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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

1977

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Announcement, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1977

Announcement, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1977

Front Matter, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Field Screening Of Soybean Gerrnplasm (Maturity Group 00 To Iv) Against H. Zea Damage, J. M. Joshi Apr 1977

Research Notes: Field Screening Of Soybean Gerrnplasm (Maturity Group 00 To Iv) Against H. Zea Damage, J. M. Joshi

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Genetic base of major conmercial soybean cultivars is very narrow. The top 10 most widely grown cultivars in the U.S. have been developed from 17 parent lines (Hartwig, 1973). Recently three soybean Plant Introductions, namely, PI 171.451, PI 227.687 and PI 229.358, have been found to have good leaf-feeding resistance to Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) (Van Duyn et al., 1972) and corn earworm (Heliothis zea Boddie) (Hatchett et al., 1976; Joshi and Wutoh, 1976).


Research Notes: Selecting Homozygous Male Fertile Lines From An Intermating Soybean Population, J. W. Burton, C. A. Brim Apr 1977

Research Notes: Selecting Homozygous Male Fertile Lines From An Intermating Soybean Population, J. W. Burton, C. A. Brim

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The synthesis of random-mating soybean populations and their use in recurrent selection programs was enhanced by the discovery of the male sterile genotype, ms 1 ms 1 (Brim and Young, 1971; Brim and Stuber, 1973). At some point in such a recurrent selection program, a plant breeder usually wishes to select lines for testing from one or more of the improved populations . There is a difficulty in this, however, because the progeny of every fertile plant selected from a random mating population will segregate for male sterility.


Research Notes: Seed Responses Of Four Soybean Cultivars To Microwave Treatments, Henry H. Hadley, J. Curt Pennell Apr 1977

Research Notes: Seed Responses Of Four Soybean Cultivars To Microwave Treatments, Henry H. Hadley, J. Curt Pennell

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

In the fall of 1975, we were contacted by C. J. Brannon, Jr. of Agriculture, Inc. (Fort Lauderdale, FL) and 0. S. Gray of Energy Transfer Corporation (Evansville, IN) regarding a possible boost in seed yield and number of pods in soybeans treated by microwaves. As a result, in 1976 we tested the responses of four cultivars adapted to Illinois to several microwave treatments. This is a preliminary and partial report of performances in that test.


Research Notes: Induction Of Sterility In Soybeans With Ethidium Bromide, J. W. Burton Apr 1977

Research Notes: Induction Of Sterility In Soybeans With Ethidium Bromide, J. W. Burton

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Ethidium bromide (EB), an acridine compound which binds to nucleic acids, has been used as a mutagen in peanuts by Levy and Ashri (1975). Burton and Hanna (1976) induced cytoplasmic male sterile mutations in peari millet with EB and suggested that EB as a cytoplasmic mutagen might aid in the development of a cytoplasmic male sterile nuclear restorer system in other crops. The following i s a report on preliminary attempts to induce cytoplasmic male sterility in soybeans using seed treatments of ethidium bromide.


Index Of Contributors, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1977

Index Of Contributors, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Soybean Linkage Tests, R. I. Buzzel Apr 1977

Research Notes: Soybean Linkage Tests, R. I. Buzzel

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

F2 linkage results are presented in Table 1 with a= XV, b = Xy, c = xY, and d = xy for the gene pairs listed in the fonn of Xx and Vy. Percentage recombination was obtained as previously (Buzzell, 1974). The fg1 gene appears to be loosely linked with dt1 in Linkage Group 5.


Research Notes: Linkage Tests Between Sp1 And Ti Seed Proteins, James H. Orf, Theodore Hymowitz Apr 1977

Research Notes: Linkage Tests Between Sp1 And Ti Seed Proteins, James H. Orf, Theodore Hymowitz

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been used to study the Ti and Sp1 seed proteins of the soybean. The Ti protein has been identified as the Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor or SBTI-A2 (Kunitz, 1945; Rackis et al., 1962; Singh, Wilson and Hadley, 1969). The three fonns of SBTI-A2 designated as Ti1, Ti2 and Ti3 are electrophoretically distinguishable from one another by their different Rf values of 0.79, 0.75 and 0.83 (Rf= mobility relative to the dye front in a 10% polyacrylamide gel anodic system using a pH 8.3 Tris-glycine buffer) respectively.


