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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

1976

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Research Notes: Environmental Influence On Total Pollen Grains Per Flower From Normal And Sterile Plants Of The Urbana Male Sterile., Marc C. Albertsen, Reid G. Palmer Apr 1976

Research Notes: Environmental Influence On Total Pollen Grains Per Flower From Normal And Sterile Plants Of The Urbana Male Sterile., Marc C. Albertsen, Reid G. Palmer

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

In 1975 we reported the ratio of normal pollen grains to coenocytic pollen grains per anther locule of greenhouse grown plants from the original North Carolina line of the ms1 mutant. The observed ratio was 2:1 rather than the expected 4:1 (Palmer and Albertsen, 1975). Cooper and Boerma (1975), working with the Urbana male sterile, and Palmer and Winger (1975), working with Ames, Harosoy, and Urbana male steriles, proposed that the gene(s) conditioning male sterility are located at the same locus as the ms1 gene.


Research Notes: Soybean Dwarf Virus Disease, Y. Tanimura, Y. Mori Apr 1976

Research Notes: Soybean Dwarf Virus Disease, Y. Tanimura, Y. Mori

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

In the cultivation of soybean plants in Hokkaido and in the Tohoku region of Japan, the most difficult problem at present is soybean dwarf virus disease (SDV). This disease was first found on the soybean variety 'Tsurunoko' in southern areas of Hokkaido in about 1952. Since then researchers have been attempting to overcome it, and some aspects of this disease were clarified: for example, this disease was not transmitted by manual inoculation of sap or through seeds, but was transmitted by the grafting method or foxglove aphid in a persistent manner. Two strains of SDV were obtained from naturally infected ...


Index Of Contributors, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1976

Index Of Contributors, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Announcements, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1976

Announcements, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Genetic Studies Of Soybean Host Cultivar Interactions With Rhizobium Strains, T. E. Devine Apr 1976

Research Notes: Genetic Studies Of Soybean Host Cultivar Interactions With Rhizobium Strains, T. E. Devine

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Several genetic factors have been identified which govern specific nodulation response in soybeans. The RJ2 genotype, carried by the cultivars 'Hardee' and 'CNS,' conditions an ineffective response in specific combination with Rhizobium japonicum strains of serogroups c1 and 122. The ineffective response is characterized as the development of either cortical proliferations on the roots or rudimentary nodules, rather than normal nodules.


Research Notes: Soybean Breeding In Austria, R. Gretzmacher, L. Tanasch Apr 1976

Research Notes: Soybean Breeding In Austria, R. Gretzmacher, L. Tanasch

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Introduction: Since Brillmayr (1929) published his first report on soybeans, there has been almost no intensive research on it in Austria. Its cultivation dropped gradually and then ceased completely after World War II, due to the increased import of American soybean products and the difficulty in producing varieties which suit Austrian conditions. In 1970, the Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Agriculture, Vienna, started to renew interest in soybean and worked out a program to develop its cultivation, aiming to insert it as a suitable leguminous plant in the crop rotation, and to benefit from this rich source ...


Research Notes: Progress In Obtaining Soybean Haploids 2n=20, E. T. Bingham, W. D. Beversdorf, G. L. Cutter Apr 1976

Research Notes: Progress In Obtaining Soybean Haploids 2n=20, E. T. Bingham, W. D. Beversdorf, G. L. Cutter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Male sterility gene ms 1 from North Carolina was transferred to maturity groups I, II, and III over the last few years to facilitate the use in Wisconsin of the twinning and haploidy phenomena associated with ms1ms1 plants. In 1975 we had an extended fall growing season and seed was obtained from several hundred male sterile ms 1ms1 plants, representing maturity groups I, II, III, IV, and V. Honey bees were used as pollinators.


Research Notes: Histology Of The Embryo Sac Of Male Sterile Ms1ms1 Soybeans, G. L. Cutter, E. T. Bingham Apr 1976

Research Notes: Histology Of The Embryo Sac Of Male Sterile Ms1ms1 Soybeans, G. L. Cutter, E. T. Bingham

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The fact that ms1ms1 plants in maturity ranges I to V were producing haploids, triploids, and even higher ploidy levels along with the predominant normal diploids, indicated the female gametophyte was at least occasionally functioning abnormally. Histological sections of 92 male sterile pistils from plants about Groups III and IV, indicated only about 28% of the ovules had a normal embryo sac, by our interpretation. The remainder most commonly had extra nuclei in the regions of the secondary nucleus (endosperm mother cell) and/or the egg apparatus.


