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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

2001

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Nutrient Management Planning In Iowa, Angela Rieck-Hinz, Paul Miller, Wayne Gieselman, Chris Murray Dec 2001

Nutrient Management Planning In Iowa, Angela Rieck-Hinz, Paul Miller, Wayne Gieselman, Chris Murray

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nutrient management planning in Iowa can be a complex process. The degree of planning is dependent on the need for one or more different types of management plans to serve the different requirements of state agencies. While the objectives of the plans are the same, sound nutrient management and resource protection, the methods of planning are quite different. Producers, their technical advisors, and agency staff are often confused as to what regulations must be met and what practices must be employed to meet the various goals of required and voluntary plans. The goal of this workshop is to present two ...


Cooperatively Exploring Dry Edible Beans As A Value Added/Alternative Crop Dry Edible Beans, Chris Henning Cooklin, Ray Hansen, Craig Hertel, John Kennicker Dec 2001

Cooperatively Exploring Dry Edible Beans As A Value Added/Alternative Crop Dry Edible Beans, Chris Henning Cooklin, Ray Hansen, Craig Hertel, John Kennicker

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Driven by the desire and interest in finding a value-added marketable alternative crop a group of 24 producers in central Iowa recently tackled the formidable challenge of evaluating potential alternatives for their farming operations. Having witnessed other alternative crop projects come and go this group approached the process with a unique attitude of cooperation. Through a cooperative approach the risks, rewards and resources were shared for the purpose of more quickly reaching project resolution and at a scale that would reflect realistic market potential. Initial grower meetings narrowed the project down to two potential dry edible beans and established a ...


Effects Of Soil Ph On Nitrification And Losses Of Fall-Applied Anhydrous Ammonia, Peter M. Kyveryga, Alfred M. Blackmer Dec 2001

Effects Of Soil Ph On Nitrification And Losses Of Fall-Applied Anhydrous Ammonia, Peter M. Kyveryga, Alfred M. Blackmer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Current guidelines for fall application of anhydrous ammonia are based on the assumption that soil temperature at the time of application is the only factor that can be used to estimate potential for losses of this N during spring rainfall. This assumption needs to be questioned, however, because recent studies have shown that soil pH is an important factor affecting losses of fall-applied anhydrous ammonia (Blackmer et al., 2000). In this paper we provide a review and update on research concerning the effects of soil pH on rates of nitrification in soils and potential for losses of fall-applied N during ...


Biology And Management Of Premature Yellowing And Death Of Soybean Caused By Phomopsis Idiaporthe Fungi, X. B. Yang Dec 2001

Biology And Management Of Premature Yellowing And Death Of Soybean Caused By Phomopsis Idiaporthe Fungi, X. B. Yang

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In recent years, there is an increasing interest in premature yellowing and death of soybean during a growing season. To some growers, premature yellowing soybean has become a production problem to their efforts to stabilize yield. We have received more and more questions why soybeans turn yellow prematurely. Few years ago, the problem was mainly from eastern Iowa and now soybean samples submitted to ISU Plant Disease Clinic come from every region of Iowa. People have called such a problem top dieback or tip blight. Typical symptoms of diseased plants are yellowing of top leaves, often followed by brown margin ...


Using The Iowa Phosphorus Index And Variable-Rate Technology For Effective Agronomic And Environmental Phosphorus Management, Antonio Mallarino, David Wittry, Jeremy Klatt Dec 2001

Using The Iowa Phosphorus Index And Variable-Rate Technology For Effective Agronomic And Environmental Phosphorus Management, Antonio Mallarino, David Wittry, Jeremy Klatt

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The phosphorus (P) index is a tool that was developed to assess the potential for P losses from fields to surface water bodies. In 1999, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) issued national policy and general guidelines on nutrient management to include risk assessments for P. States were required to revise these guidelines by April 2001. These guidelines apply to nutrient management where nutrients are applied to the land, including organic by-products and animal manure. All NRCS staff will use this guidance when providing financial or technical assistance to producers. Third party vendors and ...


The Evolution Of Herbicide Resistant Weeds In Iowa, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2001

The Evolution Of Herbicide Resistant Weeds In Iowa, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The evolution of herbicide resistant weed populations is an inevitable consequence of the selection pressure imposed on the weed community by the use of weed management tactics that focus on herbicides. Weed populations typically demonstrate variability in response to herbicides. Some individuals of the weed populations are extremely sensitive to a specific herbicide while other individuals require considerably more herbicide for control. Herbicides that have a single place (gene loci) in the plant in which the toxic response is elicited (mechanism of action) are more likely to quickly evolve resistant weed populations. However, it is possible, given the genetic diversity ...


Small Grain Cover Crops For Iowa, Tom Kaspar, Tim Parkin, Keith Kohler Dec 2001

Small Grain Cover Crops For Iowa, Tom Kaspar, Tim Parkin, Keith Kohler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Cover crops are literally "crops that cover the soil" and are primarily used for erosion control. For most of the Midwest where com and soybean are grown, cover crops would have to be grown between harvest and planting. Unfortunately, in the upper Midwest (especially north of I- 80) the potential growing season for cover crops is usually short and cold, thus limiting their growth and effectiveness. This problem can be partly solved by overseeding cover crops into either com or soybean in mid-August to early September. Additionally for crops that are harvested relatively early, such as silage com, seed com ...


