OPP website (www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/atrazine/).


Continuing Education For Today's Ag Professionals - The Crop Adviser Institute, Brent A. Brueland, Richard I. Carter Dec 2003

Continuing Education For Today's Ag Professionals - The Crop Adviser Institute, Brent A. Brueland, Richard I. Carter

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Crop Adviser Institute (CAI) was developed by Iowa State University in an effort to enhance the quality and availability of continuing education unit (CEU) opportunities for professionals in agriculture, especially certified individuals such as Certified Crop Advisers (CCAs). The Cal program delivers course modules via distance education methods, utilizing computer courseware to allow learners to complete CEU courses where and when they choose. CAI courses are available in five educational focus categories recognized by the American Society of Agronomy CCA (ASA-ICCA) program which are:


Keys To Profitable Corn Production In 2004, Joe Lauer Dec 2003

Keys To Profitable Corn Production In 2004, Joe Lauer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Not all farmers are out to set a yield record, but most are trying to get the best yields possible with their management systems. Lots of factors affect the ultimate yield of com, but the main question always seems to be, "What key factors most affect crop yield in the field?"


A Four Year Summary Of Maquoketa Watershed Phosphorus, Nitrogen And Manure Management Field Demonstrations, Chad Ingels, Brian Lang Dec 2003

A Four Year Summary Of Maquoketa Watershed Phosphorus, Nitrogen And Manure Management Field Demonstrations, Chad Ingels, Brian Lang

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Beginning in crop year 2000, 56 producers in the Maquoketa River, Elk River and Mud Creek watersheds of eastern Iowa hosted 74 on-farm nutrient management field demonstrations. Producers participated by hosting demonstrations that evaluated the effectiveness of manure as a source of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and compared several rates of N and P in a corn following soybeans rotation.


Where Have All The Weed Science Gone? And Other Little Things That Influence Weed Populations, Bob Hartzler Dec 2003

Where Have All The Weed Science Gone? And Other Little Things That Influence Weed Populations, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In the current era of herbicide-based weed management systems, it is easy to assume the success of weed management is based solely on appropriate selection and application of herbicides. However, many factors place selection pressures on weeds, and these subtle influences may determine the long-term success or failure of a weed control program. As farmers manage more acres with less equipment and manpower, it will become increasingly important to take advantage of any and all available tactics that can help maintain the effectiveness of modern herbicides. This paper will provide a brief overview of some of the less obvious factors ...


Managing Soil Carbon Sequestration, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Brent A. Brueland Dec 2003

Managing Soil Carbon Sequestration, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Brent A. Brueland

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The premise of soil carbon (C) sequestration is to help reduce carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere due to human activities by capturing and diverting C02 to secure storage by various means. The material presented here is excerpted from the interactive courseware developed for the Crop Adviser Institute by Dr. Mahdi Al-Kaisi of Iowa State University.


Weed Management Update 2003: Issues, Changes And Considerations, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2003

Weed Management Update 2003: Issues, Changes And Considerations, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Major changes in weed management during the last 5 years have resulted in a number of new considerations and emerging issues for the Midwest. Notably, the change in herbicidal weed control that emphasized the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor herbicides to weed control based primarily on genetically modified (GM) crops and glyphosate resulted in a number of considerations. These issues focus on the cost of weed control, the simplicity of glyphosate based systems, changes in weed populations, herbicide resistance in weed populations, and the implications of highly focused selection pressures on agroecosystems.


Riparian Management Systems - An Introduction To Rims, Thomas Schultz, Brent A. Brueland Dec 2003

Riparian Management Systems - An Introduction To Rims, Thomas Schultz, Brent A. Brueland

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The areas along our streams, lakes, and rivers are an important part of the agricultural ecosystem. They work to mediate the influence of agriculture on our water resources. The general term for these areas is a riparian area. There is some debate as to the definition of a riparian area. One of the most common definitions from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is:


Applying Manure To Alfalfa: Pros, Cons And Recommendations For Three Application Strategies, K. A. Kelling, M. A. Schmitt Dec 2003

Applying Manure To Alfalfa: Pros, Cons And Recommendations For Three Application Strategies, K. A. Kelling, M. A. Schmitt

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

It's becoming increasingly common for livestock producers to apply manure to alfalfa. This shift comes partly as a response to increased regulatory pressure designed to promote nutrient management planning. In the face of concern about pollution of groundwater and surface water due to runoff from row crops, farmers are searching for alternative crops on which to spread manure. In addition, many livestock producers simply do not have enough corn acres to accommodate all of their manure when spreading at proper agronomic rates.


Biology And Management Of Soybean Charcoal Rot, X. B. Yang, S. S. Navi, J. Shriver Dec 2003

Biology And Management Of Soybean Charcoal Rot, X. B. Yang, S. S. Navi, J. Shriver

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In the 2003 growing season, charcoal rot, a disease new to Iowa producers, was prevalent in the soybean fields of Iowa. This was the first ever statewide occurrence in Iowa with severe damage to many soybean fields. In the south, this disease has been a yield robber and has drastically reduced the yield potential by as mush as the sudden death syndrome. This article will discuss the following aspects of this disease: l) the distribution and economic importance of the pathogen; 2) identification of the disease; 3) the disease cycle and epidemiology; 4) yield loss assessment and 5) management strategies.