Research Notes: New Pigments In Soybean Seedcoats, Barksdale H. Taylor, C. E. Caviness Apr 1976

Research Notes: New Pigments In Soybean Seedcoats, Barksdale H. Taylor, C. E. Caviness

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Pigments were extracted from self-colored soybean seedcoats and subjected to standard procedures of paper chromatography. This research was a part of a Master's Thesis problem conducted by Barksdale Taylor on genetic and chemical evaluation of hilum variants in mature soybean seed. Brown, reddish brown and buff seedcoats did not contain anthocyanin pigments.


Research Notes: Cotyledon Culture, John F. Thompson, James T. Madison Apr 1976

Research Notes: Cotyledon Culture, John F. Thompson, James T. Madison

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

A procedure for aseptically culturing immature soybean cotyledons has been developed to study the synthesis of seed storage proteins. Experiments were carried out so that one cotyledon from an embryo was compared to the second cotyledon. Cotyledons were normally incubated for 6 days at 25 C in light with gentle shaking.


Research Notes: Forage Value Of Soybean Plants, J. J. Faix, C. J. Kaiser, F. C. Hinds Apr 1976

Research Notes: Forage Value Of Soybean Plants, J. J. Faix, C. J. Kaiser, F. C. Hinds

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybeans have been evaluated for a second year as to their contribution to silage quality when interplanted with Zea mays. In 1974, two forage cultivars ('Black Wilson' and 'Laredo') available in the local seed trade, and 'Amsoy 71' were interplanted with a number of sorghum-sudans, grain sorghums, and Zea mays. A number of protepeas (Vigna unguiculata) were also interplanted.


Research Notes: Soybean Gene Resources Recently Received From China, R. I. Buzzel, B. R. Buttery, L. J. Anderson, D. A. Littlejohns, J. G. R. Loiselle Apr 1976

Research Notes: Soybean Gene Resources Recently Received From China, R. I. Buzzel, B. R. Buttery, L. J. Anderson, D. A. Littlejohns, J. G. R. Loiselle

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Forty soybean cultivars were received from the Peoples Republic of China in a number of exchanges between June 1973 and June 1974. The first eight cultivars that we received were grown in row tests at Harrow, Woodslee and Ridgetown in 1975, along with 'Harlen,' 'Harosoy 63,' and 'Harcar.' These eight, plus the next seven that we received, had been tested in hill plots at Harrow in 1974, along with Hardome, Harlen, Harosoy 63, and 'Harwood.' The highest and lowest cultivar values are given for each of a number of characteristics within each group of cultivars as an indication of the ...


Research Notes: Seed Yield Efficiency In Soybeans, J. M. Joshi, P. E. Smith Apr 1976

Research Notes: Seed Yield Efficiency In Soybeans, J. M. Joshi, P. E. Smith

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars with high seed yield efficiency (SYE) can be used in breeding programs to increase yield. An efficient cultivar can be characterized either by a high ratio of seed to nonseed dry weight (above ground unthreshed air-dry weight of plant at maturity minus seed weight) or by a steep regression slope of seed over nonseed dry weight. High SYE indicates that a high proportion of total plant dry weight is seed weight (Veatch, 1930).


Research Notes: Multiple Resistance To Insects, Sam Anand Apr 1976

Research Notes: Multiple Resistance To Insects, Sam Anand

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean lines PI 229.358, PI 171.451 and PI 227.687 were reported to be resistant to Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) (Van Duyn, Turnipseed and Maxwell, 1971). Their study was based on forced feeding tests conducted in the laboratory and by field observations. The line PI 229.358 has been intensively used by soybean breeders for incorporating resistance into corrmercial germplasm .


