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Soybean Designated Ax7017-1-3, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond Dec 1998

Soybean Designated Ax7017-1-3, Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond

Iowa State University Patents

A soybean seed is provided which exhibits an extremely high level of palmitic acid within the vegetable oil component of the seed. The soybean seed is designated AX7017-1-3 and bears ATCC Accession No. 97967. Palmitic acid is present in the endogenously formed vegetable oil in a concentration of at least 18 percent by weight (preferably at least 20 percent by weight) based upon the total fatty acid content as determined by gas chromatography. Descendants which exhibit a comparable palmitic acid content within the vegetable of the present invention are included within the concept of the present invention. A soybean plant ...


Bt Corn Hybrid Evaluation: Year 2, Dale E. Farnham, Clinton Drake Pilcher Dec 1998

Bt Corn Hybrid Evaluation: Year 2, Dale E. Farnham, Clinton Drake Pilcher

Integrated Crop Management News

This past growing season was good for evaluating the impact of a variety of environmental factors on corn yield, such as nitrogen losses, hail damage, green snap, etc. It was not, however, a particularly good growing season for evaluating the damaging effects of European corn borer. Insect pressures were fairly light across the state. The light insect pressures coupled with the effects of one or more environmental factors made Bt hybrid evaluations challenging in 1998 (i.e., it was difficult to identify exactly what caused yield variability). Presented herein are the results from replicated field trials conducted by Iowa State ...


Nuisance Protection Law Unconstitutional, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss Dec 1998

Nuisance Protection Law Unconstitutional, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss

Integrated Crop Management News

In late September, the Iowa Supreme Court declared unanimously that an Iowa statute providing protection against nuisance suits for agricultural operations is "flagrantly" unconstitutional. The lawsuit involved the Iowa agricultural areas statute that allows counties to designate agricultural areas of at least 300 contiguous acres. Farming operations conducted within such a designated area are not subject to nuisance lawsuits if they are operated properly.


Manure Management Policy, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Dec 1998

Manure Management Policy, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Integrated Crop Management News

Manure management policy and regulations are issues of concern to many Iowa crop and livestock producers. These policies and regulations have been changing so quickly that often we barely have time to comprehend the effects of one set of policies before a new draft has replaced the old policies. Currently, there are regulations in Iowa that are being discussed at both the state and federal levels.


New Scn Slide Set Available, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 1998

New Scn Slide Set Available, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

A new slide set describing the biology, symptoms, and management of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in the Midwest is available from Iowa State University Extension. The slide set, titled "The SCN Coalition Leader's Guide for SCN Management Training," is organized in a three-ring binder and includes an illustrated script to accompany the slides. Three separate sections describing SCN biology (17 slides), symptoms and scouting (23 slides), and management (17 slides) are included in the slide set, and a fourth section (47 slides) contains an integrated presentation of all aspects of SCN biology, scouting, and management.


The Genus Rubus L. In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner Dec 1998

The Genus Rubus L. In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

Morphological features were examined from more than 5,000 Rubus specimens to prepare the first comprehensive revision of the native and naturalized Rubus of Iowa. Twenty-eight species (one with two varieties) and one interspecific hybrid have been collected in the state. They are described in this revision, which contains keys to subgenera and species designed specifically for field researchers in Iowa and nearby states. Synonymy, distribution, phenology, habitat, associated plants, and taxonomic treatment by past researchers are also discussed. Range-wide county distribution maps are presented for 22 species representing Rubus subgenus Rubus (the blackberries and dewberries), and Iowa county distribution ...


Differential Display Analysis Of The Early Compatible Interaction Between Soybean And The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Dieter Hermsmeier, Mitra Mazarei, Thomas J. Baum Dec 1998

Differential Display Analysis Of The Early Compatible Interaction Between Soybean And The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Dieter Hermsmeier, Mitra Mazarei, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The marked cellular changes during feeding site formation of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) indicate major changes in soybean gene expression. We used differential display of mRNA to detect host gene expression changes during the early compatible interaction between soybean and H. glycines. Fifteen cDNA clones corresponding to mRNAs with different abundances in H. glycines-infected versus uninfected roots were identified. Differential display results indicated that abundances of five mRNAs increased in infected roots, whereas abundances of 10 mRNAs decreased. Transcripts for nine of these 15 cDNAs could be detected on RNA blots, and their hybridization signals confirmed the ...