Assessment Of Cropping Systems Effect On Soil Organic Matter In Iowa, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht Dec 2001

Assessment Of Cropping Systems Effect On Soil Organic Matter In Iowa, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The maintenance of organic matter in the soil system can help prevent soil degradation. Soil, as an open system, can play an important part in regulating greenhouse emission to the atmosphere. A current hypothesis is that soils can function as net sinks of atmospheric carbon, and therefore attenuate the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) (Lal et al., 1995). Soil organic carbon (SOC) generally decreases with cultivation, and carbon lost from soil transfers into atmospheric C02, a greenhouse gas. Also, agricultural activities enhance other greenhouse gas emissions from soils, such as nitrogen oxide (N20). Since any changes in agricultural practices ...


Integrating Weed Biology With Herbicide Technology To Reduce Economic And Agronomic Risk, Jeffrey L. Gunsolus Dec 2001

Integrating Weed Biology With Herbicide Technology To Reduce Economic And Agronomic Risk, Jeffrey L. Gunsolus

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Weed management, as it is currently practiced on com and soybean acres in the Midwestern United States, is closely tied to time and labor management issues due to the large acres of land that individual producers farm. The challenge for agricultural professionals is to communicate how weed biology and herbicide technology influence time and labor management issues and how to use weed biology and herbicide technology information to reduce economic and agronomic risk to the producer.


Glyphosate - A Review, Bob Hartzler Dec 2001

Glyphosate - A Review, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In recent years, a large number of herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate have been introduced. All claim to be as good, or better, than the original Roundup. The ingredient statements on the label provides little help in differentiating the products since the contents are broken down simply as 'active' and 'inert' or 'other' ingredients. This article will discuss how the contents of the glyphosate products may vary and factors that influence the performance of glyphosate.


Leading Crop Weather Indicators, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2001

Leading Crop Weather Indicators, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Weather is not the only risk in crop production and marketing, but it is the major risk both at the farm and at national levels. Understanding the soil moisture reserves, the El Nino and the 19- year climate cycle (the leading crop weather indicators) is basic to the management of risk.


Remote Sensing To Characterize Stresses On Soybeans In Fields With High-Ph Soils, Natalia Rogovska Dec 2001

Remote Sensing To Characterize Stresses On Soybeans In Fields With High-Ph Soils, Natalia Rogovska

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Recent studies unexpectedly revealed that losses of fall-applied anhydrous ammonia tended to increase with increase in soil pH. The greatest losses occurred on "calcareous soils", which have free carbonates and pH values in the range of7.5 to 8.4. The studies also revealed that the calcareous soils occur in spatial patterns that often are much more complex than indicated on soil survey maps. Studies were initiated during the 2000 growing season to evaluate the possibility that aerial photographs of soybean crops would provide a simple and effective way to map calcareous areas within fields.


Summary Of Precision Farming Nitrogen Trials In More Than 100 Cornfields This Year, B. W. Van De Woestyne, A. M. Blackmer Dec 2001

Summary Of Precision Farming Nitrogen Trials In More Than 100 Cornfields This Year, B. W. Van De Woestyne, A. M. Blackmer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Research over the past decade has shown that precision farming technologies offer great potential to increase the profitability of com production in Iowa. Producers who have invested in these technologies, however, are still trying to learn how to capture some of these profits. Experience clearly indicates that producers cannot increase their profits by using the new technologies merely to apply old management guidelines more precisely. Mounting evidence suggests that the great potential of precision farming technologies is realized only when the new technologies are used to develop better guidelines for management.


Nitrogen Management Influences On N Losses To Tile And Surface Water, Gyles W. Randall Dec 2001

Nitrogen Management Influences On N Losses To Tile And Surface Water, Gyles W. Randall

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nitrogen (N) is a naturally occurring element that is essential to plant growth and crop production. Agriculture has been identified frequently as a major contributor of nitrate-nitrogen to surface water throughout the developed world. Omernik (1977) reported that total N concentrations were nearly nine times greater downstream from agricultural lands than downstream from forested areas with the highest concentrations being found in the Corn Belt States of the Upper Mississippi Basin. Nitrate-N is continually supplied to streams and rivers through mineralization of soil organic matter, particularly where tile drainage has exposed formerly wet soils to oxidation and through the application ...


Nitrogen Fertilizer And Swine Manure Application To Soybean, John E. Sawyer Dec 2001

Nitrogen Fertilizer And Swine Manure Application To Soybean, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nitrogen (N) fertilization and manure application are not traditional nutrient management practices for soybean production. Soybean is a legume plant and assumed to obtain adequate N through symbiotic N2-fixation. Also, since manure contains plant-available N in addition to other nutrients, it is preferentially used for com production to gain economic advantage from the manure-N.


Management Zones Soil Sampling: A Better Alternative To Grid And Soil Type Sampling?, Antonio Mallarino Dec 2001

Management Zones Soil Sampling: A Better Alternative To Grid And Soil Type Sampling?, Antonio Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, various forms of remote sensing, new computer software, and variable rate technology are new tools available to producers. Intensive soil sampling and crop scouting methods that directly relate each sample or measurement with their geographical coordinates complement the new technological package. Soil testing is a diagnostic tool that adapts well to site-specific management because it can assess nutrient availability of different areas within a field. Intensive sampling, soil test mapping, and variable-rate application of fertilizers or manure can improve the efficacy of nutrient management compared with the conventional practice of applying a uniform rate ...


Ceus For Certified Crop Advisers—Anytime/Anywhere, Richard I. Carter, Brent A. Brueland Dec 2001

Ceus For Certified Crop Advisers—Anytime/Anywhere, Richard I. Carter, Brent A. Brueland

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Certified Crop Adviser program helps ensure that growers receive sound advice and recommendations. Agriculturists involved in crop production assist in identifying what CCAs should know. Competency areas and performance objectives are developed to address those areas, which form the basis for continuing education programs.