Report Of Soybean Genetics Committee, R. L. Bernard, H. R. Boerma, R. I. Buzzel, H. H. Hadley, E. E. Hartwig, T. C. Kilen, R. G. Palmer Apr 1977

Report Of Soybean Genetics Committee, R. L. Bernard, H. R. Boerma, R. I. Buzzel, H. H. Hadley, E. E. Hartwig, T. C. Kilen, R. G. Palmer

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Characterization Of Cytoplasmic Diversity In Soybeans, V. A. Sisson, C. A. Brim, C. A. Levings Apr 1977

Research Notes: Characterization Of Cytoplasmic Diversity In Soybeans, V. A. Sisson, C. A. Brim, C. A. Levings

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean cultivars which occupy a majority of the U.S. acreage trace to only a few maternal parents. According to a recent report (1972) by the National Academy of Sciences, the maternal ancestors and their combined frequency of occurrence in the parentage among Northern and Southern varieties are: 'Mandarin' 51 %, 'Illini' 23%, 'Tokyo' 11 %, 'Dunfield' 8%, 'Mukden' 4%, and 'Roanoke' 4%. Four of these parents are introductions from Manchuria, one from Japan, and one is of unknown origin.


Research Notes: A Technique For Evaluating Nodulation Response Of Soybean Genotypes With Specific Rhizobium Strains, W. W. Reisinger, T. E. Devine Apr 1977

Research Notes: A Technique For Evaluating Nodulation Response Of Soybean Genotypes With Specific Rhizobium Strains, W. W. Reisinger, T. E. Devine

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Previous research on the interactions of Rhizobium strains with host cultivars has involved the testing of small numbers of plants with a specific strain of Rhizobium in Leonard jar assemblies (Leonard, 1943). The Leonard jar technique in our greenhouse requires frequent watering (up to twice daily) and periodic adjustment of the wick element. We have found the traditional Leonard jar assembly technique inadequate to efficiently accommodate the large plant populations required in plant selection and genetic studies of allelism and linkage.


Research Notes: Decapitation Technique To Screen For Photoperiod Insensitivity In Soybean. Glycine Max, S. Shanmugasundaram, C. C. Wang Apr 1977

Research Notes: Decapitation Technique To Screen For Photoperiod Insensitivity In Soybean. Glycine Max, S. Shanmugasundaram, C. C. Wang

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The lack of a suitable screening technique for photoperiod response has prevented the identification of photoperiod-insensitive (PI) genotypes. In an F2 population, each plant has a specific genotypic constitution. To determine the photoperiod response, each F2 plant should be subjected to at least two different photoperiods.


Mailing List, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1977

Mailing List, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Inheritance Of Photoperiod Insensitivity To Flowering In Glycine Max, S. Shanmugasundaram Apr 1977

Research Notes: Inheritance Of Photoperiod Insensitivity To Flowering In Glycine Max, S. Shanmugasundaram

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

At the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) one of the objectives of our soybean program is to identify photoperiod insensitivity (PI) in the germplasm and to develop high-yielding, widely-adapted types using PI. Photoperiod insensitivity has been reported in soybean by Yoshida (1952), Pohjakallio and Antila (1957), Criswell and Hume (1972), and Shanmugasundaram et al. (1974). However, due to unavailability of a suitable practical technique to screen the F2 and backcross individuals , the inheritance of PI could not be studied accurately.