Relative Emergence Of Weeds Of Corn And Soybean, Douglas D. Buhler, Robert G. Hartzler, Lowell D. Sandell Nov 1998

Relative Emergence Of Weeds Of Corn And Soybean, Douglas D. Buhler, Robert G. Hartzler, Lowell D. Sandell

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The success of integrated weed management relies on matching control strategies to the specific weed problem in a field. This requires information not only on what weed species and how many of these weeds are present in a field, but also knowledge of the distribution of the weeds throughout the field and the stage of development of these weeds. Weed control recommendations typically provide information on appropriate tillage methods and herbicide selection. The information concerning weed infestations used to base these recommendations typically is not of sufficient detail to optimize the efficiency of these strategies.


The 1998 Growing Season In Review, Dale E. Farnham Nov 1998

The 1998 Growing Season In Review, Dale E. Farnham

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

I've said it before ... "weather (environment) significantly influences crop growth and development." The 1998 growing season certainly provided us with an ample supply of environmental conditions that affected (both positively and negatively) crop growth and development. Too cool, too warm, too wet, too dry, high winds, hail. .. all played significant roles in influencing the 1998 crop. However, given all the adverse conditions that occurred throughout the season, the crop still managed to "weather" them pretty well and yields have been remarkably good considering all factors. Let's take a look at what happened during the 1998 growing season and ...


Soybean Cyst Nematode - Biology And Management, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 1998

Soybean Cyst Nematode - Biology And Management, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is a microscopic, unsegmented plant-parasitic roundworm that attacks the roots of soybeans. Many plant-parasitic nematodes are believed to be native to the United States, but soybean cyst nematode likely was introduced into the United States from Japan. Soybean cyst nematode was first discovered in the United States in 1954 in North Carolina (Winstead et al., 1955) and since has spread to 26 additional states in the Southeast and Midwest (Figure 1) (Noel, 1992). The nematode was first discovered in Iowa in Winnebago County in 1978. Currently, soybean cyst nematode is known to exist in 85 ...


Planning A Profitable Icm Service, Susan A. Brown, Joel Dejong, Dan Frieberg, Paul Kassel, Kevin Kuhn Nov 1998

Planning A Profitable Icm Service, Susan A. Brown, Joel Dejong, Dan Frieberg, Paul Kassel, Kevin Kuhn

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

For agricultural dealers, there has never been a better time to introduce fee-based crop consulting services. Precision equipment and genetic technology have made new resources available for high yields, but they have also increased the complexity of information management and decision-making in all areas of crop production. The situation has created an opportunity for dealers as well as independent consultants to profitably market services. Public sector demonstration projects conducted under the leadership of Iowa State University Agronomy and Agronomy Extension - such as the Butler County ICM Project, an element of the Iowa Integrated Farm Management Demonstration - have documented that a ...


Precision Agriculture - Putting The Basics To Work, Larry D. Eekhoff Nov 1998

Precision Agriculture - Putting The Basics To Work, Larry D. Eekhoff

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Today, fewer producers are farming more acres, depending on advanced farming techniques to efficiently manage crop inputs and increase profits. These new techniques are nothing more than proven concepts that have been put to work in a more efficient and site specific program.


Take The Test, Beat The Pest: The Scn Coalition, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 1998

Take The Test, Beat The Pest: The Scn Coalition, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The soybean cyst nematode is a widespread and serious pest of soybeans throughout Iowa and the other soybean-producing states in the Midwest. Most infestations go unnoticed for many years because soybean cyst nematode usually does not cause obvious symptoms of damage to aboveground plant parts until the nematode population densities increase to high levels. The lack of identification of soybean cyst nematode infestations before obvious symptoms develop is unfortunate because the key to effective management of the nematode is early detection, when the nematode densities are low.


Farming The Internet For Useful Crop Management Information, Brent A. Pringnitz Nov 1998

Farming The Internet For Useful Crop Management Information, Brent A. Pringnitz

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Timely and accurate information is critical for making sound decisions in crop management. Weather forecasts and commodity market information have a direct impact on nearly every facet of crop production. Traditional media outlets such as radio, newspaper and television have supplied this information in the past and will continue to in the future. However, with the development of the worldwide computer network known as the Internet, access to and delivery of information has become more consumer-driven and active rather than passive. Producers can now target the specific information they want and obtain it very quickly. Weather conditions and changing market ...


