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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

2015

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Evaluation Of Seed-Applied Nematicides In On-Farm Trials, Tristan Mueller, Peter Kyveryga Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Seed-Applied Nematicides In On-Farm Trials, Tristan Mueller, Peter Kyveryga

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) are one of the major soybean yield robbers in Iowa. It was estimated that there was more than 11 million bushels of soybeans lost due to SCN in Iowa just in 2014 (Bradley et al., 2015). The primary management of SCN is with resistant soybean varieties. In recent years there have been several nematicidal seed-treatment products introduced to the market that may provide additional protection from SCN. These products can be classified into two broad categories, chemical and biological. Avicta and ILeVO are two of the primary chemical nematicides. Clariva, VOTiVO and N-HIBIT are some of ...


Tractor And Planter Adjustments To Improve Profitability, Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer, Mark Licht Dec 2015

Tractor And Planter Adjustments To Improve Profitability, Mark Hanna, Dana Schweitzer, Mark Licht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Reducing operating costs while maintaining productivity and getting the most out of field operations are always important criteria. When grain prices are low, operational savings and improvements directly impact profitability. Field data are shown on tractor and tillage fuel savings strategy and planter closing wheel operation.


Building Soil Health For Sustainable Agriculture Systems, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Dec 2015

Building Soil Health For Sustainable Agriculture Systems, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The benefits of a healthy soil in sustaining crop production are most evident when growing conditions are less than ideal. Healthy soils increase the capacity of crops to withstand weather variability including short term extreme precipitation events and intra-seasonal drought (Al-Kaisi et al., 2013). The extreme drought in 2012 (Rippey, 2012) resulted in variable yield reduction to corn and soybean production in Iowa with the worst impact on fields with conventional tillage systems (i.e., chisel plow, deep ripping, etc.). Increasingly highly variable weather conditions present increased risks to crops and require more careful attention to conservation planning so as ...


Practical Use Of Remote Sensing In Crop Management, Patrick Reeg Dec 2015

Practical Use Of Remote Sensing In Crop Management, Patrick Reeg

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

After attending this session, attendees will gain knowledge on: A background to remote sensing in agriculture; Remote sensing sources and resolution; and On-Farm Network use of remote sensing.


Micronutrient Fertilization For Corn And Soybean, Dorivar Ruiz Diaz Dec 2015

Micronutrient Fertilization For Corn And Soybean, Dorivar Ruiz Diaz

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Improvements in crop genetics and increased yield potential with a more intensive production system typically involve a greater demand for commercial fertilizers to secure maximum yields. This raises the question about the role of secondary and micronutrient fertilizers to increase yields. Some soil conditions such as high soil pH and low organic matter may also contribute to decrease the supply of micronutrients to crops. Consequently, there is an increasing interest from producers about the potential benefits of micronutrients as complement of their fertilization programs to maximize yields in corn and soybean.


Environmental Performance With Agronomic Management: Raccoon River Watershed Case Study, Anthony Seeman, Christopher S. Jones, Peter Kyveryga, Adam Kiel Dec 2015

Environmental Performance With Agronomic Management: Raccoon River Watershed Case Study, Anthony Seeman, Christopher S. Jones, Peter Kyveryga, Adam Kiel

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Accurate information about water quality trends in agricultural watersheds is needed to inform agricultural policy and quantify the effectiveness of field and landscape management practices. Several studies predicted the increased conversion of soybean and pasture acres to more corn acres driven by corn ethanol production would increase N losses and river nitrate-nitrogen.


Anthracnose: The Sophisticated Rot, Lisa J. Vaillancourt, Maria Torres, Noushin Ghaffari, Ester Buiate, Scott Schwartz, Charles D. Johnson Dec 2015

Anthracnose: The Sophisticated Rot, Lisa J. Vaillancourt, Maria Torres, Noushin Ghaffari, Ester Buiate, Scott Schwartz, Charles D. Johnson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The mold fungus Colletotrichum graminicola causes anthracnose, one of the most economically damaging corn diseases worldwide. Anthracnose can occur either as a stalk rot (ASR), or a leaf blight (ALB) (4; 27). The leaf blight phase is generally insignificant in North America as a cause of yield loss, although in the tropics and subtropics it is much more important. Resistance to ASR is usually not correlated with resistance to ALB, complicating efforts to breed resistant corn varieties (2; 4). Resistance to ASR and ALB is mostly quantitative, although sources of major gene resistance have been described (10; 29). Hybrids containing ...