Research Notes: Mechanism Of Corn Earworm Resistance In Some Soybean Cultivars, J. M. Joshi Apr 1977

Research Notes: Mechanism Of Corn Earworm Resistance In Some Soybean Cultivars, J. M. Joshi

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Much emphasis is being placed on the development of new soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars resistant to various insect pests . Three soybean PI's (171.451, 229.358, 227.687) have been found to have antibiosis to Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) (Van Duyn et al., 1972) and corn earworm (Heliothis zea Boddie) (Clark et al., 1972; Hatchett et al., 1976; Joshi and Wutoh, 1976). These PI 's also have exhibited resistance to bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata Foster); cultivars 'Shore' and 'Wye' also were observed to have leaf feeding resistance to this pest (Joshi and Wutoh, 1976).


Research Notes: Procedures For Handling Soybean Gerrnplasm Between The United States And Foreign Countries, H. H. Hyland Apr 1977

Research Notes: Procedures For Handling Soybean Gerrnplasm Between The United States And Foreign Countries, H. H. Hyland

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Federal, state, and commercial soybean breeders periodically receive direct requests for seed from potential foreign cooperators, including both those who are technically qualified to undertake research and those who have little experience with the crop and are initiating programs for the first time. The Gennplasm Resources Laboratory in Beltsville, MD, also receives numerous requests from foreign cooperators as a result of its involvement in the international germplasm exchange program that has been operating for 25 to 30 years. In addition, U. S. breeders request specific germplasm from foreign sources and new plant introductions are added to the soybean germplasm collections.


Research Notes: Identification Of Male Sterile Soybean Plants By Pollen Examination, C. A. Brim, Sharon Kenworthy Apr 1977

Research Notes: Identification Of Male Sterile Soybean Plants By Pollen Examination, C. A. Brim, Sharon Kenworthy

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The male sterile maintainer line, N69-2774, segregates 1:1 for fertility and sterility (Brim and Young, 1972). The fertile and sterile siblings are indistinguishable, except for pollen grain morphology, until the onset of maturity. For controlled hybridization the phenotypic similarity is an obstacle.


Genetic Stocks Available : Genetic Linkage Groups In Soybeans, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1977

Genetic Stocks Available : Genetic Linkage Groups In Soybeans, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Techniques Developed For Screening Soybeans For Mexican Bean Beetle Resistance, C. M. Smith, C. A. Brim, W. V. Campbell, J. W. Van Duyn Apr 1977

Research Notes: Techniques Developed For Screening Soybeans For Mexican Bean Beetle Resistance, C. M. Smith, C. A. Brim, W. V. Campbell, J. W. Van Duyn

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The lack of uniform infestations of Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) in field plantings can make selection for resistance in segregating soybean populations very difficult . For this reason, the results from screening F2 plants in the field have been inconsistent. An alternative is to advance F2 plants to the F3 to provide replication at more than one location.


Research Notes: Soybean Breeding Research In India, Md. Fazlul Haque, Surendra Prasad Apr 1977

Research Notes: Soybean Breeding Research In India, Md. Fazlul Haque, Surendra Prasad

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is the miracle crop of the twentieth century. It is a new introduction to Indian agriculture. In view of chronic shortage of protein and oil in this country, soybean should be welcome introduction to provide the much needed stability and boost to the production of these two essential items of food (Saxena, 1975).


Research Notes: A Spontaneous Mutant At The St2 Locus, Carol L. Winger, Reid G. Palmer, Detroy E. Green Apr 1977

Research Notes: A Spontaneous Mutant At The St2 Locus, Carol L. Winger, Reid G. Palmer, Detroy E. Green

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

In 1971, Detroy Green, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, found sterile plants in an F4 single-plant progeny row from a cross of Hark X Harosoy Dt2Dt2. This family segregated 66 fertile to 21 sterile plants. Microspore mother cells of the sterile plants were examined, and a low level of chromosome pairing was observed, indicating that the sterile was either an asynaptic or desynaptic mutant.


