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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

2012

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Nitrogen And Tillage Management For Corn Following Alfalfa, Jeff Coulter, Matt Yost, Michael Russelle Nov 2012

Nitrogen And Tillage Management For Corn Following Alfalfa, Jeff Coulter, Matt Yost, Michael Russelle

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Rotating alfalfa with corn can increase corn yield potential through improved soil physical properties that enhance water infiltration and root extension, a reduction in disease and pest pressure (i.e., corn rootworm), and an enhanced soil microbial community.


Managing Rotten Corn: An Overview Of Corn Ear Rots, Kiersten Wise Nov 2012

Managing Rotten Corn: An Overview Of Corn Ear Rots, Kiersten Wise

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Ear rots of corn can reduce yield and grain quality. Several economically important ear rots impact the Corn Belt, including Diplodia ear rot, Gibberella ear rot, Fusarium ear rot, and Aspergillus ear rot. A different fungus causes each of these rots, and the environmental conditions at and just after silking influence which ear rot may be problematic in a given year. Additionally, some of these fungi are able to produce mycotoxins as a byproduct of the infection process. Mycotoxins can be toxic to humans and livestock, and are carefully regulated in food and feed. Proper identification of ear rots is ...


Weed Management Update: 2013, Micheal D. K. Owen Nov 2012

Weed Management Update: 2013, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The success of weed management programs, more specifically herbicide programs, varied considerably during 2012 reflecting the importance of environmental conditions on all aspects of crop production. Variability of success was seen not only in the postemergence herbicide applications that continue to dominate herbicide use but also in the soil-applied residual herbicides; all herbicide applications were strongly influenced by tillage system, crop planting date, timing and amount of rainfall, and resulting weed emergence timing. While more soil-applied herbicides were used in Iowa during 2012, there are still too many acres of corn and soybean that are treated only with glyphosate thus ...


Nutrient Considerations With Corn Silage And Stover Harvest, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino Nov 2012

Nutrient Considerations With Corn Silage And Stover Harvest, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Harvested cornstalk residue (corn stover) after grain harvest has traditional use as bedding and co-feed for livestock. Interest is increasing with other uses, especially for energy production such as direct burning and cellulosic ethanol. The potential growth for cellulosic ethanol is large as two plants in Iowa are either proposed or in initial construction. If proven feasible and economical, cellulosic ethanol production and concurrent stover demand could increase substantially.


Cafos, Npdes Permits And The 590 Standard: What Does It Mean For Manure Management?, Angela Rieck-Hinz, Eric G. Hurley Nov 2012

Cafos, Npdes Permits And The 590 Standard: What Does It Mean For Manure Management?, Angela Rieck-Hinz, Eric G. Hurley

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Increased regulatory pressure, policy-driven programs designed to protect water quality, and a concern to make the most profitable use of manure resources are driving manure management issues. This session will look at some of the current events and practices, changes to the 590 Nutrient Management Standard, and some crystal-ball gazing related to manure nutrient management in Iowa.


Assessment Of Sulfur Deficiency In Crops: What Tools Can You Use?, Daniel E. Kaiser Nov 2012

Assessment Of Sulfur Deficiency In Crops: What Tools Can You Use?, Daniel E. Kaiser

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

With input and crop prices significantly fluctuating in the last few years soybean growers have been looking for ways to maximize profits per acre. Sulfur application has been increasingly questioned as a method at increasing corn yields across southern Minnesota.


Research Update On Seedling Diseases Of Corn And Soybean Caused By Oomycete Pathogens, Alison Robertson, Azeem Ahmad, Rashelle Matthiesen-Andersen, James Peitzman, Erika Salaau-Rojas, Stith Wiggs, Martin Chilvers, Janette Jacobs, Alejandro Rojas Nov 2012

Research Update On Seedling Diseases Of Corn And Soybean Caused By Oomycete Pathogens, Alison Robertson, Azeem Ahmad, Rashelle Matthiesen-Andersen, James Peitzman, Erika Salaau-Rojas, Stith Wiggs, Martin Chilvers, Janette Jacobs, Alejandro Rojas

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Uniform emergence and development of corn and soybean seedlings is key to maximize farmer profitability. In corn, poor stand and plant-to-plant variability lower yield potential as smaller plants compete with their larger neighbors for resources. With the dramatic increase in soybean seed costs within the past decade, farmers now plant fewer seeds per acre and thus depend on improved emergence and better stand establishment to achieve an even stand and maximize yield potential.


Management Tips For Drought-Stressed Forages, Stephen K. Barnhart Nov 2012

Management Tips For Drought-Stressed Forages, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Midwest U.S. has seen some of the most extreme drought conditions of recent memory. Some rain has come recently for most of this area, but not enough for most of us to feel comfortable about. Pastures may still be in poor condition. Many hayfields had enough regrowth that a late fall cut was taken. Regionally, hay supplies are tight and prices are high. Forage management considerations are many. Here are some things to think about as you prioritize you options.