Countering The Threat Of Bioterrorism In Iowa, Forrest W. Nutter Jr. Dec 2003

Countering The Threat Of Bioterrorism In Iowa, Forrest W. Nutter Jr.

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

One of the basic tenets of plant biosecurity is that the presence, actual or predicted distribution, intensity, and economic impact of any yield-reducing factor(s) must be known. The development of a real-time, GIS-based (geographic information system) reporting system for new and emerging agricultural pathogens and pests is extremely relevant in the era of agricultural bioterrorism. The goal is to establish a real-time, GIS database network to report, monitor, map (temporally and spatially), and predict the spread of new and emerging plant diseases and pests. This database network can also be used to geospatially and temporally monitor endemic pathogens/pests ...


Forage Production & Management Challenges - When The Season Isn't Normal, Stephen K. Barnhart Dec 2003

Forage Production & Management Challenges - When The Season Isn't Normal, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Managing forages is a challenge even during 'normal' growing seasons. Forage crop managers must have an awareness of the nutritive quality for livestock needs, growth differences of different forage species, and issues relating to a 'perennial' plant growth strategy all require careful consideration throughout the growing and harvest season. Even the most optimistic producer will acknowledge that only about 3 or 4 years out of 10 is a 'normal' growing season; the others often have weather-related limitations sometime during the year. This presentation addresses some of the most notable influences of environmental stress on forage growth, yield and quality, with ...


Strip Till, No-Till And Conventional Tillage Comparisons - Does Planting Date Affect Results?, Mario Perez-Bidegain, Richard M. Cruse, Allan J. Ciha Dec 2003

Strip Till, No-Till And Conventional Tillage Comparisons - Does Planting Date Affect Results?, Mario Perez-Bidegain, Richard M. Cruse, Allan J. Ciha

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Numerous tillage studies have been conducted in Iowa, the Midwest, and throughout the U.S. with a wide range of results. The tillage system that results in the highest yield depends on several factors including soil type and weather during the study Generally, systems with little soil disturbance are favored on coarser textured soils and/or in drier years (Eckert 1987; Beyaert et al 2002). For soil and water conservation purposes, as well as for economic reasons, extending successful use of no-till or similar systems to finer textured soils seems advantageous.


Corn And Soybean Response To Rotation Sequence And Tillage System, Palle Pedersen, Joseph G. Lauer Dec 2003

Corn And Soybean Response To Rotation Sequence And Tillage System, Palle Pedersen, Joseph G. Lauer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The response of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max L. (Merr.)] to tillage system and rotation sequence has been investigated for 15 years in Wisconsin. Our objective was to compare yield and economics of conventional and no-tillage systems with different rotation sequences involving 1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, 4th-, 5th-yr corn or soybean, alternate corn and soybean, and continuous corn or soybean. There was an interaction of corn yield with tillage system and rotation sequence. Averaged over years, tillage increased corn yield 8%, but did not affect soybean yield. Both 1st-yr corn and soybean produced the highest yields at 172 ...


Management Strategies For The Control Of Soybean Rust, Monte R. Miles, Reid D. Frederick, Glen L. Hartman Dec 2003

Management Strategies For The Control Of Soybean Rust, Monte R. Miles, Reid D. Frederick, Glen L. Hartman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The identification of Asian soybean rust in Paraguay in 2001(Morel and Yorinori, 2002) and its spread to over 90% of the soybean production in Brazil through the 2003 season has heightened the awareness that this disease will soon be a threat to production on the continental USA. With the yield losses this disease can cause it will have a big impact on the profitability of soybean production.


Three Years Of Soybean Aphid Activity In Northeast Iowa, Brian J. Lang Dec 2003

Three Years Of Soybean Aphid Activity In Northeast Iowa, Brian J. Lang

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The first significant occurrence of Soybean Aphid activity in northeast Iowa was in 2001. Significant populations of aphids, in some cases exceeding 10,000 aphids per plant, were found across approximately 200,000 acres of soybeans in northeast Iowa. For those that treated for the pest, the typical yield response to foliar insecticide applications was about 10 bushel per acre. Net return to treatment averaged $35 per acre for an approximate recovery of $5 million of income from the potential $10 million of damage being caused by the pest. Not everyone treated for the pest because the potential damage from ...


Yield Response To Winter Application Of Chicken Manure, John D. Holmes, David Rueber Dec 2003

Yield Response To Winter Application Of Chicken Manure, John D. Holmes, David Rueber

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Several large poultry confinement sites have been established in north central Iowa during the past ten years. Many farmers are applying the chicken manure during the fall and winter months as a fertilizer source. Although not desirable, applications have been made to frozen soils and snow covered fields. In 2000 an experiment was started to evaluate yield response to chicken litter applied to snow-covered fields. The objective of the experiment was to document yield responses to applications made during the winter and spring at two different rates. The focus was on response to nitrogen from manure rather than phosphorus or ...


