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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

2007

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Cellulose To Ethanol: An Update On The Poet Bio-Refinery In Emmetsburg, Paul Kassel, Jill Euken Nov 2007

Cellulose To Ethanol: An Update On The Poet Bio-Refinery In Emmetsburg, Paul Kassel, Jill Euken

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Grain-based ethanol production has greatly expanded in Iowa in the past 5 years. Future growth of ethanol production will depend on cellulosic feed stocks. Some of these feed stocks may include grass/forage, municipal wastes and crop residues. Much of the technology to convert cellulosic feed stocks to ethanol is still being developed.


Soybean Rust Makes It To Iowa, Daren Mueller, Xun Li, X. B. Yang Nov 2007

Soybean Rust Makes It To Iowa, Daren Mueller, Xun Li, X. B. Yang

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the United States in November 2004 and survived winters on kudzu in the south. Soybean rust can reduce soybean yields and/or significantly increase the cost of soybean production when the disease occurs during the growing season with high incidence and severity. During the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons, soybean rust was not a threat for Iowa soybean growers. This year was a different story, as soybean rust was established fairly early in the season in Texas and Louisiana creating the potential for soybean rust to get to Iowa during the growing ...


Coupling Manure Injection With Cover Crops To Enhance Nutrient Cycling, Jeremy W. Singer, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman Nov 2007

Coupling Manure Injection With Cover Crops To Enhance Nutrient Cycling, Jeremy W. Singer, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Large-scale hog (Sus scroja) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations of manure nutrients in surface waters which contribute about 15% of the total nitrate load in the Mississippi River Basin. Producers are being encouraged to develop manure management practices that fulfill crop production requirements, while minimizing the potential for environmental pollution. The most commonly used manure management practice in the Midwest involves fall application to land ...


Soybean Plant Population For Maximum Economic Return, Palle Pedersen Nov 2007

Soybean Plant Population For Maximum Economic Return, Palle Pedersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Conversations about soybean seeding rates have stimulated a great deal of interest among producers in recent years. The major reason for this interest, soybean seed costs have increased rapidly as new varieties with improved traits, better disease resistance, and higher seed yields have come to the market. In addition, a few seed companies have started to sell soybean seed by the seed count rather than the traditional "unit" with no price differentiation based on seed size. For this reason many growers have started to reduce their seeding rate. Attempting to reduce production costs through reduced seeding rates is desirable, however ...


What Are The Lasting Impacts Of Early-Season Problems In Corn?, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth Nov 2007

What Are The Lasting Impacts Of Early-Season Problems In Corn?, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Do early season problems 'disappear' in corn7 Plant-to-plant and in-field variability was a concern across numerous corn fields in 2007. In addition, fields had uneven seeding depths, shallow nodal root systems, sidewall compaction, and other problems were common. We will discuss the importance of uniformity in fields relative to yield partitioning and yield determination in corn. First we present a primer of early season root systems and then we present a list of 9 early-season management/environmental factors that affect plant-to-plant and in-field variability and reduce yield potential. Anything that disrupts early-season growth can have a negative impact on yield ...


How Plants Survive The 'Herbicide Of The Century', Bob Hartzler Nov 2007

How Plants Survive The 'Herbicide Of The Century', Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world for several reasons, including: 1) high level of effectiveness, 2) flexibility in application, 3) large margin of crop safety in glyphosate resistant crops, and 4) safety to applicators and the environment. Glyphosate was used for more than 20 years before weeds developed resistance to the chemical. This relative low risk of glyphosate resistance compared to other herbicide classes resulted in considerable debate on how best to use the technology to minimize selection of resistant biotypes. This paper will briefly review the factors that make glyphosate such an effective herbicide, and ...


Boosting Pasture Production, Stephen K. Barnhart Nov 2007

Boosting Pasture Production, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The majority of the 'pasture questions' that I receive as Extension Forage Specialist deal with the various aspects of pasture improvement, renovation, and establishing new pasture areas. A few of these kinds of questions are now coming from otherwise good pasture managers as well, who are planting more corn and soybeans and are looking for ways to maintain or increase the productivity of the remaining pasture acres. Some of the most practical ways to boost pasture production are fertilization, overseeding, and improved grazing management.