Dupont Cellulosic Ethanol: Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest For Biofuel Production, Andy Heggenstaller Nov 2012

Dupont Cellulosic Ethanol: Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest For Biofuel Production, Andy Heggenstaller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

DuPont has been developing technology to produce ethanol from cellulosic biomass for over a decade. In 2012, DuPont Industrial Biosciences will take the first steps to commercialize this revolutionary technology by commencing construction on a first-of-its-kind cellulosic biorefinery near Nevada, Iowa. This biorefinery, which is expected to begin operation in 2014, will produce 25 million gallons of ethanol annually from corn stover. All of the stover required to operate the biorefinery will be collected from within a 30-mile radius of the plant location.


Crop Diversification: Impact On Weeds, Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome And Crop Productivity, Leonor Leandro, Matt Liebman, Craig Chase Nov 2012

Crop Diversification: Impact On Weeds, Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome And Crop Productivity, Leonor Leandro, Matt Liebman, Craig Chase

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Crop diversification has diminished in the USA during the past 50 years, and monocultures and short rotation sequences are currently the prevalent cropping systems (Brummer, 1998; Cook, 2006). Simplification of cropping systems has been accompanied by greater reliance on synthetic pesticides and fertilizers to manage weeds, diseases and soil fertility, creating concerns about contamination of underground and surface water by nitrogen, herbicides and soil sediment (Hartwig and Ammon, 2002). Learning how to reduce reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides without compromising farm productivity and profitability is a key priority for Iowa and other parts of the U.S. Corn Belt ...


Enhancing Continuous Corn Production In High Residue Conditions With N, P, And S Starter Fertilizer Combinations And Placements, Jeffrey Vetsch, Daniel Kaiser, Gyles Randall Nov 2012

Enhancing Continuous Corn Production In High Residue Conditions With N, P, And S Starter Fertilizer Combinations And Placements, Jeffrey Vetsch, Daniel Kaiser, Gyles Randall

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Crop rotations in the Midwest have changed from the traditional corn-soybean rotation to more corn-intensive rotations. Due to the expanding demand for corn to supply the ethanol industry and the increasing insect and disease challenges facing soybean producers, some farmers are switching to a corn-corn-soybean rotation or for some, continuous corn. These rotations produce large amounts of biomass (corn stover) that often remain on the soil surface with present day tillage systems. This is good in terms of erosion control, but can be a significant problem from the standpoint of seedbed preparation, early corn growth, and yield.


The Impact Of The Drought On Grain Quality And Grain Processing, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Alison Robertson Nov 2012

The Impact Of The Drought On Grain Quality And Grain Processing, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The drought conditions sharply cut the quantity of corn at a time when demand was increasing at a rapid pace. Drought also creates grain quality issues such as the threat of aflatoxin, low test weight, loss of soybean protein and oil, and other problems. Current data shows that some predictions were right and while others were not. The emergence of food safety as a major focus of all food/feed industries presented some new challenges as well, because aflatoxin is classified as an Adulterant by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).


Conservation Systems: Benefits In Managing Drought And Mitigating Yield Loss By Improving Soil Quality, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah, Jose Guzman Nov 2012

Conservation Systems: Benefits In Managing Drought And Mitigating Yield Loss By Improving Soil Quality, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah, Jose Guzman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil conservation is essential to sustain soil quality and improve crop productivity. Soil quality indicators include improved water infiltration and storage, and adequate levels of available soil nutrients for plants and soil carbon. Droughts result from a deficiency of precipitation from statistically normal amounts that when extended makes precipitation inadequate to meet the demands for crop production. Therefore, agriculture is the first economic sector that is visibly impacted by drought because of lack of soil moisture, which affects soil nutrient cycling and crop productivity.


Spray Adjuvants: The Rest Of The Story, Rich Zollinger Nov 2012

Spray Adjuvants: The Rest Of The Story, Rich Zollinger

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Questions about adjuvant selection are common. Adjuvants are not regulated by the EPA or any other regulatory agency allowing an unlimited number of adjuvants. Adjuvants are composed of a wide range of ingredients which may or may not contribute to herbicide phytotoxicity. Results vary when comparing specific adjuvants, even within a class of adjuvants. POST herbicide effectiveness depends on spray droplet retention, deposition, and herbicide absorption by weed foliage. Adjuvants and spray water quality (Paragraph A6) influence POST herbicide efficacy. Adjuvants are not needed with PRE herbicides unless weeds have emerged and labels include POST application.


Tillage System Performance In Southern Minnesota, Jeffrey Vetsch Nov 2012

Tillage System Performance In Southern Minnesota, Jeffrey Vetsch

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The agronomic performance of tillage practices is influenced by many factors, some of which the farmer cannot control. The weather, something we have little control over, dramatically affects agriculture and crop production. Our weather (climate) is also changing, which affects the agronomic performance of our cultural practices. In the Midwest, climate change has resulted in increased annual precipitation and greater frequency of intense rainfall events (EPA, 2010). Greater annual rainfall results in cold and wet soils, which reduce the number of days for field operations thus delaying important field operations like planting. Increased precipitation and rainfall intensity increases soil erosion ...