Forecasting Yields And In-Season Crop-Water Nitrogen Needs Using Simulation Models, Sotirios Archontoulis, Ranae Dietzel, Mike Castellano, Andy Vanloocke, Ken Moore, Laila A. Puntel, Carolina Cordova, Kaitlin Togliatti, Huber Isaiah, Mark Licht Dec 2015

Forecasting Yields And In-Season Crop-Water Nitrogen Needs Using Simulation Models, Sotirios Archontoulis, Ranae Dietzel, Mike Castellano, Andy Vanloocke, Ken Moore, Laila A. Puntel, Carolina Cordova, Kaitlin Togliatti, Huber Isaiah, Mark Licht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Forecasting crop yields and water-nitrogen dynamics during the growing cycle of the crops can greatly advance in-season decision making processes. To date, forecasting approaches include the use of statistical or mechanistic simulation models, aerial images, or combinations of these to make the predictions. Different approaches and models have different capabilities, strengths, and limitations. System-level mechanistic simulation models (crop and soil models together) usually offer more prediction and explanatory power at the cost of extensive input data. In contrast, statistical approaches or aerial images can be more robust than mechanistic models but their applicability and prediction/explanatory power is limited. The ...


Making Rational Adjustments To Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Application Rates When Crop Prices Are Low And Producers Want To Cut Inputs, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2015

Making Rational Adjustments To Phosphorus, Potassium, And Lime Application Rates When Crop Prices Are Low And Producers Want To Cut Inputs, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn and soybean grain prices have been declining and there is considerable uncertainty about the future. It helps somewhat that the prices of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers and lime have remained approximately constant or have declined slightly. Therefore, producers are thinking of reducing fertilizer or lime application rates. There are a few useful things that producers and crop consultants should consider when making fertilization decisions with unfavorable crop/fertilizer price ratios.


Plant Disease Diagnosis Trivia: The Old, The New And The Ugly, Ed Zaworski, Lina M. Rodriguez-Salamanca Dec 2015

Plant Disease Diagnosis Trivia: The Old, The New And The Ugly, Ed Zaworski, Lina M. Rodriguez-Salamanca

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Every year the plant and insect diagnostic clinic receives many samples of crop disease and insect problems. Some problems can be readily diagnosed in the field or clinic, but there are always those difficult look-a-like diseases, unique disease symptoms on some hybrids and environmental stressors that can be vexing to us all and make accurate diagnosis more difficult. This presentation will help you identify some of these issues in the field and know when it is best to submit a sample to ISU. A majority of the presentation will consist of clicker question activities followed by discussion. We will also ...


Extreme Weather For Crops: Too Dry, Too Wet, And Even Ideal, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2015

Extreme Weather For Crops: Too Dry, Too Wet, And Even Ideal, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn yield per acre has been more erratic from 2001-2014 than was experienced from 1981-2000. The year to year volatility of soybean yield is similar to that of corn. The consistency of the pattern of favorable and adverse production years indicates that the management of “weather related risk” to production and marketing during the coming decade will likely be increasingly important to farm profits.


Nitrogen Input Decisions With Tight Crop Production Margins, John E. Sawyer Dec 2015

Nitrogen Input Decisions With Tight Crop Production Margins, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

High-yield corn production would not be possible without adequate nitrogen (N) supply. Unless corn follows established alfalfa, N application from fertilizer or manure is almost always needed in Iowa crop rotations with corn following soybean and corn following corn to meet crop demands. This N fertilization need is especially important considering the recent period of high rainfall years in Iowa where residual N is reduced and N response increased. In dry periods, such as the late 1980’s to early 1990’s, there were field situations where no response to applied N would occur, but that has not happened in ...