Managing Diseases And Pests With Seed Treatments, Gary P. Munkvold Nov 2007

Managing Diseases And Pests With Seed Treatments, Gary P. Munkvold

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The use of seed treatments for corn and soybeans is a constantly evolving situation in terms of available products and targeted pests. Currently there are registered corn seed treatments that target at least five genera of fungi, eight different insect pests, and several types of nematodes. Targets for seed treatment include diseases caused by seedborne and soilborne fungi, seedborne bacteria, nematodes, and a variety of insects that feed on above-ground or below-ground plant parts. Active ingredients include contact and systemic fungicides, antimicrobial agents, systemic insecticides, and biological control agents. Seed treatment benefits are dependent on pest & disease pressure, environmental conditions ...


Soybean White Mold: What Have We Learned Since 1992?, Craig Grau Nov 2007

Soybean White Mold: What Have We Learned Since 1992?, Craig Grau

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

White mold, sometimes called Sclerotinia stem rot, remains an important disease of soybean in the midwest. Although other pathogens and pests are more consistent problems, management of white mold usually entails an integrated and often complicated integration of management practices. A white mold management system may fail if one weak link in chain exists. White mold causes direct yield loss, but yield potential may be lost in the absence of the disease if growers have made management adjustments that result in lower yield potential. White mold is best managed by an integrated approach of selecting soybean varieties with the highest ...


Weed Management In 2008 - New Opportunities, Existing Issues And Anticipated Problems, Michael D.K. Owen Nov 2007

Weed Management In 2008 - New Opportunities, Existing Issues And Anticipated Problems, Michael D.K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

There are a number of new opportunities in weed management for 2008. However, issues continue to surface and problems are likely to escalate in the future. Specifically, there are new herbicide resistant crop options that will be available in the near future, new herbicides and changes in existing proprietary herbicides. Glyphosate continues to dominate as the weed control tactic of choice, and given the importance of bio-renewable fuels in the future, more herbicide resistant corn will be planted. The selection pressure that will be imposed on the weed communities as a result of grower adoption glyphosate resistant corn, as well ...


Optimizing Soybean Yield By Better Management Of Radiation And Water Use!, James E. Specht Nov 2007

Optimizing Soybean Yield By Better Management Of Radiation And Water Use!, James E. Specht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Humans grow crops to harvest the sun. This might seem like a simplistic statement, but plants are the only living species on this planet that can directly convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of food, fiber, or fuel. The photosynthetic production of vegetative and seed biomass can be described with this simplified reaction:


Plant-Parasitic Nematodes On Corn: Old Foes And A Possible New Nemesis, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 2007

Plant-Parasitic Nematodes On Corn: Old Foes And A Possible New Nemesis, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, usually soil borne, that feed on plants. Nematodes that feed on and damage corn have been known to occur in Iowa and other parts of the Midwest since the 1950s. But recent and upcoming changes in Iowa's cropping practices have some anticipating an increase in damage and yield loss to corn from nematodes. Most corn nematode species maintain their populations when soybeans or alfalfa are grown, but repeated cropping of corn may cause nematode populations to flare up. Also, use of transgenic, insect-resistant corn hybrids for corn rootworm control may reduce the amount of ...


Corn Diseases: Reviewing The 2007 Growing Season, Alison Robertson Nov 2007

Corn Diseases: Reviewing The 2007 Growing Season, Alison Robertson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Several diseases were prevalent in corn during the 2007 growing season. Weather conditions varied greatly across the state and as a result disease problems did too. An increase corn following corn acres (10.3%) impacted the incidence of several diseases.


Impact Of Bioenergy Industry On Soil And Water Resources, Richard M. Cruse, Carl Herndl, Elena Polush Nov 2007

Impact Of Bioenergy Industry On Soil And Water Resources, Richard M. Cruse, Carl Herndl, Elena Polush

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Recent reports and publications such as that of Perlack et al, 2005 and Burton et al, 2006 indicating a high capacity of this nation's lands to produce feedstocks for renewable fuels have created large expectations in rural America, in Congress, and on Wall Street. Meeting these expectations while preserving our soil and water resources may be a challenge or an opportunity, depending upon how the bioenergy industry develops. It presents a challenge because the plant residues serving as our most important soil and water conservation tool are also required for fuel production in the cellulosic liquid fuel industry. It ...