Research Notes: Heat Injury Tests As A Screening Tool For Heat Tolerance In Soybeans, J. R. Martineau, J. E. Specht, J. H. Williams Apr 1976

Research Notes: Heat Injury Tests As A Screening Tool For Heat Tolerance In Soybeans, J. R. Martineau, J. E. Specht, J. H. Williams

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

One of the objectives of the soybean physiology-breeding program at Nebraska is the evaluation of various procedures used for measuring the response of soybeans to heat and drought stress . We are primarily interested in techniques amenable to large-scale screening of soybean populations or germplasm, so that heat or drought tolerant genotypes can be identified and used in our breeding program. Consequently, the important considerations are rapidity in sampling, simplicity in equipment and procedural requirements, and detection of genotypic (rather than environmental) differences.


Recent Soybean Genetics And Breeding Publications, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1976

Recent Soybean Genetics And Breeding Publications, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Soybean Linkage And Allelism Tests, R. I. Buzzel Apr 1976

Research Notes: Soybean Linkage And Allelism Tests, R. I. Buzzel

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

F2 linkage results are presented in Table 1 with a= XY, b = Xy, c = xY, and d = xy for the gene pairs listed in the form of Xx and Yy. Percentage recombination was obtained as previously (Buzzell, 1974). As reported previously (Buzzell, 1975), the T31 that I am using appeared to carry 1n in contrast to the Ln T31 used by Weiss (1970).


Research Notes: Linkage Studies With A Chromosomal Interchange, Reid G. Palmer Apr 1976

Research Notes: Linkage Studies With A Chromosomal Interchange, Reid G. Palmer

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Two chromosomal interchanges have been reported in soybeans by Williams and Williams (1938) and Williams (1948). We have been using the chromosomal interchange reported in 1948, which came from a cross between Glycine soja (PI 101.4048) and G. max. We received seed in 1970 from R. L. Bernard (U.S . Regional Soybean Laboratory) of PI 101 .4048 x Clark as L68-7944-2.


Research Notes: Stomatal Frequency And Heat And Drought Stress In Soybeans, J. R. Martineau, J. H. Williams, J. E. Specht Apr 1976

Research Notes: Stomatal Frequency And Heat And Drought Stress In Soybeans, J. R. Martineau, J. H. Williams, J. E. Specht

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Stomata are the primary anatomical structures involved in water loss and gas exchange in plants. Genetic differences in stomatal frequency may have potential in breeding for increased photosynthetic or water-use efficiency. Miskin and Rasmusson (1970), for example , found that barley lines with low stomatal frequencies transpired less water than lines with high stomatal frequencies, with no observed difference in the rates of photosynthesis.


Research Notes: Vegetative Propagation Of Soybeans, J. S. Plaskowitz, T. E. Devine Apr 1976

Research Notes: Vegetative Propagation Of Soybeans, J. S. Plaskowitz, T. E. Devine

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

During the course of genetic studies of possible linkage associations involving factors controlling nodulation response in soybeans, we found it desirable to increase the size of the F2 population produced in the greenhouse during the winter. We endeavored to do this by vegetatively propagating the F1 hybrid plants for use in seed production. We visualize that vegetative propagation would also be useful for other purposes: (1) maintaining aneuploids which segregate at meiosis, and (2) providing propagules which may be subjected to different photoperiod regimes, thus providing coincidence of flowering in crosses of uncertain maturity when little seed is available.


Research Notes: Determination Of Sugar Content Of Individual Soybean Seeds, S. J. Openshaw, T. Hymowitz, H. H. Hadley Apr 1976

Research Notes: Determination Of Sugar Content Of Individual Soybean Seeds, S. J. Openshaw, T. Hymowitz, H. H. Hadley

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

In order to investigate the possibility of single seed selection for sugar content in soybeans, a technique has been developed for analysis of 20-40 mg samples of soybean meal . The method described by Hymowitz et al· (1972) has been modified to serve this purpose. A portion of a soybean seed is ground for 5 min in a ball mill (Spex Industries, Inc.).


Research Notes: Evidence Of A Second Gene Controlling A Short Internode (Zigzag Stem) Character, H. R. Boerma, B. G. Jones Apr 1976

Research Notes: Evidence Of A Second Gene Controlling A Short Internode (Zigzag Stem) Character, H. R. Boerma, B. G. Jones

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Kilen and Hartwig (1975) have described a short internode character found in PI 227.224 which causes a zigzag stem appearance. They indicated that the short internode character was probably determined by a single recessive gene pair based on classification of the presence or absence of the zigzag stem appearance. In the F2 generations of the crosses, PI 227.224 x 'Coker 338' and PI 227.224 x 'Davis,' we observed two different ratios.