The Emerging Biochar Industry, David Laird Nov 2012

The Emerging Biochar Industry, David Laird

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Biochar is basically charcoal. The term “charcoal” is preferred when the material is use as a fuel for cooking or heating, whereas the term “biochar” is appropriate when the material is use as a soil amendment. In recent years there has been rapid growth in interest in biochar among soil scientists, environmentalists, and entrepreneurs.


Nitrogen, Carbon, And Phosphorus Balances In Iowa Cropping Systems: Sustaining The Soil Resource, Michael J. Castellano, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, Laura Christianson Nov 2012

Nitrogen, Carbon, And Phosphorus Balances In Iowa Cropping Systems: Sustaining The Soil Resource, Michael J. Castellano, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, Laura Christianson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Corn Belt’s exceptional productivity depends on high soil organic carbon and nutrient stocks (that is, the amount of carbon and nutrients stored in the soil). However, there is growing concern among scientists and farmers that soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stocks in corn-based cropping systems may be declining as a result of outputs that exceed inputs. The lack of certainty about the status of soil carbon and nutrient stocks is largely due to the extreme difficulty associated with measurement of inputs, outputs, and stocks of soil organic carbon and nutrients.


Testing Field-Moist Soil Samples Improves The Assessment Of Potassium Needs By Crops, Antonio P. Mallarino Nov 2012

Testing Field-Moist Soil Samples Improves The Assessment Of Potassium Needs By Crops, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Since 1989 and until the summer of this year, all soil testing laboratories in Iowa and the USA dried soil samples at 35 to 40 ºC (95 to 104 ºF) and ground them before analysis for potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and other nutrients. Since early fall, however, a laboratory that began operations in Iowa is using testing procedures that involve no soil sample drying, and another laboratory operating in Iowa and other states is offering moist soil testing in addition to the commonly used test based on dried samples. These laboratories are using a moist sample handling procedure that the ...


Corn Management: Understanding Yield And The Impact Of Growth Variability On Yield, Roger W. Elmore, Warren Pierson Nov 2012

Corn Management: Understanding Yield And The Impact Of Growth Variability On Yield, Roger W. Elmore, Warren Pierson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The ‘drought of 2012’ actually started impacting Iowa crops as early as August of 2011. Ominous-looking, animated maps showed the extent and slow, creeping spread of extremely dry conditions across Iowa and the Corn Belt during the fall of 2011 and the 2011/2012 winter. Spring rains were not sufficient to recharge soil moisture. Corn planting proceeded ahead of normal. Although much of the corn ended up in what some considered ‘perfect’ seed beds, sidewall compaction and other early-season problems handicapped emergence and early-season growth. Warm temperatures (especially high-night temperatures) resulted in rapid progression through crop growth stages. Dry conditions ...


After The Drought, What Next?, Elwynn Taylor Nov 2012

After The Drought, What Next?, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Historical events hint that the Midwest may be on the verge of crop weather reminiscent of the 70s and 80s. Abnormally active weather systems can bring a mix of record high yield crop years interspersed with adverse production conditions. Agriculture will remain the world’s largest and most basic industry, but will become more dependent on technological advances and on effective risk management than was demanded over the past 20 years.


Effectiveness Of Using Multiple Sites Of Action To Battle Herbicide Resistance, Bob Hartzler Nov 2012

Effectiveness Of Using Multiple Sites Of Action To Battle Herbicide Resistance, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The ‘Age of Convenient Weed Control’ is coming to an end. Some say it is already over. While glyphosate resistance has garnered the headlines, it is important to realize that the problem facing agriculture is herbicide resistance in general. Weeds such as waterhemp have ‘quietly’ evolved resistance to other herbicides such as the PPO and HPPD inhibitors. Less fanfare has been given to these developments since these products do not dominate the market in the way glyphosate has for the past 16 years. However, since these herbicide classes are needed to fight glyphosate resistance, the significance of the spread of ...


Probability Of Return On Investment With Using Soybean Seed Treatments, Paul Esker, Shawn Conley Nov 2012

Probability Of Return On Investment With Using Soybean Seed Treatments, Paul Esker, Shawn Conley

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

With soybean commodity prices at record high prices, the number of questions regarding key management considerations also remains high. One of the question that we often receive regards the use of seed treatments, in particular the use of seed treatment fungicides and/or insecticides. Since 2008, we have conducted trials throughout Wisconsin to examine if seed treatments are economically viable for soybean production. In particular, we are most interested in trying to answer the following question: “what is the probability that if I use a seed treatment, the cost of the application is covered?”


Corn And Soybean Diseases 2012: A Drought Year In Review, Daren S. Mueller, Alison Robertson Nov 2012

Corn And Soybean Diseases 2012: A Drought Year In Review, Daren S. Mueller, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Disease development is dependent on three factors: the presence of a suitable host, a source of disease-causing inoculum, and favorable weather conditions so that the disease can develop. Together, these factors are called the plant-disease triangle, and all three “corners” of the triangle are required for disease to become a problem in corn and soybean. If any of the factors are missing or inadequate, disease has trouble becoming established. As anyone who raised crops in 2012 was aware, there was a definite shortage of water for many parts of Iowa and elsewhere, coupled with very hot weather. This weather produced ...