Review Of Atrazine Water Monitoring Data In Iowa Relative To Label And Management Changes, Richard S. Fawcett, Dennis P. Tierney Dec 2003

Review Of Atrazine Water Monitoring Data In Iowa Relative To Label And Management Changes, Richard S. Fawcett, Dennis P. Tierney

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Trends in atrazine detections and concentrations in Iowa surface and groundwater were reviewed relative to adoption of Best Management Practices and atrazine label changes designed to protect water resources. Analysis of a large statewide water monitoring database from 1982 to 1995 revealed statistically significant declines in both atrazine detection rates and concentrations in both groundwater and surface water. USGS monitoring of streams from 1989 to 1995 showed a decline in atrazine median concentration of almost 50%. Rural wells in Floyd and Mitchell Counties were sampled in 1986 and 198 7 and resampled in 1994, four years after the area was ...


Strip-Tillage Effects On Corn Performance And Soil Properties, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht Dec 2003

Strip-Tillage Effects On Corn Performance And Soil Properties, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The perceived effect of no-tillage on soil temperature, soil moisture conditions, soil compaction, soil productivity, and nitrogen movement and availability has become a major concern among producers considering adopting this tillage system. No-tillage presents a unique challenge in poorly drained soils, in which certain surface soil properties are affected due to the absence of tillage as a corrective measure. Effective tillage systems create an ideal seedbed condition (i.e., soil moisture, temperature, and penetration resistance) for plant emergence, plant development, and unimpeded root growth. However, the integration of tillage and nitrogen (N) management (i.e., type of tillage system, timing ...


Liquid Swine Manure Nitrogen Utilization For Crop Production, John E. Sawyer, John P. Lundvall, Sudipta Rakshit, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2003

Liquid Swine Manure Nitrogen Utilization For Crop Production, John E. Sawyer, John P. Lundvall, Sudipta Rakshit, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Manure is an important resource for meeting the nutrient needs of corn and soybean grown in Iowa. Land application is the most widely accepted and best economic and agronomic use of manure. Concurrently, however, is the environmental concern when manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is not adequately accounted for or utilized by crops. Use of manure as a crop nutrient source requires producer confidence in nutrient availability and maintenance of high crop yields. When that confidence is lacking, either because of unknown application rates or uncertain nutrient content and crop availability, then additional fertilizer or higher manure rates are ...


Using The Iowa Phosphorus Index For Agronomic And Environmental Management Of Fertilizer And Manure Phosphorus, Antonio Mallarino Dec 2003

Using The Iowa Phosphorus Index For Agronomic And Environmental Management Of Fertilizer And Manure Phosphorus, Antonio Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa phosphorus (P) index is a risk assessment tool that was developed to assess potential P loss from fields to surface water resources. In 1999, the United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) issued a national policy and general guidelines on nutrient management to include risk assessments for P These guidelines apply to nutrient management where nutrients are applied with organic by-products and animal manure sources. The national guidelines suggested the use of soil-test P values, threshold limits, or a P risk index. The Iowa State Technical Committee chose the P index approach based on advice ...


Starter And Foliar Fertilization: Are They Needed To Supplement Primary Fertilization?, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2003

Starter And Foliar Fertilization: Are They Needed To Supplement Primary Fertilization?, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Many Iowa fields require nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization for optimum crop production. Crops remove large amounts of these nutrients from the soil, and large amounts of fertilizers often need to be applied. Fertilizer application methods and application equipment commonly used to supply these nutrients are adapted to large fertilizer application rates. These methods include broadcast application of granulated or fluid fertilizers with or without incorporation into the soil with tillage, injection of fluid fertilizers into the soil, or deep banding of granulated fertilizers. The P and K fertilizers usually are applied before planting crops, while N ...


Soybean Rust: Will Resistance Work?, Glen L. Hartman, Monte R. Miles, Reid D. Frederick Dec 2003

Soybean Rust: Will Resistance Work?, Glen L. Hartman, Monte R. Miles, Reid D. Frederick

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Asian soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi , was first found in the U.S. in Hawaii in 1994. After 1994, the pathogen was discovered in two countries in Africa and three countries in South America. The pathogen has been known to occur in Asia and Australia for over 50 years and many countries have reported drastic yield reductions in Asia. The rapid spread of P pachyrhizi and the potential for severe yield losses makes this the most destructive foliar disease of soybean. Soybean rust, if introduced into the U.S., could have a major impact on both total soybean production and ...


Alfalfa Fertility Management For Production And Feed Quality, Keith A. Kelling, John B. Peters Dec 2003

Alfalfa Fertility Management For Production And Feed Quality, Keith A. Kelling, John B. Peters

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

For many years it has been recognized that the two major limiting factors to alfalfa (Medicago sativa) growth in the upper Midwest are soil pH and exchangeable soil potassium (Brown, 1928; Hull, 1934; Lanyon and Griffith, 1988). Recent research affirms the benefits of raising pH to near neutral by adding lime to fields where alfalfa is to be grown in Wisconsin (Peters and Kelling, 1989; Peters and Kelling, 199 7).