Incorporating Lessons From High-Input Research Into A Low-Margin Year, D. A. Marburger, B. J. Haverkamp, R. G. Laurenz, J. M. Orlowski, E. Wilson, S. N. Casteel, C. D. Lee, S. Naeve, E. D. Nafziger, K. L. Roozeboom, W. J. Ross, K. D. Thelen, S. P. Conley Dec 2015

Incorporating Lessons From High-Input Research Into A Low-Margin Year, D. A. Marburger, B. J. Haverkamp, R. G. Laurenz, J. M. Orlowski, E. Wilson, S. N. Casteel, C. D. Lee, S. Naeve, E. D. Nafziger, K. L. Roozeboom, W. J. Ross, K. D. Thelen, S. P. Conley

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Increased soybean commodity prices in recent years have generated interest in developing high-input systems to increase yield. However, little information exists about the effects of input-intensive, high-yield management on soybean yield and profitability, as well as interactions with basic agronomic practices.


Can Herbicides Affect Disease Development? An Overview Of Differentiating Herbicide Injury From Crop Disease And What Is Known About Herbicide Effects On Disease Development, Loren J. Giesler Dec 2015

Can Herbicides Affect Disease Development? An Overview Of Differentiating Herbicide Injury From Crop Disease And What Is Known About Herbicide Effects On Disease Development, Loren J. Giesler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

With the current changes in weed management and the onset of glyphosate resistant weed species, soybean farmers are using both additional herbicide modes and action and more preplant herbicide options to supplement glyphosate in their weed management programs. In years with conditions favorable for seedling disease and other disease there are typically concerns and inquiries about the cause(s) of symptoms in agronomic plants. Many of the questions focus on differentiating between plant injuries potentially caused by recent herbicide applications versus symptoms caused by plant pathogens.


Integrated Management Of White Mold In Soybean, Damon L. Smith, Jaime Willbur, Medhi Kabbage Dec 2015

Integrated Management Of White Mold In Soybean, Damon L. Smith, Jaime Willbur, Medhi Kabbage

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent for white mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), is a devastating soybean fungal pathogen. In 2006, white mold ranked in the top 10 yield reducing diseases of soybean and was estimated to account for over 2 billion metric tonnes of yield loss world-wide (1). In the United States, soybean losses in 2009 reached an estimated 59 million bushels due to white mold, which cost producers ~$560 million (2, 3). Disease control is limited due to the lack of complete resistance in commercial cultivars and an incomplete understanding of resistance mechanisms (3). Further investigation of white mold resistance ...


Corn Disease Update, Alison Robertson Dec 2015

Corn Disease Update, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2015 growing season was cooler and wetter than normal. Several foliar diseases were prevalent including northern corn leaf blight, eyespot, southern rust, Goss’s leaf blight, and Physoderma brown spot. Towards the end of the season, stalk quality was poor across the whole state and standability issues occurred. The most prevalent stalk rot was anthracnose, but Physoderma stalk rot, Gibberella and Fusarium stalk rot were reported.


Selecting Corn Hybrids In The Transgenic Era, Joe Lauer, Guanming Shi, Jean-Paul Chavas Dec 2015

Selecting Corn Hybrids In The Transgenic Era, Joe Lauer, Guanming Shi, Jean-Paul Chavas

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Farmers have adopted biotechnology and genetically engineered (GE) crop technologies quickly. Yield data were analyzed from field experiments over the period 1990-2010 to test the hypothesis that GE corn technologies reduces production risk. GE technology can increase yield, but it also decreases yield for some GE traits. A significant part of the benefits of GE technology comes from protecting corn yield and reducing risk exposure. Gene interactions affect corn productivity through “yield lag” and “yield drag” effects. Often 3 to 4 years are required for new technologies to be equivalent to yields of conventional hybrids.