Stop Sds: Prioritizing Management Approaches That Best Fit Your Fields, X. B. Yang, S. S. Navi Nov 2007

Stop Sds: Prioritizing Management Approaches That Best Fit Your Fields, X. B. Yang, S. S. Navi

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a mid- to late-season, soil borne disease that occurs primarily in soybean fields with high yield potential. First observed in Arkansas in 1971, SDS now causes significant losses in Midwestern states such as Illinois and Indiana and is considered the most important fungal disease in causing yield loss in the North Central Region. The disease was first noticed in Iowa in 1993. Now the disease has been found from border to border in Iowa. It occurs annually in eastern Iowa and epidemics occur frequently in recent years. Yield losses due to SDS vary widely. SDS ...


Current Status Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode As A Threat To Soybean Production In The Midwest, Greg Tylka Nov 2007

Current Status Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode As A Threat To Soybean Production In The Midwest, Greg Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) has plagued Iowa soybean production since the 1980s. It continues to be a serious yield-limiting pest of soybeans throughout the state, causing yield losses directly as well as indirectly by intensifying other serious soybean diseases. SCN is widely distributed throughout the state. The nematode has excellent long-term survival and its population densities build up each year that susceptible soybeans are grown, regardless of the rainfall and temperature that occur during the growing season. Up to 40% yield loss can occur without the appearance of any aboveground symptoms (Wang et al., 2003).


Soybean Mosaic Virus And Bean Pod Mottle Virus In Iowa: Occurrence, Interactions, Impact And Identification Of Preplant Risk Factors, Alison E. Robertson, Forrest W. Nutter Jr., Emmanuel Byamukama, Xin Lu, Jana Stedman Nov 2007

Soybean Mosaic Virus And Bean Pod Mottle Virus In Iowa: Occurrence, Interactions, Impact And Identification Of Preplant Risk Factors, Alison E. Robertson, Forrest W. Nutter Jr., Emmanuel Byamukama, Xin Lu, Jana Stedman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

This presentation will summarize data collected from the Iowa Soybean Disease Survey on the temporal and spatial distribution of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in Iowa during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. We will also discuss interactions of the viruses with each other, their vectors, Phomposis/Diaporthe complex. Lastly, the identification of preplant risk factors for BPMV will be presented.


Management Of Soybean Rust With Foliar Fungicides, Tristan Mueller, Daren Mueller Nov 2007

Management Of Soybean Rust With Foliar Fungicides, Tristan Mueller, Daren Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean rust has the potential to decrease profits directly by reducing yield and/or increasing the cost of production. There are effective fungicides available for management of soybean rust (Miles et al. 2007). However, correct application timing of foliar fungicides and adequate coverage is important for management of soybean rust and maximizing soybean yield.


Get Your Facts Straight!, Jim Rouse Nov 2007

Get Your Facts Straight!, Jim Rouse

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Selecting corn hybrids and soybean varieties is often cited as one of the most important factors in maximizing yield potential. Generally there is no shortage of performance data, all promising to help make your decisions easier, or even to make your decisions FOR you!


Interaction Of Tillage And Nitrogen Rate Effect On Corn Response And N And P Uptakein A Corn-Soybean Rotation, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah Nov 2007

Interaction Of Tillage And Nitrogen Rate Effect On Corn Response And N And P Uptakein A Corn-Soybean Rotation, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil tillage has significant impact on the dynamics of soil moisture and nutrient in the soil systemand the subsequent efficient extraction of soil water and uptake of nutrient by crop plants. Besides incorporating fertilizer and crop residue in the soil system, soil tillage improves soil aeration, the mineralization and availability of N and P and the subsequent uptake of both N and P by crop plants (Carter and Rennie, 1987; Dinnes et al., 2002; House et al., 1984; Varco et al., 1993). Contrary to conventional tillage systems, long-term no-tillage systems enhance greater mineralizable C and N pools in the soil ...


Corn And Soybean Grain Yield, Phosphorus Removal, And Soil-Test Responses To Long-Term Phosphorus Fertilization Strategies, Antonio P. Mallarino, Jacob Prater Nov 2007

Corn And Soybean Grain Yield, Phosphorus Removal, And Soil-Test Responses To Long-Term Phosphorus Fertilization Strategies, Antonio P. Mallarino, Jacob Prater

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The prevailing phosphorus (P) management system in Iowa and the Midwest is based on soil P testing, response-based fertilizer application for low-testing soils, and removal-based fertilizer application to maintain desirable soil-test P (STP) values. Several issues are important for an effective implementation of this philosophy These include use of appropriate soil-test methods and field calibrations to determine optimum STP levels and fertilization rates, knowledge of fertilization and cropping impacts on STP over time, reliable estimates of P removal with harvest, and use of efficient fertilizer placement methods. In Iowa, continued research during the last two decades has provided yield response ...