Recent Soybean Genetics And Breeding Publications, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1977

Recent Soybean Genetics And Breeding Publications, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Soybean Linkage Tests, Reid G. Palmer Apr 1977

Research Notes: Soybean Linkage Tests, Reid G. Palmer

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

In 1969, Walter Fehr of Iowa State University found a dwarf soybean plant (T263) in an early elite breeding population. Allelism tests have not been conducted with the other dwarfs, df2, df3, and df4. We have used this early elite dwarf mutant in crosses with our trisomics.


Research Notes: Screening Soybean Germplasm For Multiple Pest Resistance, J. M. Joshi Apr 1977

Research Notes: Screening Soybean Germplasm For Multiple Pest Resistance, J. M. Joshi

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Use of resistant soybean cultivars is an excellent method of controlling various insect pests and diseases. A resistant plant has built-in protection which lasts throughout the growing season . Cultivars having resistance to only one pest may still need chemical control measures for protection from other pests .


Research Notes: Observation On Cross-Pollination Of Soybeans After Gamma Irradiation Of Seeds., Preeyanan Jumnongnid, Sumin Smutkupt Apr 1977

Research Notes: Observation On Cross-Pollination Of Soybeans After Gamma Irradiation Of Seeds., Preeyanan Jumnongnid, Sumin Smutkupt

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Seeds of 'Sansai' variety, line No. 34-9-1 (white flower, as a female parent) were irradiated with gamma rays of a cesium137 source; 5 and 15 krad were used. After treatment, Sansai seeds were grown in alternate rows with S.J. 1 line No. 56-12 and S.J. 2 line No. 27-9 (both purple flowers, as male parents) . The experiments were carried out in replications on Kasetsart campus and at Suwan Farm, Pakchong.


Research Notes: Evaluation Of Some Soybean Isolines In Irrigation Culture, J. E. Specht, J. H. Williams Apr 1977

Research Notes: Evaluation Of Some Soybean Isolines In Irrigation Culture, J. E. Specht, J. H. Williams

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

About 9% of the total soybean acreage and about 50% of the total corn acreage in Nebraska was irrigated at least once during the growing season in 1975. The 1975 state averages for irrigated soybeans and irrigated corn were 2220 and 7605 kg/ha respectively. Obviously, this yield differential (in relation to the price and production cost differentials) accounts for the reason most farmers utilize their irrigated acreage for corn rather than soybeans.


Research Notes: Spacing And Soybean Breeding, Ralph F. Gretzmacher Apr 1977

Research Notes: Spacing And Soybean Breeding, Ralph F. Gretzmacher

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The problem of spacing is worldwide and concerns all crops. The usual plant density for soybeans is 25-65 plants/m2 (Scott and Aldrich, 1970). Nowadays there are efforts to put more soybeans on the field. For example , Gogerty (1976) pointed out that the yield increases as the row distance narrows.


Research Notes: Single Seed Selection For Carbohydrate Content In Soybean Seeds, S. J. Openshaw, H. H. Hadley Apr 1977

Research Notes: Single Seed Selection For Carbohydrate Content In Soybean Seeds, S. J. Openshaw, H. H. Hadley

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

We have investigated the feasibility of using single seed selection to change the sugar content of soybeans. In order to study the distribution of sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, and total sugar in the embryo, seeds of the varieties 'Jogun' and 'Hokkaido' were sliced into three portions of approximate equal weights. Slices were made parallel to the root-shoot axis with Position I containing the root-shoot axis and Position III lying distal from it.


Research Notes: Isozymic Variations In Black- And Yellow-Seeded Isogenic Lines Of 'Bragg' Soybean, S. S. Malik, B. B. Singh Apr 1977

Research Notes: Isozymic Variations In Black- And Yellow-Seeded Isogenic Lines Of 'Bragg' Soybean, S. S. Malik, B. B. Singh

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Occasional black seeds are noticed in 'Bragg' seed lots obtained from large multiplication plots. The frequency of such seeds varies from 10^-5 to 10^-7, indicating that the black seeds result from spontaneous mutation. The plants grown from black seeds are identical to Bragg plants in every respect so that, without opening the pods on mature plants, it is impossible to distinguish the two types of plants .