Brown Stem Rot Of Soybean—Understanding And Managing This Vexing Disease, Dean Malvick Dec 2015

Brown Stem Rot Of Soybean—Understanding And Managing This Vexing Disease, Dean Malvick

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Brown stem rot (BSR) is a common and important soilborne disease of soybean in the North Central U.S. and Canada. BSR can reduce yields over 25%, but losses are typically lower due in part to crop rotation and the use of resistant cultivars. Some have suggested that BSR may be the most undermanaged soybean disease in parts of the North Central Region and it doesn’t get the respect it deserves. Although this could be debated, the fact remains that since BSR was first discovered in Illinois about 70 years ago it has been a persistent yet erratic drag ...


Weed Management Update For 2016 And Other Thoughts, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2015

Weed Management Update For 2016 And Other Thoughts, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Many of the issues that have been problems in the past continue to remain problems. Herbicide resistance continues to evolve, diversity of weed management tactics is slowly changing, and herbicides that attach to new and novel sites of action in weeds have yet to be developed. However, there are some perspectives that are favorable, notably an increase in the use of soil-applied herbicides that provide residual control and the occasional sighting of a row-crop cultivator in 2015. The problem is, in my opinion, overcoming the tendency of farmers to wait until weed problems have increased to the point that resolution ...


Using Apps To Educate The Public About Transgenic Technology, Don Lee Dec 2015

Using Apps To Educate The Public About Transgenic Technology, Don Lee

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

If you know a twenty-year-old American consumer, they have spent their entire life living with transgenic crops (GMOs). The opportunity for future farmers to take advantage of established and emerging technologies in genetic engineering and gene editing will depend in part on acceptance by these young consumers.


Making Use Of Soil And Topography Data To Improve Corn Seeding Rates, Mark Licht, Andy Lenssen, Roger Elmore Dec 2015

Making Use Of Soil And Topography Data To Improve Corn Seeding Rates, Mark Licht, Andy Lenssen, Roger Elmore

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Since the introduction of hybrid corn in the 1930s, the corn grain yield trend has been increasing in Iowa and across the U.S. Corn Belt. In Iowa, there has been an increase of corn plant densities of approximately 400 plants per acre per year since 2000. Corn grain yield and yield components are greatly influenced by plant densities. Corn grain yields respond to plant densities with a curvilinear or quadratic response if plant densities are increased to supra-optimum densities.


Herbicide Resistance Mechanisms: Why Doesn’T That Weed Die?, Bob Hartzler Dec 2015

Herbicide Resistance Mechanisms: Why Doesn’T That Weed Die?, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

According to the International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds (http://www.weedscience.org) there are currently 461 unique cases of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. The United States leads the way in number of HR weeds, with twice as many as any other country (Table 1). The prevalence of herbicide resistance is determined primarily by the acres under cultivation and type of production systems utilized, rather than how well individual farmers manage weeds. The USA leads the world in HR weeds because we have expansive acreage devoted to production systems heavily reliant on herbicides, not because our farmers are less adept at ...


Soybean Disease Year In Review—2015, Daren Mueller Dec 2015

Soybean Disease Year In Review—2015, Daren Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

One thing is for sure—the 2015 season produced several interesting dilemmas for soybean farmers. Early in the year we had seedling diseases mixed with phytotoxicity from new seed treatments and certain herbicides. During the midseason, some fairly uncommon diseases crept in including soybean viruses and an outbreak of Phyllostica leaf spot. At the end of the season, white mold, Diaporthe and sudden death syndrome (SDS) were common, with SDS being one of the most prominent diseases in 2015. In some parts of Iowa SDS appeared a few weeks earlier than in 2014. Also, as if to add insult to ...


The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium, Bob Hartzler Dec 2015

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Most people are aware of the monarch’s migration to overwintering sites in central Mexico. There are about 11 mountain areas west of Mexico City where the monarchs spend the winter (Figure 1). The elevation of these sites range from 8000 to 12,000 ft, with temperatures ranging from 32 to 59 F. The monarchs cluster in trees to retain heat, occasionally branches break due to the weight of the monarchs. The size of the monarch population is estimated by measuring the area of trees covered with adult butterflies.