Research Notes: Evaluation Of Commercial Soybean Cultivars For Leaf Feeding Resistance To Heliothis Zea, J. M. Joshi, J. G. Wutoh Apr 1976

Research Notes: Evaluation Of Commercial Soybean Cultivars For Leaf Feeding Resistance To Heliothis Zea, J. M. Joshi, J. G. Wutoh

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The phenomenon of plant resistance to insects may be classified into three components, namely, nonpreference, antibiosis, and tolerance (Painter, 1951). Clark et al· (1972) observed that although PI 227.687 had many Heliothis zea eggs and larvae on the plants, the amount of pod damage was considerably less as compared with PI 171.451 and PI 229.358. They suggested that PI 227.687 might have some antibiosis mechanism against H.zea .


Research Notes: Inheritance In Chlorophyll Deficient Mutants, C. R. Nissly, R. L. Bernard, C. N. Hittle Apr 1976

Research Notes: Inheritance In Chlorophyll Deficient Mutants, C. R. Nissly, R. L. Bernard, C. N. Hittle

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Studies of chlorophyll deficient soybeans have shown that normal development of chlorophyll is controlled by several genes . The recent review by Bernard and Weiss (1973) summarizes information about the known published chlorophyll defi cient lines . A number of soybean lines exhibiting chlorophyll deficiencies which have not been studied genetically are included in the genetic type collection maintained at the U.S. Regional Soybean Laboratory.


Research Notes: Inheritance Of A Second Sbtl-A2 Variant In Seed Protein Of Soybeans, James H. Orf, Theodore Hymowitz Apr 1976

Research Notes: Inheritance Of A Second Sbtl-A2 Variant In Seed Protein Of Soybeans, James H. Orf, Theodore Hymowitz

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

The soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI-A2) is a seed protein that exhibits different electrophoretic forms. Hymowitz and Hadley (1972) demonstrated that two different electrophoretic fonns of SBTI-A2 represent the expression of two codominant alleles at a single locus. They assigned the symbol Ti1 to the allele controlling the most commonly occurring electrophoretic form Rf 0.79/10% (Rf= mobility relative to the dye front in a 10% polyacrylamide gel anodic system) and Ti 2 to the allele controlling the electrophoretic form found at Rf 0.75/10%.


Report Of Soybean Genetics Committee, R. L. Bernard, R. I. Buzzel, R. L. Cooper, H. H. Hadley, E. E. Hartwig, K. Hinson, R. G. Palmer Apr 1976

Report Of Soybean Genetics Committee, R. L. Bernard, R. I. Buzzel, R. L. Cooper, H. H. Hadley, E. E. Hartwig, K. Hinson, R. G. Palmer

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Foreword, Soybean Genetics Newsletter Apr 1976

Foreword, Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Glycine Germplasm Resources, Theodore Hymowitz Apr 1976

Research Notes: Glycine Germplasm Resources, Theodore Hymowitz

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Research Notes: Trisomic Linkage Tests, Reid G. Palmer Apr 1976

Research Notes: Trisomic Linkage Tests, Reid G. Palmer

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

We are using three primary trisomics, Tri A, Tri B, and Tri C, in attempts to locate genes on specific chromosomes and to associate chromosomes with their respective linkage groups. The trisomics were used as female parents in crosses with the various genetic types listed in Table 1. Chromosome numbers were determined from F1 seedlings.


Research Notes: The Gene Symbols Sp1a And Sp1b Assigned To Larsen And Caldwell's Seed Protein Bands A And B, James H. Orf, Theodore Hymowitz Apr 1976

Research Notes: The Gene Symbols Sp1a And Sp1b Assigned To Larsen And Caldwell's Seed Protein Bands A And B, James H. Orf, Theodore Hymowitz

Soybean Genetics Newsletter

Larson (1967), using acrylamide gel electrophoresis, described two seed proteins in soybean seed and noted they were variety specific. The inheritance of these proteins (although the proteins were not characterized) was reported as being controlled by two codominant alleles at a single locus (Larsen and Caldwell, 1968); gene symbols were not assigned. The letters "A" and ''B'' were used to designate the two different seed protein bands.