Tillage And Fertilizer Placement For The Corn-Soybean Rotation, Antonio P. Mallarino, Daniel W. Barker, Rogerio Borges, James C. North Nov 1998

Tillage And Fertilizer Placement For The Corn-Soybean Rotation, Antonio P. Mallarino, Daniel W. Barker, Rogerio Borges, James C. North

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The information presented is part of ongoing research to identify effective conservation tillage systems and phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer placements for corn and soybeans. The rate of adoption of the no-till system by Iowa producers has decreased after a marked increase during the late 80s and early 90s. Actually, the area of no-till corn has decreased slightly since 1994. Several aspects could explain this trend but slow early growth in spring, a perception of lower corn yields, less yield stability over time, and concerns about appropriate fertilizer management are major factors. Although the increased residue cover usually improves ...


The Iowa Crop Management Database: An Agronomic And Economic Information Recording Tool, Craig K. Tordsen Nov 1998

The Iowa Crop Management Database: An Agronomic And Economic Information Recording Tool, Craig K. Tordsen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Crop Management Database is a valuable tool to analyze the agronomic and economic information of crop production. The lowest cost producers balance the agronomic needs of the farm with good economical management decisions.


Status, Trends, And Management Of Soybean Studies Death Syndrome And White Mold, X. B. Yang, Soum Sanogo, Peter Lundeen, Michael Uphoff Nov 1998

Status, Trends, And Management Of Soybean Studies Death Syndrome And White Mold, X. B. Yang, Soum Sanogo, Peter Lundeen, Michael Uphoff

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In the past five to six years disease picture has changed significantly in Iowa soybean production. The 1998 growing season was characterized by the occurrence of several soybean diseases. Two of these diseases, sudden death syndrome and white mold, are discussed in this article, with respect to their current status, trends, and management options.


Diversity: A Key Element Of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Matt Liebman Nov 1998

Diversity: A Key Element Of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Matt Liebman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Over the last five decades, Iowa's agricultural landscape has become markedly less diverse in both crop and non-crop vegetation. In 1950, corn and soybean were planted on 27% and 6%, respectively, of Iowa's farmland, but by 1994, corn and soybean occupied 39% and 27% of the state's farmland (Kanwar and Klonglan, 1998). During this same period the percentage of Iowa farmland planted with oat fell from 19 to 2%; hay acreage dropped from 11 to 5% (Kanwar and Klonglan, 1998). This type of reduction in crop diversity across the landscape is related to low diversity in individual ...


Herbicide Resistance Update, Bob Hartzler Nov 1998

Herbicide Resistance Update, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Although herbicides have been an important component oflowa crop production for more than 30 years, the degree of reliance on these ag chemicals has increased significantly in the past decade. The primary cause of this increased reliance is the decrease in the use of tillage as a weed management tool. While this has benefits in terms of protecting soil from erosion and decreasing energy use, it does increase the potential for selection of herbicide resistant weeds. Herbicide resistance is defined as the inherited ability of a weed to survive a herbicide dose that kills the native population of that species ...


Managing Crop Nutrients And Limestone With Reduced Financial Resources, John E. Sawyer Nov 1998

Managing Crop Nutrients And Limestone With Reduced Financial Resources, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Ideally, nutrient and limestone needs are determined by evaluating the potential return expected from each input, with application decisions not being limited by overall financial resources. More realistically, resources are allocated by priority need, and decisions related to fertilizer and limestone use are judged against other crop production needs, enterprise requirements, and overall farm business goals. With the current low commodity prices, and resultant reduced cash flow and potentially inadequate financial resources for some producers to purchase all required production inputs, these decisions become especially important and difficult. In these situations, and when considering at all potential nutrient input needs ...


Basics Of Management - Intensive Grazing, Stephen K. Barnhart Nov 1998

Basics Of Management - Intensive Grazing, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Management-intensive grazing is a method for regulating how often and how much to graze in order to control the quality, yield, consumption, and persistence of forage from pasture. Managed grazing attempts to optimize animal performance or limit intake to a desired level and reduce wasted forage. Depending on the grazing methods used, the amount of fresh pasture provided, the amount of forage eaten, and its quality is regulated by the size of pasture area being grazed, the duration of that grazing, and the amount of the available forage allowed for grazing. Also critical is the period that each pasture is ...


Manure Applicators' Certification, James D. Johnson Nov 1998

Manure Applicators' Certification, James D. Johnson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

This past spring the Seventy-seventh session of the Iowa General Assembly passed House File 2494 and 9048, which refined laws governing manure management in the State of Iowa. Section 33 requires that commercial manure applicators and confinement site applicators meet specified certification requirements in order to apply manure. At this time both commercial manure applicators and confinement site applicators must meet certification requirements by March 1, 1999.