Estimating Soil Nitrogen Mineralization: The Key For Fine Tuning Nitrogen Recommendations In Corn, Carrie A. M. Laboski Nov 2007

Estimating Soil Nitrogen Mineralization: The Key For Fine Tuning Nitrogen Recommendations In Corn, Carrie A. M. Laboski

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

It has been known for more than 100 years that the soil can supply some nitrogen (N) for crop production, but that additional N is needed to maximize corn yield. If one were to know precisely how much N the crop needs to take up for maximal growth along with the amount of N that the soil could supply, then the difference between these two amounts would constitute the N fertilizer need. Determining the amount of N needed to produce a corn crop can be estimated by determining the amount of N in the above ground biomass (total N uptake ...


Corn Hybrid Selection, Yield Stability, And Performance, D. R. Hicks Nov 2007

Corn Hybrid Selection, Yield Stability, And Performance, D. R. Hicks

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Selecting high yielding corn hybrids is the most difficult thing that corn producers must do each year and the most important management decision that affects profitability Production costs are fixed for a given set of management practices for each grower, so any increase in yield because of selecting good yielding hybrids adds extra net income and increases profitability potential. In this discussion, I will present a process for selecting corn hybrids that increases a grower's probability of obtaining high corn yields. I will show the data that support the process which simply is to get yield information from several ...


Controlling Corn Rootworms With Bt Corn: Opportunities And Issues, Kevin L. Steffey, Michael E. Gray, Ron E. Estes Nov 2007

Controlling Corn Rootworms With Bt Corn: Opportunities And Issues, Kevin L. Steffey, Michael E. Gray, Ron E. Estes

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The availability of YieldGard Rootworm corn hybrids for planting in 2003 marked the beginning of a new era of corn rootworm management. Monsanto Company was the first to obtain registration for transgenic Bt corn (genetic material from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis inserted into the corn genome) for rootworm control. Shortly after the registration of YieldGard Rootworm corn, registrations for rootworm-protected corn were granted to Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc./Dow AgroSciences LLC (Herculex RW corn hybrids, available for planting in 2006) and Syngenta (Agrisure RW corn hybrids, available for planting in 2007). In just four short years, the genetic biotechnology ...


In-Seasno Nitrogen Management For Corn Production, John E. Sawyer, John P. Lundvall, Jennifer A. Hawkins Nov 2007

In-Seasno Nitrogen Management For Corn Production, John E. Sawyer, John P. Lundvall, Jennifer A. Hawkins

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Water quality impairment related to nitrogen (N) continues to be a concern in Iowa, including the nitrate drinking water standard, USEPA proposed surface water quality nutrient criteria, and Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. Addressing these issues could include strict guidance for N input to corn and resultant N use practices that require very high level of management and risk, with unknown economic consequences. Rate of N application is an important management factor in corn production related to nitrate reaching surface water systems. Rate is also important in regard to economic return. While applying only the needed fertilizer N rate in a ...


Fungicides On Corn: Disease Control, Physiology Of The Plant, And Yield, Lori Abendroth, Alison Robertson, Roger Elmore, Matt Boyer Nov 2007

Fungicides On Corn: Disease Control, Physiology Of The Plant, And Yield, Lori Abendroth, Alison Robertson, Roger Elmore, Matt Boyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

An estimated two million acres of corn were sprayed with fungicides (strobilurin or a strobilurin/triazole combination) in Iowa in 2007. Reasons for spraying vary and include the high price of corn, potential to control diseases, and a possibility of improved yield from "plant health" benefits. Until this year fungicide applications to production corn fields was rarely practiced in Iowa because they were not profitable.


Ag Weather Outlook, Elwynn Taylor Nov 2007

Ag Weather Outlook, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The increased demand for commodities does not change production risk but it does raise the stakes, and it does directly impact marketing risk. Tie demand together with increased weather risk to production, and the benefits of good management and marketing decisions are greatly multiplied. There is no sure way to forecast how weather during the next 10 months will differ from usual, but some indicators do exist. Sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific have been not unlike those observed in 1987. Midwest weather extremes throughout 2007 have been notable as is often the case before major drought events. The ...