Nitrogen Management To Address Low Grain Prices, Alfred M. Blackmer Nov 1998

Nitrogen Management To Address Low Grain Prices, Alfred M. Blackmer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nitrogen fertilizer is an essential but costly input into corn production. The recent decrease in corn grain prices has prompted questions about how N management practices can be adjusted to address this problem. This paper summarizes relevant information that has been learned during the past decade of intensive research in Iowa. The information is presented as a series of observations with a brief explanation of each.


Selecting Forage Species, Stephen K. Barnhart Nov 1998

Selecting Forage Species, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Forage grass and legume performance varies under different conditions. No single forage type or variety is best in all cases. The selection of grasses and legumes is influenced by factors such as average rainfall, soil drainage, erosion hazard, soil pH level, nutrient supply, intended use(s). In addition, the climatic adaptation of a species or its potential longevity in the field is determined greatly by genetic cold hardiness traits.


Using Precision Agriculture As A Tool To Enhance Weed Management, Gregg A. Johnson Nov 1998

Using Precision Agriculture As A Tool To Enhance Weed Management, Gregg A. Johnson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Historically, the goal of agronomic research and associated technologies is to advance crop management strategies that maximize grain production and reduce economic risk on a field scale. We all realize and appreciated the impact that weeds have on our ability to meet these goals. It is, therefore, critical to have an effective short and long-term management plan to deal with weeds. Weed management decision making is a complex endeavor requiring integration of weed biology, environmental risks, labor needs, crop yield potential, efficacy of a given control measure, and economics (Buhler et al., 1996). Because of this complexity, we often choose ...


Corn Diseases In 1998 - Management And Research Update, Gary P. Munkvold, Charlie A. Martinson, John M. Shriver Nov 1998

Corn Diseases In 1998 - Management And Research Update, Gary P. Munkvold, Charlie A. Martinson, John M. Shriver

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Each growing season has unique weather conditions that exert a strong influence on diseases. The prominent weather conditions that contributed to disease problems in Iowa com in 1998 were: an unusually mild winter, very wet weather in June, and drier-than-normal conditions late in the season. The early spring was also very wet, which affected planting dates and caused some seedling disease problems, but not on a widespread basis.


Impact And Importance Of Foliar Diseases Of Alfalfa In Iowa, Forrest W. Nutter Jr., Gary Munkvold Nov 1998

Impact And Importance Of Foliar Diseases Of Alfalfa In Iowa, Forrest W. Nutter Jr., Gary Munkvold

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Alfalfa (Meicago sativa L.) occupies the third largest hectarage in Iowa, after com and soybean. Forage crops are an important component of sustainable farming systems in Iowa. Although management of forage-livestock enterprises is somewhat more complex than the management of row crops, disease management in forage crops has not been researched extensively. Although it is generally accepted that diseases of alfalfa reduce forage yield quality, stand establishment, and life span (Brocious and Kirby, 1988; Wilcoxson et al., 1973), little is known about the impact of foliar diseases on alfalfa production in Iowa.


Soybean Cyst Nematode - Identification And Extraction Techniques, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 1998

Soybean Cyst Nematode - Identification And Extraction Techniques, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

A major factor limiting soybean production in Iowa is the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Soybean cyst nematode is now known to be present in 85 Iowa counties. It is very likely that the nematode is present in many other counties as well, but the nonspecific nature of the aboveground symptoms of soybean cyst nematode damage makes early identification or diagnosis of infestations difficult. Results of recent random surveys indicate that the nematode likely exists in more than 70% of Iowa fields (Workneh et a!., 1998).


Weed Management Update, Micheal D. K. Owen Nov 1998

Weed Management Update, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

There have been a number of new herbicides registered, co-packs introduced, and prepackage mixtures developed. Also, there have been some new developments with some of the common weeds in Iowa. Finally, there has been a rapid adoption of the glyphosate resistant technologies. The purpose of this paper will be to assess these changes and provide some indication as to their significance to Iowa agriculture.


Soybean Seed Production, J. S. Burris Nov 1998

Soybean Seed Production, J. S. Burris

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Maximum soybean production relies upon uniform and rapid stand establishment. Meeting these criteria requires an adequate supply of high quality seed. Providing the necessary seed supply has become the responsibility of the professional seedsmen. The ultimate quality of seed produced is defined by the genotype and the environment under which it is produced. Initially, soybean breeding programs emphasized yield and other agronomic traits with little concern for seed quality. Although to a large extent that is still true, there is a growing appreciation for the importance of seed quality.